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虚拟语气(新人教版)

发布时间:2013-11-13 09:30:07  

虚拟语气(新人教版)

用来表示说的话不是事实,或者是不可能发生的情况,而是一种愿望、建议、假设的语气叫虚拟语气。

(一)if主从句中的虚拟语气

【完成例句】

(1)如果我是你,我会接受邀请的。 If I were you, I should accept the invitation.

(2)如果我有空,我就去那儿。

If I had time, I would go there.

【结论1】

【完成例句】

(3)如果你早点来,你就不会错过那辆公共汽车了。

If you had come earlier, you couldn't / wouldn't have missed the bus.

(4)如果他昨天见到了你,他就会还你的书的。

If he had seen you yesterday, he would have returned your book.

【完成例句】

(5)万一明天下雨,运动会就推迟。(事实上明天下雨的可能性不大。)

If it should rain / were to rain / rained tomorrow, the sports meet would be put off.

(6)万一杯子掉下来会打碎的。

If you dropped / should drop / were to drop the glass, it would break.

【结论3】

【疑难1】

含蓄虚拟句(即含有without / but for, otherwise / or等词的句子)

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【例句观察】

Human beings would die without water. (=Human beings would die if there were no water. )

I couldn't have succeeded but for your help. (=I couldn't have succeeded if you hadn't helped me. )

I had no money then. Otherwise I would have bought that book.

(=If I had had money then, I would have bought that book. )

【疑难剖析1】含有without / but for,otherwise / or等词的句子谓语结构等同于if主从句中主句的谓语结构。

【疑难2】

含有had,should,were这三个词的虚拟条件状语从句

Had they had time(=If they had had time), they would have certainly come to help us.

Should it be fine(=If it should be fine),we would go for an outing.

Were I you(=If I were you), I would go.

【疑难剖析2】含有had,should,were这三个词的虚拟条件状语从句,在正式或书面语言中可将if省略,把had,should,were 提前放到句首,变为部分倒装。

【疑难3】

if混合虚拟条件从句(即主从句分别与不同的事实相反)

If the weather had been finer, the crops would be growing still better.

If you had followed the teacher's advice, you wouldn't be in hospital.

【疑难剖析3】if假设条件从句谓语动词发生的时间与主句所假设的谓语动词不一致,叫做错综条件虚拟语气。主句和从句的谓语动词要依照假设的时间而定。

(二)用虚拟语气,从句中谓语时态相应推后(即用相应的过去时态)的五种句型

【完成例句】

(7)他多么希望自己是只鸟。

How he wishes that he were a bird.

(8)我希望昨晚看了那部电影了。

I wish I had seen the film last night.

(9)我们希望有一天能住在月球上。

We wish we would live on the moon one day.

【结论

1】在动词wish引导的宾语从句中, 表示不太可能实现的愿望,从句必须使用虚拟语气。

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【完成例句】

(10)我宁可你现在不在我身边。

I would rather you were not here with me now.

(11)我宁可你没做过那件事。

I would rather you hadn't done that.

【结论2】would rather / prefer + that-从句(从句用虚拟语气)

【完成例句】

(12)她英语说得好像她就是纽约本地人一样。

She speaks English as though she were a native of New York.

【结论3】as if / though + 从句中谓语用相应的过去时态(等同于wish从句用法)。

【完成例句】

(13)要是你没告诉我那个消息就好了。

If only you hadn't told me the news.

【结论4】if only (要是……就好了),句中谓语用相应的过去时态(等同于wish从句用法)。

【完成例句】

(14)我本来可以帮你忙的,即使我当时很忙。

Even though I had been very busy then, I would have helped you.

(15)即使我现在能跑,我也不会那样做。

Even if I might run, I wouldn't do that.

(三)从句中所用的虚拟语气结构为should +动词原形,should可以省略。

【例句观察】

The doctor suggests I (should) exercise every day.

医生建议我每天做运动。(宾语从句)

It is suggested that I (should) exercise every day.

我被建议每天做运动。(主语从句)

The doctor's suggestion is that I (should) exercise every day. 医生给我的建议是每天做运动。(表语从句)

The doctor's suggestion that I (should) exercise every day sounds reasonable. 医生要我每天做运动的建议听起来挺合理的。(同位语从句)

【结论1】名词性从句中,表示“建议,命令,要求”等意义时,名词性从句用(should)+ 动词原形。

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一个坚持:insist

两个命令:order, command (名词是order, recommendation)

三个建议:advise, suggest,propose(名词是advice, suggestion, proposal)

四个要求:demand, require, request, desire(名词是demand, requirement, request, desire) 注意:1. suggest 意为“表明,暗示”时,不用虚拟语气;

如:His face suggested that he was very sad.

2. insist意为“坚持认为,坚持说”时,不用虚拟语气;

如:The man insisted my little brother was a thief.

【例句观察】

我们应该掌握电脑知识,这是很重要的。

It is important that we (should) have a good knowledge of computer science. 你居然没参加会议,真是可惜。 It is a pity that you (should) be absent from the meeting.

他竟然是名医生,我们很惊讶。 We are surprised that he (should) be a doctor.

【结论2】虚拟语气用在“It's+形容词 / 名词+that…”这类句型中,表示说话人“强烈”的感情色彩,此时,从句用should +动词原形 / should + have done (表示动作在过去已经发生),should 可译为“应该;居然,竟然”。should 可以省略。

①It is important / necessary / strange / surprising / funny / natural + that-从句 ②It is a pity / a shame / an honour / no wonder that-从句

③主语 + be + sorry / disappointed / surprised + that-从句

【例句观察】

以防错过第一班车,我们一大早就起床了。

①We got up early for fear that we should miss the first bus.

②We got up early lest that we should miss the first bus. 【结论3】在in case, for fear (that), lest等引导的状语从句中,谓语动词用“should+动词原形”。

(四)几种特殊用法

1. 某些简单句的固定句型

Heaven help him!

God bless you!

May you succeed!

Long live the People's Republic of China!

2. 某些固定的词组和句型

①was / were supposed to have done 理应做……

②was / were to have done 本计划做……

③had thought / believed…, but…本以为……

④had planned / intended…,but…本计划……,本打算……

⑤had wished / hoped…,but…本希望……

⑥It's (about / high)time that-从句,某人该做某事了

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