—the Subjunctive Mood
虚 拟 语 气
英语动词有三种语气: 陈述语气，祈使语气和虚拟语气 陈述语气：用来表示所说的话是 事实或提出疑问，广泛用语陈述 句，疑问句和感叹句。
一种假设、猜测、怀疑等(在条件 从句中或让步状语从句中)； 一种表示说话人的愿望、要求、命 令、建议等 (在宾语从句、表语从 句、同位语从句)。
Eg : We met in this room .
Do come to the meeting next Friday .
祈使语气 If I were you , I would study hard .
真实条件句所表的假设是可能发生或实现的,是与 事实相符的。 非真实条件句所表的假设则是不可能或不大可能 发生或实现的， 与事实相反的情况。
If it is fine tomorrow, I will go to visit my grandma. If I were a bird, I would fly to America.
与过去 事实相 反的假 设 与现在 相反的 假设 与将来 相反的 假设
一、虚拟语气在非真实条件句中 主句 虚拟条件句 If+主语+had +过去分词 主语＋would＋
have +动词过去 分词
If+主语+过去式（be用were) If+主语+were to+ 动词原形 If+主语+should +动词原形
动词形式 从句 时间 与现在事实相反
动词过去式（be的 would 过去式一般用were） should + 动词原形 could might had +过去分词 would should have+过去分词 could might
动词过去式 /should +动词原形 were to＋动词原 形
would should +动词原形 could might
If I won the lottery,
I would buy an expensive car. I would buy a villa.
I would travel around the world.
过去事实相反 had had If I ____________time last night, I would have gone to see the film with you _____________
If he________ had driven more carefully, he would not have _____________ had the car accident
Were to get a full mark next ____________ would hold time, I ________ a party for you . should get ____________
If I were you, I would give AIDS patient a hug.
If I had taken your advice, I wouldn’t have made a mistake.
If it rained tomorrow, they wouldn’t go for an outing.
要是你早来几分钟的话，你就能见到他了。 If you had come a few minutes earlier, you would have met him.
明天要是天气好的话，我来看你。 与将来事实可能相反 If it were sunny tomorrow, I would come t
o see you.
If I were you, I would go at once.
PRACTICE 1: Fill in the blanks.
would take were a. If they ______ (be) here,they __________ (take) your advice.
b. If the world-war ___________ (break) out broke would happen again,what ________________ (happen) to our people on earth? were not c. If the policeman _____________ (be not) in that could be room now, it ________________ (be) very dangerous. were d. If I _______ (be) in your position,I _____________(ask) for teacher’s help. would ask
PRACTICE 2: Fill in the blanks e. If Tom had been (be) more careful in the __ exam, he would have passed(pass) it already. _________ __ f. If you had got (get) up earlier, you would have caught (catch) the first train. _______ __ g. If I had met ____ (meet) you yesterday, we
would have_______ (go) to the concert together. ________ gone
PRACTICE 3: Fill in the blanks a. If there should be (be) no natural
would make resource any more,we ___________ (make) use of nuclear power .
b. What would happen ___
should get up
(happen) if you
_____________(get up) too late tomorrow?
1.省略 if 的条件从句 当从句中有 were, had 或 should 时，可省略if ， 而把它们放在句首,再将句子的主语和谓语动词实 行全部倒装或部分倒装。
If I were to meet him tomorrow, I should ask him about it. Were I to meet him tomorrow,… If he should fail in the experiment this time, he would try again. Should he fail in the experiment… ?Had he worked harder, he would have passed the final examinations.
but for(要不是) Eg : Without electricity , human life would be quite difficult today . = If there were no electricity ,
Without his advice ,I couldn’t have done it all by myself . = If it hadn’t been for his advice ,
But for your help , I wouldn’t have succeeded in doing this experiment . = If it hadn’t been for your help ,
But for the meeting ,I would have gone to your party last Saturday . = If it hadn’t been for the meeting ,
1. Without sunlight , or water or air , there ___ no life on the earth . A will have B would be C should be D must be
2 But for the snow , we ___ earlier . A will arrive B should have arrived C arrive D arrived
二、虚拟语气用于宾语从句中 现在： 过去时（were） 1.Wish 过去：过去完成时 的宾语
未来： would/could/might+V. 1.I wish I were a bird 从句
2.I wish I hadn’t made such a mistake
3.We wish our parents wouldn’t punish us.
I wish 从句结构 Example
I wish it were autumn now.
He wishes(wished) he had not lost the chance.
I wish you would come soon.
I wish I were as tall as you.
I wish I became as famous as Yao Ming. I wish I were a bird.
I wish I could fly like a bird. I wish every day were my birthday.
He wish he hadn’t
eaten so much watermelon. I wish the lunch time would come soon.
I wish it would rain tomorrow.
1 He is not a pilot, but he wishes he______ (be).
2.I wish I ___________(meet) him yesterday. 3.I wish it __________(be) fine tomorrow. 4.A: You have made some mistakes. B: I wish I ____mistakes every day. A. don’t make B. haven’t made C. wouldn’t have made D. didn’t make
2.I wish they ___ in this ball game .
A would be succeeded B would be successful
C had been success
D had been successful
3. He wished he ___ more about the subject , so he could talk about it . A had known B knew C would know D knows
4. How I wish I ___ a doctor , and ___ the dying girl .
A am , can save B was , saved
C were , could save D will be , will save
5. ---What shall we do next ? --I wish that Bill ___ here . If he ___ here , he would tell us what to do . A has been , has been B would be , would be
C were , were D is , is
6 .How I wish every family ___ a large house with a beautiful garden ! A has B had C will have D had had
7. How I wish that I ___ the moon sometime in the future .
A had visited B would visit C visited D will visit
“suggest,demand,order,propose,insist,comma nd,request,desire” 后的宾语从句中： “(should) +动词原形”
I suggest that we (should) set off at once.
I demanded that he (should) answer me immediately.
(一个坚持insist ，两个命令order, command ，三个建议advise, suggest, propose四个要求demand , require, request, desire)
注：以上动词的名词形式用于同位语从句中， 从句中的动词也是用“(should) + 动词原形”
1. I advised that the sick child ___ a hospital as soon as possible . A should sent to B should be sent
C be sent to D must be sent to
2 The workers in the factory demanded that their pay ___ be 20 percent . A be raised
B would be raised
3 The guard at the gate insisted that everybody ___ the rules . A obeys B obey C will obey D would obey 4. Jane’s pale face suggested that he ___ ill , and her parents suggested that she ___ a medical examination . A be , should have B was , have C should be , had D was , has 5. --- Do you know where he comes from ? ---No , but his accent suggests that he ___ from the south . A was B should be C is D were
insist 表示”坚持认为“之意时，应用陈述 语气。 Eg : The smile on his face suggested that he was satisfied with our work.
The man insisted that he had never stolen the money.
三．用语表语从句和同位语从句 在suggestion / proposal / order / plan / advice / idea / request /demand 等 名词后的表语和同位语从句中
要用“should＋动词原形” should 可以省略．
Eg : My suggestion that we (should) have a meeting has been accepted
by others. We all agree to that suggestion that the meeting (should) be put off.
考题点击： 1.His suggestion that you _____ once more sounds reasonable.
C. must try
D. can try
? We are in favor of your proposal that the meeting ______. ? A. should be put off B. was put off ? C. should put off D. is to put off ? His recommendation was that an experienced sales manager _____ to the branch company in Shanghai to take charge of the marketing there. ? A. was sent B. send ? C. be sent D. would be sent
3. Would rather that
现在： 过去时 过去： 过去完成时 未来： 过去时
I would rather you paid me now. I would rather you had gone, too. Don’t come. I would rather you came tomorrow.
would prefer , 表示一种希望和委婉的责备。 Eg : I would prefer he didn’t stay there too long next week . 我宁愿下周他不要在这待的太久。
1.It is necessary／important／
strange／natural impossible / surprising
+ that 从句。 从句中的谓语动词用should+动词原 形，should 可以省略。
Eg : It is necessary that you (should) clean the room after work.
It is important that we ( should ) master a foreign language.
It is strange that she （should ） refuse to come to the party.
2. It is suggested／desired / ordered / requested /
proposed / demanded
that从句… 从句中的谓语动词用should+动词原 形，should 可以省略
Eg : It is suggested that the meeting (should) be put off. It is ordered that the work (should) be done at once.
3. It is a pity／a shame／no wonder + that 从句
从句中的谓语动词用should+动词原 形，should 可以省略省略
eg : It is a pity that he should be so careless. 真可惜他竟然如此粗心．
1. Is it necessary that he _____ the
examination? A. takes C. must take B. has to take D. take
2. It is strange that he _____ you this.
A. would tell
C. had told
B. should tell
D. has told
1. It is (high / about ) time that… “到做----的时间了.” 注意:should不能省略． 过去时 should +V原.
我们该去睡觉了。 time that we went to bed. It’s
It’s time that we should go to bed.
2.If only 引导的感叹句 “要是．．．该有多好啊”
Eg : If only I knew the answer! If only I had seen the film yesterday!
3. as if /though + Clause “好象” 与现在事实相反 与过去事实相反 用过去式 过去完成式
Would / could / might +动词原形
1) as if /as though连接表语从句
He talks as if he knew where she was .
He looked as if he hadn’t slept for two days.
2) as if / as though连接状语从 句
She looked after the boy as if he were her own son. He speaks to us as if he had been there.
Eg : It looks as
if you are tired.
4.在In case, for fear that 和lest “万一；惟恐;以免”
引导的状语 从句中，谓语动词多用 should+动词原形 should 可省略
Eg : I daren’t tell you what he did for fear that he should be angry with.
In case I should fail, I would try again
I will not read aloud the book lest I should disturb you .
5.在带有even if/ even though “即使”
引导的让步状语从句中,动词形式与含有非真实的 条件句的虚拟语气相同. were Eg. Even if Lin Tao _______(be) here, I should say the same thing. had been Even though he ____________(be) ill, he would have gone to his office.
条件从句谓语动词发生的时间与主句所假设的 谓语动词不一致,谓语动词形式应做适当调整。 If you had followed my advice , you would be better now.
If you had studied hard before, you would be a college student now. If you had spoken to him last time you saw him, you would know what to do now.
1. 判断是否虚拟 2. 判断虚拟类型 3. 判断虚拟时间