In many Asian countries, avoiding eye contact shows respect.
Reading aloud is very helpful.
Debbie is good at communicating .
The machine is used for cutting up paper.
Have you finished reading the book?
When he came in, we all stopped talking.
1）see/watch/notice/hear/find sb. doing sth. 强调动作正在进行
see/watch/notice/hear/find sb. do sth. 强调动作发生的事实
2) keep sb. doing sth. 让某人做某事
3）finish doing sth. 做完某事
4）spend time/money (in) doing sth. 花费时间/金钱做某事
5）have difficulty/trouble (in) doing sth. 做某事有困难
6）how/what about doing sth? 做某事怎么样？（提建议）
1. __________(see) is____________(believe)”.
2._____________ (communicate) is not just about ____________.(speaking)
3. She smiles before ____________(speak) to them.
4. The girl enjoys ___________(listen) to light music.
5. We couldn’t help ________(laugh) after we heard the funny story.
6. What about _________(go) out for a walk?
7. Knives are used for ______________(cut) things.
8. Thank you very much for ____________(help) us.
9. I saw the boy ____________(break) the glass
1. ___________ means we are happy.
A. smile B smiling C. smiles D. smiled
2. Moving your head from side to side _______ ”No” in most countries.
A. mean B. meaned C. means D. meaning
3. It’s for ______ your papers into..
A. putting B. put C. put D puts
4.How about ______ a rest?.
A. have B. has C. had D. having
5. I often spent much money ____ books.
A. to buy B. buying C. on buying D for buying
6.If you practice ____ English whenever you can, you will soon speak well.
A. talking B. going speak C speaking D to speak
7.We are tired of ____ the same problem all the time.
A discussing B. to discuss C. discussing for D. discuss
一 It’s +形容词+for sb + to do sth
1. It’s wise for you to shampoo your hair often.对你来说经常用洗发液洗头是很明智的。
2. It’s difficult for me to choose the right hairstyle.对我来说选择合适的发型很难。 以上两个句子都用到了形容词，表示对事物的描述。
3. to do sth为真实主语
4. 用for 的形容词:对事物进行描述的形容词
difficult easy hard important necessary convenient dangerous possible impossible
eg: It is difficult for me to choose the right style.
It is good for us to eat vegetables.
eg: It is wrong to laugh at others when they are in difficulty.
It is impossible to learn a language well in two months.
二 It’s +形容词+of sb + to do sth
It was careless of me to forget it. 我太粗心竟把它忘记了。
kind good bad nice right wrong wise silly foolish clever careless polite generous rude
eg: It was wrong of him to tell lies.
It is stupid of her to make such a mistake.
It’s nice of you to offer me a seat.= You are nice to offer me a seat.
It was careless of him to lose so many things. = He was careless to lose so many things.
三 形容词+ enough+ to do sth
Are you strong enough to carry them? 你有足够的力气搬动他们吗？
表示主语“足够……可以做某事了”，其否定形式为not+形容词+ enough+ to do sth The boy is old enough to go to school.这个男孩足够大可以上学了。
I am not tall enough to reach the top of the tree. 我不够高不能够着树顶。
1. enough 修饰名词时，直接放在名词的前面，如：enough time ；但若修饰形容词，则enough要后置，如：fast enough ，tall enough
（1） 形容词+ enough+ to do sth可以与so ……that 引导的状语从句替换 例如：
The boy is old enough to go to school.
=The boy is so old that he can go to school.这个男孩到了上学的年龄了。
（2） not+形容词+ enough+ to do sth可以与so ……that 引导的状语从句替换，也
可以与too…… to (太……而不能……)句式进行相互转换。
He is not old enough to go to school.
=He is so young that he can’t go to school.
=He is too young to go to school.
用“形容词+for/of +sb.+动词不定式”句型改写1-4 小题；用“形容词+ enough +动词不定式”句型改写5-6小题。
1. Getting a balanced diet is important for us .
2. Choosing a good assistant is necessary for our manager .
3. The elephant is too big to go through the gate .
4. You are so kind to the children well .
5. The boy is so young that he can’t carry the heavy box .
6. My sister often does things carefully.
I’m glad that I passed the final exam.
I don’t know how to answer the question.
My father was surprised that he received a letter from the police.
特殊疑问句作宾语从句时，从句的连词由该特殊疑问句的疑问词充当。特殊疑问句的疑问词通常有疑问代词what, which, who, whose和疑问副词where, when, why, how等。 He wondered what had happened to her.
We know how many sheep there are on his farm.
Could you tell me how I can get to the hospital?
特殊疑问句作宾语从句时，不管主句陈述句还是疑问句，从句都是用“连词+陈述句”的语序，句末是否用问号由主句确定。主句是陈述句时，句末用句号；主句是疑问句时，句末用问号。 ① Where does Mr. Liu live? Do you know?
乛Do you know where Mr. Liu lives?
②What were you doing at that time? I want to know.
乛 I want to know what you were doing at that time.
宾语从句一般放在机务动词或者介词之后，但某些形容词后面可以带有宾语从句，常用于描述感受、感想或看法。常带有宾语从句的形容词有：afraid, happy, surprised, sure, certain等。如宾语从句用that引导，that可以省略。
I am very glad that you can come.
I am very sorry that the Chinese soccer team was defeated again.
1.---Can you make sure _____ ?
---Sorry,I can't .But I did see her just now.
A.where did she go B.where she had gone
C.where she has gone D.where will she go
2.---What did your parrot say,Bill?
---It asked us _____.
A.what was the weather like B.what the weather was like
C.what does the weather like D.what did the weather like
3.I wanted to know _______.
A.what did he say B.why does she go to bed late
C.why she went to bed late D.why she goes to bed late
4.---I don't know if he _______ to Kate's birthday party.
---He's sure to go if he ________.
A.goes,knows B.will go,knows C.goes,will know D.go,know
5.Could you tell me_______ it.
A.what can I do B.how can I do C.what to do D.how to do
6.---Could you please tell me _____ ?
---It's next to the post office.
1.where the supermarket is B.where is the supermarket
C.where was the supermarket D.where the supermarket was
7.He said ______ everyone was here except Lin Feng.
A.that B.what C.when D.where
8.---Excuse me .Could you tell me ______ get to the station. ---Certainly.Go straight along here.
A.how can we B.how we can C.when can we D.when we can
9.Could you tell me________?
A.where do you live B.who you are waiting for
C.who were you waiting for D.where you live in
10.Do you still remember_________.
A.that he said B.what he said C.did he say that D.what did he say
11.I can't understand ______ the boy alone.
A.why she left B.why did she leave
C.why had she left D.why she had left
short → short→ short long → long→ long(2) 以e结尾的形容词、副词，直接在末尾加r构成比较级，加st 构成最高级 fine → fin fin nice→ nicer → nic
(3) 以y结尾的，变y为i ，在加er, est 分别构成比较级与最高级
happy → happ→ happi healthy → health → health(4) 以中毒闭音节结尾且最后一个字母只有一个辅音字母的，即“辅元辅”，双写该字母再加er, est 构成比较级与最高级
big→bi→bi fat → fa→ fa
good/well →better → best ill/bad/badly → worse → worst
many/much→ more→ most little → less → least
old → older → oldest old → elder → eldest
far → farther→ farthest fun /like→ more fun /like → most fun/like far→ further→ furthest
careful → more careful → most carful
beautiful → more beautiful→ most beautiful
slowly → more slowly → most slowly
也可以在他们后面加less , least 构成另外一种降级比较级与最高级
Interesting →less interesting （没那么有趣）→ least interesting （最没趣） 2 形容词、副词原级的用法
① as + 原级 +as 与……一样
not so/as +原级 + as 与 ……. 不一样
He is as handsome as his father .
He is not so/as tall as Jim.
You don’t work as carefully as your mother does.
3形容词、副词比较级的用法： 比较级是两者之间的比较，并且必须是同类的比较， 比较级+than
① A + 动词 +比较级 +than + B
She is better than Lucy.
He runs faster than I
② who/which + 动词 +比较级 +than , A or B ?
Who is better, TOM or James.
Which do you like better, English or Chinese ?
比较级 + than + any other + 名词单数
(all) the other + 名词复数
比较级 + than + → （all） the others
↘ （all） the rest
比较级 + than +any +of the other + 名词复数
比较级 + than + anyone/anybody/anything else
Nobody/nothing else + 动词 + 比较级 + than
No other + 名词复数 + 比较级 +than
He is taller than any other student in his class.
=He is taller than all the other students in his class.
=He is taller than the others in his class.
=He is taller than the rest in his class.
=He is taller than any of the other students.
=He is taller than anyone else in his class.
=Nobody else is taller than him in his class.
=No other students are taller than him in his class
注意：比较对象为同一范畴需用other 或else 排除自身，但如比较对象不再同一范畴，则不需要other 或else 来排除自身。
Shanghai is richer than any other city in china.
Shanghai is richer than any cities in Iraq.
④可以修饰形容词与副词比较级的主要有：much, even(甚至),far , still, a bit , a little, a lot, no , any 等词,但是enough ,too, so , quite ,very 不能修饰比较级。
The book is much better.
She is feeling even worse.
⑤ 比较级and 比较级 越来越 ……
She is fatter and fatter.
She is more beautiful and more beautiful.（X)
She is more and more beautiful. （ ）
⑥the + 比较级， the + 比较级
The more careful you are, the fewer mistakes you will make.
= If you are more careful , you will make fewer mistakes .
⑦ 表二者之最“用the + 比较级 + of the two “
My father is the taller of my parents.
She is the better of the twins.
4 形容词、副词最高级用法： 最高级用于三者及三者人以上的比较其前面有定冠词the ① The + 形容词最高级 + of /in /among
(the) + 副词最高级 + of /in /among
Who/which + 动词 +the +最高级 A, B or C?
Spring is the beast season in Chongqing.
She is the oldest among the three girls.
He is the tallest of all.
Which is the best , lily, Lucy or Gina?
One of the 最高级 +名词复数
She is one of the most beautiful girls.
③形容词最高级不含有比较之意时，用不定冠词a/an修饰，译为“非常“相当于very It is a most beautiful city.
It is the second best book .
( ) 1 Your room is _______ than mine.
A. three time big B. three times big
C. three times bigger D. bigger three times
( ) 2 When spring comes, it gets_______.
A. warm and warm B. colder and colder
C. warmer and warmer D. shorter and shorter
( )3 ______ he read the book, _______ he got in it.
A. The more; the more interesting B. The less; the more interesting
C. The more; the more interested D. More; more interested
( )4 I like______ one of the two books.
A. the older B. oldest C. the oldest D. older
( ) 5 Which do you like _______, tea or coffee?
A. well B. better C. best D. most
( ) 6 This work is _______ for me than for you.
A. difficult B. most difficult C. much difficult D. more difficult
( ) 7 Who jumped_______of all?
A. far B. farther C. farthest D. the most far
( ) 8 Li Lei is_______ student in our class.
A. tall B. taller C. tallest D. the tallest
( ) 9 Tom is one of _______ boys in our class.
A. tallest B. taller C. the tallest B. the tall
( ) 10 English is one of_______ spoken in the world.
A. the important languages B. the most important languages
C. most important language D. the most important language
( )11. The ice in the lake is as as it was before.
.A. thin B. thinner C. thinnest D. the thinnest
( )12. we work, we feel.
A. The more , the happier B. More, happier
C. The much, the happier D. Much, more happy
( )13 Hainan is a very large island. It’s the second island in china.
A. large B. larger C. largest D. most large
( )14. New York is bigger than in china .
A. any other city B. the other cities C. any city D. all the city
( )15. congratulations ! You did in the exam.
Thanks .But you did much 9
A. well ; better B. good; better C. well; worse D. good; worse
( )16 she is any of the others in your class.
A. as clever a student as B. as a clever student as
C. so clever a student as D. so a clever student like
遵循“前否后肯”或“前肯后否”的原则：She is a student, isn’t she? She isn’t a student, is she?
The sick man’s allowed to take a walk in the garden every day, _____________?（宝山区13一模）
A) isn’t he B) hasn’t he C) is he D) wasn’t he 批注：本题第一步找主语the sick man，在反意疑问句中用he指代；第二步找否定词，前句没有否定词；第三步找动词，这也是本题的易错点，要注意’s是谁的缩写，这里应该表示被动语态is,因此应选C答案
The boss doesn’t allow the clerks to smoke in the office, ________?（嘉定区13一模）
A) does he B) doesn’t he C) is he D) isn’t he
We can hardly tell what life without the Internet will be like in the future, ________?（静 10
A) can we B) can’t we C) will it D) won’t it
Rewrite the following sentences as required Tom didn’t take part in the after-school activity yesterday. (改为反意疑问句) 06年中考 Tom didn’t take part in the after-school activity yesterday， ________ __________? 批注：本题做题第一步找主语Tom，反意疑问句用he指代；第二步找否定词，didn’t take前句否定，后句肯定；第三步找动词，前句出现助动词did,因此用did变反意疑问句；答案是did he
改为反义疑问句）（13宝山 一模） John's told to be on time for the meeting，________ _______.
批注：本题第一步找主语John，在反意疑问句中用he指代；第二步找否定词，前句没有否定词；第三步找动词，这也是本题的易错点，要注意’s是谁的缩写，这里应该表示被动语态is,因此答案是 isn’t he
The professor will give us a lecture on the effect of green house next Monday. (改为反意疑问句) （13嘉定 一模）
The professor will give us a lecture on the effect of green house next Monday, ________ ________?
批注：本题做题第一步找主语the professor，反意疑问句用he指代；第二步找否定词，前句没有否定词，后句用肯定形式；第三步找动词，前句出现助动词will,因此用won’t变反意疑问句；答案是won’t he
You’d better not stay outdoors in this kind of weather, you?（普陀区13一模）
A) do B) don’t C) had D) hadn’t
批注：本题中出现了固定搭配had better，反意疑问句是用hadn’t you;
Plastic bags have caused serious environmental pollution, ________?08年中考
A. haven’t they B. have they C. don’t they D. do they
批注：have构成的反意疑问句一定要先确定have的用法，是助动词还是实意动词，本题中have caused构成现在完成时态，因此在这里have是助动词，反意疑问句用haven’t；然后看本题的主语plastic bags反意疑问句中用they指代；前句肯定，后句否定，因此答案选择A；
改为反意疑问句) 10年中考 Your mother has never tried shopping on the Internet, __________ __________? 批注：本题做题第一步确定have的用法，has never tried现在完成时态，has助动词，反意疑问句用has；第二步找主语，your mother反意疑问句中用she指代；第三步找否定词，前句出现never否定副词，后句肯定；因此答案是 has she;
改为反意疑问句) （13虹口 一模） Your father has never been to Hong Kong, _________ _________?
批注：本题做题第一步确定have的用法，has never been现在完成时态，has助动词，反意疑问句用has；第二步找主语，your father反意疑问句中用he指代；第三步找否定词，前句出现never否定副词，后句肯定；因此答案是 has he;
You’d better not stay outdoors in this kind of weather, you?（普陀区13一模）
A) do B) don’t C) had D) hadn’t
批注：本题中出现了固定搭配had better，反意疑问句是用hadn’t you;
Let's take a picture in front of the fountain. (改为反义疑问句)
Let's take a picture in front of the fountain，__________ ________ ? 09年中考
批注：本题固定搭配let’s反意疑问句是shall we;但是需要注意的是 let us不缩写的时候是will you变反意疑问句；这两个学生容易记混，可以把let us不缩写的情况看成是祈使句，用祈使句的句型will you, 而缩写的时候特殊记忆；
. There is little time left for us to work out a solution. (改为反意疑问句) （13徐汇 一
There is little time left for us to work out a solution, _______ ________?
批注：there be句型反意疑问句is/ isn’t there，但是本题中前句出现否定副词little，因此前否后肯，答案是 is there;
1. Mary’s father rarely smokes in public places, _____?（2012 金山二模）
A. does he B. doesn’t he C. is he D. isn’t he
2. Tom rarely visits her aunt during work days, _________?（2012 闵行二模）
A. has he B.hasn't C.does he D.doesn't he
3. Steven Jobs’ death marked the end of an era(时代)，2012 普陀二模）
A..did he B. didn’t he C. did it D. didn’t it Keys: ACD
1. Gary’s parents seldom buy him name-brand sports shoes. (改为反意疑问句) （13长宁 一模）
Gary’s parents seldom buy him name-brand sports shoes, ________ ________ ?
2. Psy (鸟叔) won Time Magazine’s Person of the Year Award. (改为反意疑问句) （13杨浦 一模） Psy won Time Magazine’s Person of the Year Award, ________ ________?
3. The shop owner was losing his customers because his staff worked slowly. (改为反意问句) （13浦东新区一模）
The shop owner was losing his customers because his staff worked ?
4. Mr. Smith and his wife seldom drive their car to work. (改为反义疑问句) （12奉贤二模）
Mr. Smith and his wife seldom drive their car to work, ________ ________?
5. Alice didn’t say anything at the meeting last week. (改为反意疑问句) (12浦东新区 二模) Alice didn’t say anything at the meeting last week, ________ _________?
6. The new English dictionary cost him a lot of money. (改为反义疑问句）(12松江 二模) The new English dictionary cost him a lot of money, ?
7. People in western countries rarely talk loudly in public.（改为反义疑问句）(12徐汇二模) People in western countries rarely talk loudly in public, ________ _______?
8.Uncle Michael has been a professional F1 driver for many years. (改为反意疑问句) （13静安一模）
Uncle Michael has been a professional F1 driver for many years, _______ ________?
9. My brother has never seen so much snow before.（改为反意疑问句）（13崇明 一模） My brother has never seen so much snow before, ________ ________?
10. The little boy has never seen a real panda with his own eyes. (改为反义疑问句) (12黄埔 二模)
The little boy has never seen a real panda with his own eyes, _________ _________? Keys: 1. do they; 2.didn’t he; 3.wasn’t he; 4.do they; 5.did she;
6.didn’t it; 7.do they; 8.hasn’t he; 9.has he; 10.has he;