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初中定语从句课件讲练结合完全版

发布时间:2013-09-21 22:41:10  

初中定语从句讲解

Match the two sentences

1.I’m reading a book. The book is about Bill Gates. I’m reading a book that/which is about Bill Gates. _______________________________________
2.He is a teacher. The teacher teaches us Chinese. He is a teacher who/ that teaches us Chinese. _______________________________________ 3.I don’t like the man. He is smoking. I don’t like the man who is smoking. ____________________________________ 4.Where is the picture? You bought it last week. Where is the picture that you bought last week? _______________________________________

? 什么是定语从句呢?
Mary is a beautiful girl. (形容词作定语) Mary is a girl who has long hair. (句子作定语,修饰girl,叫做定语从句)

The man who lives next to us is a ______ ___ 先行词 关系词 policeman.

________________
定语从句

结构: 先行词 + 关系词 + 句子
定语从句的位置:通常在先行词(在主句中)后。

定语从句的构成

The old lady who lives next to us sells books. You should do all that I said. I have found the teacher whom I am looking for . I visited the factory where my father works.
1.从句位置及语序: 2.翻译方法: 3.构成

先行词 之后,用陈述式语序 “….的” 关系词
关系代词 关系副词

Attributive clause:
在句子中作定语,修饰名词或代词的从句。这种从句由关系 代词或关系副词引导,并作句子成分。

定 语 从 句 的 引 导 词

关系 代词

指人
指物

who(主语、宾语),whom(宾语), that(主语、宾语), whose(定语) that(主语、宾语),which(主语、宾语) whose(定语)

where (地点状语) 关系 副词 when (时间状语)

why (原因状语)

关系代词
如果先行词是表示物的名词或代词,关系 代词应用that、which. (作主语或宾语) These are trees which were planted last year. 如果先行词是人时,用who/ whom/ whose/ that 来引导。

先行词和关系词的关系 Join the following sentences:
A plane is a machine. The machine can fly.

关系代词的实质
Join the following sentences:
A plane is a machine. The machine can fly. A plane is a machine the machine can fly.

关系代词的实质
Join the following sentences:
A plane is a machine. The machine can fly. A plane is a machine that /which can fly.

关系代词的实质 Join the following sentences:

The lady is Green. We saw her yesterday.
Who/that

The lady

we saw her yesterday is Green

关系代词的用法练习
1.The eggs were not fresh. I bought them yesterday. The eggs (that/which) I bought them were not fresh. 2.The friend was not hungry. He came to supper last night.
The friend who/ that he came to supper last night was not hungry.

3.He prefers the cheese. It comes from his parent’s farm.
He prefers the cheese that / which it comes from his parent’s farm.

4.The noodles were delicious. You cooked them.
The noodles( which/ that )you cooked them were delicious.

5.I don

’t like the people. They smoke a lot. I don’t like the people that / who they smoke a lot.

Exercise 1 :用关系代词填空
1. The boy ____________ is playing ping-pong is who / that my classmate. 2. The e-mail ___________ I received yesterday which/ that was from my sister. who / that 3. I hate people ______________ talk much but do little. which / that 4. The car _____________ my father bought last month is very beautiful.

关系代词who, that, whom, whose引导的 定语从句:

如果先行词是表示人的名词或代词, 关系代词应用 who, that (作主语或宾语) whom (作宾语) whose(表所有格)

难用的 whose
Join the following pair of sentences.

The teacher praised the student. His English is the best in our class. The teacher praised the student whose English is the best in our class. whose =the student’s 关系词whose实际上是先行词的所有格

难用的 whose

Join the following pair of sentences.

The house is mine. The window of the house is broken. The house whose window is broken is mine. whose=the house’s window
the window of which is broken

The house
of which the window is broken

is mine.

?
?

A child _____ parents are dead is called an orphan( 孤儿). A. who B. whose C. who’s D. which

介词+关系代词的情况 1

The man

whom you spoke to was a scientist.

The city

which she lives in is far away.

介词+关系代词的情况 2
Are these two sentences right?

The man

who/whom you spoke to was a scientist.

The city

that/which she lives in is far away.

介词+关系代词的情况 3
Are these two sentences right?

The man to who/whom you spoke ×

was a scienti

The city in that/which she lives ×
可见,who、that 不能用与介词之后

is far away.

介词+关系代词的情况 4
下面两句中的介词能提前吗?

Is this the watch that you are looking for? The old man whom I am looking after is better . 在固定短语中介词不能提前

介词+关系代词的情况 练习
on which ? 1. Do you like the book she spent $10? ? 2. Do you like the book she paid $10? for which ? 3. Do you like the book she learned a lot? from which ? 4. Do you like the book she often talks? about which ? 5. He built a telescope he could study the skies. through which

只能用that 做关系代词的情况
1.当先行词是不定代词时,如: All ,few, little, much, every, something, anything, everything, 等 2.当先行词被the only, the very, the same, little, few, no, any等修饰时 3.当人和物合做先行词时 4.当先行词被序数词或形容词最高级修饰时 5.在疑问词who、which、what开头的句子中

只能用which 做关系代词的情况

在非限制性定语从句中 在介词后面

Exercise
that , which or who?

1.He did all / everything _______he could to help me. that 2.This is the very thing _______ I am after. that 3.We talked about the men and the things _______ that we remembered at school. that 4.He is the only man ______

_ can do the work. 5.This is the first thing _______ I want to say. that 6.He is the finest man _______ I have ever worked that with. 7.Who is the man _______ spoke to you at the gate. that 8.Which is the star _______ is nearest to the earth. that

that , which ,whose, whom or who?
that 9.Is there anything else _______ you want to say? that 10.Any person _______ has the money can join the group. 11.He often speaks the role he played in the play, which made others upset. _______ which 12.He opened the door, in front of _______ sat a boy. whom 13.The man to _______ I spoke is a famous scientist. whose 14.The boy _______ mother is dead was brought up by his father.

whose 5. The man ______ hair is white is his grandfather. whose 6. Is there a student _________ father is a business man? which 7. This is the house in ________ we have lived for 10 years. 8.I’ve never heard of the people and things ________ you talked about just now. that

当先行词同时指人和物时,关系代词 只能用that.

Exercise 2.
1. My father and his teacher talked a lot about that the persons and things ______ they couldn’t remember. that 2. Say all ________ you know.

3. Is there anything ______ I can do for you? that

当先行词是something, anything, nothing, all 等词时,关系代词只能用that.

4.This is the first play ________ I have seen that since I came here.
5. This is the best novel _______ I have read. that 当先行词被序数词,最高级等词修饰时,关系 代词只能用that.

6.Who is the girl _______is standing under the tree? that
that 7. Which is the machine ____ we used last Sunday.

当主句是who或which 引导的特殊疑问句, 而中心词指人或物时,关系代词只能用 that.

关系副词:
When 时间状语 Where 地点状语 Why 原因状语

关系副词和先行词的关系

I still remember the day when I came here.
on the day =when

This is the house where I lived last year.
in the house= where

There are many reasons why people like traveling.
for the reasons =why

I don’t like the way that you speak.
in the way =that 关系副词实际上是介词+先行词

when 作时间状语: When = 介词 + which

She will never forget the day.
She was married on that day. She will never forget the day when (=on which) she was married. It was the year. The World War I broke out in the year. It was the year when (= in which) the World War I broke out.

where 作地点状语 where = 介词 + which
I want to know the place.

I was born there.
I want to know the place where (= in which) I was born. The table where (= at which ) she is sitting is a new one.

why 作原因状语, 其先行词常常是the reason.

why = for which
That is the reason why(= for which) I’m late. I know the reason why he said it.

Exercise
? 1.October 1,1949 is the day _____ the PRC was founded. A. which B. when C. that D. on that
? 2.Is that the reason _____ you are for the plan. which B. what C. why D. for that

? 3.

October 1,1949 is the day _____ the PRC was founded. ? A. which B. when C. that D. on that ? 4. Is this the place ______ you were born? ? A. which B.where C.what D.that

? 挑战高难度!!!

? 1. Is this the place ______ you were born? ? A. which B. where C. what D. that ? 2. Is this the place ______ some German friends visited last year? ? A. which B. where C. what D. why

? 3.The house _______ the famous writer wrote his works is a museum now. ? A. which B. where C. what D. that
? 4.The house _______ the famous writer bought many years ago is a museum now. ? A. that B.where C.what D. why

? 5.He told her the reason____ he is unhappy, but she doesn’t believe the reason ______ he gives her. ? A. why; why ? B. why; which ? C. that; why ? D. which; why

考点一:如何判定用关系代词还是用关系副词
1、找出定语从句中是否主语和宾语都齐全。如齐全用关系副词。 用什么关系副词看先行词。 when I I will never forget the days (______ _ stayed with ___ you).

___ Jurassic Park is about a park ______ (a very rich man keeps different where ________ Kinds of dinosaurs). when _______ ___ 1958 was the year ______ (Spielberg made his first real film).

Please give me the reason _____ (you made such a great success). why ___ _____
when ___ Morning is the best time ______ (you practise ______ aloud). reading ________ Do you remember the lake where (you first met your girlfriend.) _____ ___

考点一:如何判定用关系代词还是用关系副词
2、如定语从句中缺宾语,确定定语从句的谓语动词是不是及物 动词,如是,用关系代词,如不是,用关系副词。 where ____ Yesterday we went to visit the house ______ (the great writer used in which to ___ live). which The house ______ (they built in 1987) stayed up in the earthquake. that ___ ___ who / whom I ____ Luckily none of the people _____ ( _ know) were killed in the that earthquake. / when __________________ My father was born in the year ______(the Second World War in which broke out). _______

考点一:如何判定用关系代词还是用关系副词
3、如定语从句中谓语结构是被动结构,有主语,则用关系副词。
Kunming is a beautiful place where ( flowers are seen all the ______ year round). October 1st is the day ________ ( new China was founded). when Which The window ( ______ was opened this morning) has been broken. that Which The meeting ( ______ will be held next week) is very important. that


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