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八年级下册总复习

发布时间:2013-09-30 11:00:49  

新目标八年级英语下全册复习提纲

Unit 1 Will people have robots?

1. in the future 在将来

2. live to (be) … years old 活到……岁

3. in 100 years =100 years from now 一百年后 4. free time 空闲时间 be free 免费;自由

5. talk about 谈论,谈及,谈到 6. high school 高中

7. computer programmer 电脑程序员 8. on a space station 太空站 9. fall in love with … 爱上…… 10. go skating 去滑冰 11. be able to 能,会

12. I disagree= I don’t agree我不同意 agree with sb. 同意某人的意见 13. the World Cup 世界杯 14. keep pets 养宠物 15. job interview 工作面试 16. fly…to… 乘坐…飞往… 17. come true 实现,成为现实

18. see sb. do sth. 看见某人做了某事

see sb doing sth. 看见某人正在做某事 19. one’s own … 某人自己的……my own pen 20. science fiction movies 科幻影片

21. help (sb.) with sth. 帮助(某人)做某事 22. hundreds of 数百,成百上千的 23. the same as 和……相同 24. wake up 醒来;唤醒

26. try to do sth. 试图做某事,尽力做某事 27. get bored 变得厌倦

28. over and over (again) 一次又一次,再三地 29.make predictions 做预测 30.predict the future 预测未来 31.look for寻找

32.the head of ….的老板 33.make sb do sth 使某人做某事 34.be used by 被用

35.less pollution 更少的污染 36. live alone 单独居住

37.be in different shapes 形状不同 38.as a reporter 作为记者

39.some...others... 一些……另一些…… 40.live in an apartment 住在公寓 41.dress casually 穿得很随意

本单元目标句型:

1. What do you think life will be like in 100 years?

2. There will be fewer trees、more buildings and less pollution in the future. ? few(修饰可数名词); less(修饰不可数名词)表示几乎没有,有否定之意,;more二者都可以修饰。 3. Will kids go to school? No, they won’t/Yes, they will。 4. Predicting the future can be difficult. 5. I need to look smart for my job interview. 6. I will be able to dress more casually.

7. I think I’ll go to Hong Kong on vacation, and one day I might even visit Australia. 8. What will teenagers do for fun twenty years from now?

9. That may not seem possible now, but computers, space rockets and even electric toothbrushes seemed impossible a hundred years ago.

本单元语法讲解:

一般将来时

表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态。常与表将来的时间连用,本时态标志词:

1.含tomorrow; next week/month/year;in the future;in 2020; 2.in+ 一段时间 ; 3.how soon;

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3.祈使句句型中:or/and sb. will do

4.在时间/条件状语从句中, 如果从句用一般现在时, 主句用将来时 表示将来时的常见句式:

1.用be doing表示将来:主要是表示按计划,安排即将发生的动作,常用于位置移动的动词;如come ,go, leave,arrive,fly, move,start, 等,也可以用其他动词。 I'm doing my homework tomorrow.

2.be going to 表示近期、眼下就要发生的事情。 如: He is going to write a letter tonight.

3.be going to 表示 已有迹象表明即将发生的某种情况。 Look at the clouds. It's going to rain.

4.在有条件从句的主句中,多用will, 如:

例Be quick, or you will be late.=If you don’t be quick, you will be late.

Unit 2 What should I do?

1. keep out 不准进,阻止进入 2. argue with sb. 和……争吵 argue about sth. 为……争吵 3. out of style

过时的,不时髦的

in style 流行的,时髦的

4. call sb. up = ring sb. up = call/ring/phone sb. 给…..打电话(代词放中间) 5. give sb. sth. = give sth. to sb. 给某人某物 (bring, lend, pass, sell, send, show, take,等与 give 一样)

6. a ticket to a ball game 一张球赛的门票

(与 ticket 类似的名词有:an answer to the question, a key to the door)

7. talk on the phone 在电话中/用电话交谈 8. pay for

付……的款

9. a part-time job 一份兼职工作 10. borrow … from 从……借( 进)…… 11. lend … to 把……借(出去)给…… 12. ask sb. for sth. 向……要…… ask sb. for help 向某人求助

ask sb. (not) to do sth. 要求某人(不)做某事 13. bake sale 面包或糕饼售买活动 14. Teen Talk 青少年论坛

15. buy sb. sth. = buy sth for sb. 买……给…… 16. the same … as 和……一样的……

17. tell sb. (not) to do sth.告诉某人(不要)做某事 18. want sb. to do sth

= would like sb. to do sth. 想某人做某事

19. find out 发现;查明;核实 20. do sth. wrong 做错某事

21. invite sb. to do sth. 邀请某人做某事 22. be angry with 生……的气

23. pass /fail the test 通过考试/考试不及格 24. get on well/badly with 和……相处得好(差) 25. have a fight with sb. = fight with sb. 与某人打架

26. fit … in/into… 把…安排在… 27. not … until 直到……才……

28. as … as possible =as …as sb. can尽可能…… 29. complain about doing sth 抱怨,埋怨做某事 complain to sb 抱怨某人

30. take part in = join in 参加(某种活动/集会) join 参加团体、组织 31. all kinds of 各种各样的

32. compare … with … 拿……和……比较 33. on the one hand 一方面 34. on the other hand 另一方面

35. by oneself =on one's own 某人自己,独自地 36.be surprised at …对…感到吃惊 37.get a tutor 请家教

38. include (doing)sth 包括(做)某事

39.give sb some advice(不可数)/suggestions(可数名词) 给某人一些建议

40.find+it+形容词+to do sth. ”表示”发现做某事… 41.organized activities 有组织的活动 42.be busy with sth 忙于某事

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be busy doing sth 忙于做某事

43.learn to do 学做某事

44.under pressure 在压力下

45.be the same age as sb.=as old as sb.和某人同龄

46.it's time for sb. To do sth.=it's time for sth.

该到做某事的时候了 47.take… from …to…把……从……带到…… 48.write sb.a letter=write a letter to sb =write to sb. 给某人写信 49.push sb too hard 强逼某人 50.forget sth 忘记某事 51.leave sth somewhere(某地) 将某物忘在某地 本单元目标句型:

1. What’s wrong(with you)?/What’s the matter?

2. What should I do? 我该怎么办

3. You could write him a letter. 你可以给他写封信 .

You should say sorry to him.你应该给他道歉.

4. They shouldn’t argue. 他们不应该争吵.?

5. Why don’t you talk to him about it?

=Why not talk to him about it?=You should/could talk to him about it.

=What/How about talking to him about it.=You’d better talk to him about it.

6. The parents try to fit as much as possible into their kids lives. 本单元语法总结:

情态动词有can (could), may (might), must, have to, shall (should, will (would), dare (dared), need (needed), ought to等。 情态动词无人称和数的变化;不能单独使用,必须与其后的动词原形构成谓语 ????

一、 can, could ????

1) 表示能力(体力、知识、技能)。 ????

Can you lift this heavy box?(体力) ????

此时可用be able to代替。Can只有一般现在时和一般过去式;而be able to则有更多的时态。 ?? ?? I’ll not be able to come this afternoon. ????

2) 表示请求和允许。 ????

-----Can I go now? ????-

---- Yes, you can. / No, you can’t. ????

此时可与may互换。在疑问句中还可用could

二、 may, might ??

??表示请求和允许。might比 may语气更委婉,而不是过去式。否定回答时可用can’t ????或mustn’t,表 示 ―不可以,禁止‖。 ????

----Might/ May I smoke in this room? ????

---- No, you mustn’t. ????

三、 must, have to ????

1) 表示必须、必要。 ????

You must come in time. ????

在回答引出的问句时,如果是否定的,不能用mustn’t(禁止,不准),而用needn’t, don’t have to(不 必). ????---- Must we hand in our exercise books today? ????

---- Yes, you must. ????---- No, you don’t have to / you needn’t. ??

??2) must是说话人的主观看法, 而have to则强调客观需要。Must只有一般现在时, have to 有更多的时

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态 形式。 ????

1. he play isn’t interesting, I really must go now. ???? 2. I had to work when I was your age. ????

3) 表示推测、可能性(只用于肯定的陈述句) ????

1. You’re Tom’s good friend, so you must know what he likes best. ?? 四、Need

既可以作情态动词,也可以作实义动词,但是它们的用法不同。

1) need作情态动词,后跟动词原形。表示―需要‖或―必须‖,通常用于否定句和疑问句。 ???? 1.You needn't do it again.你不需要再做了。 ??

??2.He needn't worry about it.这件事他无需担心。 ???? 2)―need‖作为实义动词时,通常用法是: ???? 人+need +to do ???? 物+need +doing ???? 物+need +to be done ????

1.We need to tell him the truth.我们需要告诉他真相。 ?? 2.The flowers need watering.这些花需要浇水。

3.His leather shoes needs to be mended.他的皮鞋需要修补。 五、 shall, should ????

1) shall 用于第一人称,征求对方的意见。 ???? What shall we do this evening? ???? 2) should表示劝告、建议和命令。 ???? You should go to class right away. 六、 will, would ????

1) 表示请求、建议等,would更委婉。 ??

??Will / Would you pass me the ball, please? ???? 2) 表示意志、愿望和决心。 ???? I will never do that again. ????

Unit 3 What were you doing when the UFO arrived?

1. in front of

在……(范围之外)的前面

12. walk around 四处走走 13. think about 考虑,思考,回想

14. Beijing International Airport 北京国际机场 15. at the doctor’s 在医务室,在诊所 16. in the hospital 在医院工作 in hospital生病住院 17. in history 在历史上 19. hear about/of 听说,得知

20. ask sb. (not) to do sth. 叫某人(不要)做某事 21. in silence 沉默不语

22. take place(有计划、有安排)发生 happen(意外) 发生

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in the front of 在……(范围之内)的前面 2. barber shop 理发店 3. get out of 到……外,离开 4. walk down/along 沿……走 5. call the police 报警 6. take off

(飞机)起飞;脱(衣帽)

7. an unusual experience 一次不寻常的经历 8. the Museum of Flight 航空博物馆 9. take photos

照相

10. a police officer 警官 11. run away 跑开,逃跑

sb happen to do sth 某人碰巧做了某事 sth happens to sb 某事发生在了某人的身上 23. the World Trade Center 世贸中心(美国) 24. in space 在太空

25. a national hero 民族英雄 26. all over the world = around the world

全世界

34.on a tree在树上(树本身的物) 35.have fun= enjoy oneself 玩得愉快 36.be destroyed by被毁坏 be killed 被杀害

37.have meaning to sb 对某人有意义 38.cook dinner 煮饭 39.cut hair 理发

40.outside the station 在车站外 41.sleep late 睡懒觉

42.last about 22 hours 持续约22个小时 42.do sth. For the first time 第一次做某事 43.not all 并非所有

44.everyday activity 日常活动

27.You are kidding.你在开玩笑 28.follow sb to do sth跟随某人做某事 29.shout at 向某人大喊(不礼貌) 30.shout to向某人喊叫(担心听不见) 31.jump down 跳下 32.climb up the tree爬树 33.in a tree在树上(外来的物)

本单元目标句型:

1. What were you doing when the UFO landed? 当不明飞行物着陆时,你正在干啥? 2. While my mother was cooking ,I was watching TV. 当妈妈正在做饭时,我在看电视。 3. I was walking down the street when a UFO landed right in front of me. 4. You can image how strange it was. 5. I followed it to see where it was going. 6. Isn’t that amazing!

7. She didn’t thinking about looking outside the station.

8.I was so tired this morning. It was difficult to get out of the bed.

本单元语法讲解:

过去进行时

句型 主语+ was/were +V-ing…

否定句 主语+ was/were+not +V-ing… 一般疑问句 was/were+主语+V-ing…

过去进行时表示过去某一时刻或者某段时间正在进行或发生的动作,常和表过去的时间状语连用,标志性词语:at that time/moment, (at) this time yesterday(last night/sunday...),at +点钟+Yesterday(last night/ Sunday...), when , while 引导的时间状语从句

1. She was doing her homework at 8:30 yesterday evening. (昨天傍晚八点半她正在做家庭作业。)

2.When I got up this morning, Mother was preparing breakfast in the kitchen.

(今天早上我起床时妈妈正在厨房里准备早餐。—―Mother…。‖是主句,―when…,‖是从句。)

When 和while 的区别

1、when,while都有―当……时候‖的意思。when既可表示某一点时间,也可以表示某一段时间 。在when引导的时间状语从句中,其谓语动词可以是延续性的,也可以是非延续性的,可与主句中的谓语动词同时发生,也可在其后发生。

例如: 1、I was just reading a book when she came into my room. 她走进我房间时,我正在看书。

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2、Were you writing when the teacher came in? 老师进来的时候,你在写信吗?

3、When he was a child he was always trying out new ideas. 他小时候就常常试验一些新的设想。

2.while只能表示某一段时间,不能表示某一点时间。在while引导的时间状语从句中,其谓语动词 只能 是延续性的,而且也只能与主句中的谓语动词同时发生或存在。

例如:1、While Jim was mending his bike, Lin Tao came to see him. 正当吉姆修自行车时,林涛来看他。 2、You can’t do your homework while you’re watching TV. 你不能一边看电视一边做家庭作业。

3、另外,when和while的区别还在于:while引导的时间状语从句多用进行时态,而when引导的时间状语从句多用一般时态。

例如: 1、While they were talking , the bell rang. 正在他们谈话的时候,上课铃响了。

2、I was doing my homework when my mother came back home yesterday evening. 昨天晚上妈 妈回家的时候,我正在做家庭作业。

过去进行时和一般过去时的区别

一般过去时表示在过去某个时间发生的动作或存在的状态,而过去进行时则表示在过去某个特定时间正在进行的动作。

I was reading an English novel at 10 last night. 我昨天晚上10点正在看一本英文小说。 I read an English novel at 10 last night. 我昨天晚上看了一本英文小说。

Unit 4 He said I was hard-working

1. soap opera 肥皂剧,电视(连续)剧 2. on Friday night 在星期五晚上 3. be mad at=be angry with 生……的气 4. have a surprise party for sb 为某人举行一个惊喜晚会 5. not … anymore 不再,再也不 not … any longer 6. get nervous 变得紧张 7. direct speech 直接引语 reported speech 间接引语 8. first of all 首先

9. do a homework project 做家庭作业 10. pass on 传递

pass sth to sb

Pass on the message to sb 向某人传递信息 11. work on 从事,设计,演算,操作

12. be supposed to do sth. 被期望(要求)做……, 应该做……

13. be good at doing sth= do well in 擅长…… 15. report card 成绩单

16. have a (bad) cold 患(重)感冒

17. be in good health=keep/ stay healthy 身体健康 18. end-of-year exams

学年考试

19. have a big fight with 和…大打一架

21. forget to do sth. 忘记要做某事 forget doing sth. 忘记做了某事 22. get over 克服,恢复,原谅

23. a poor mountain village 一个贫穷的山村 24. sound like +n 听起来像 25. Graduate from 从……毕业 26. In the mail 在邮箱里

27. It's a good idea for sb to do sth某人去做某事是一个好主意

28. China’s rural areas 中国的偏远地区 29. sea level 海平面 above sea level海拔 30. the thin air 稀薄的空气

31. agree with sb./sth. 同意, 与……相符(一致) 32. both … and … 两者都 33.finish doing sth 完成做某事 34. open up 打开,展开,开发,揭露

open up one's eyes to 开拓某人的视野到...... 35. a good start 一个良好的开端

36. care for=look after=take care of 照料,照 顾,计较,关心

37. in danger 处于危险之中 38.start a bad habbit养成一个坏习惯 39.copy one’s homework抄袭某人的做业

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40.send one’s love 问好

41.find science really difficult发现科学真的很难

42.make a decision to do sth=decide to do sth

决定做某事

43.decide to do sth决定做某事

44.there is no difference between ...and...

在...和...之间没有区别

45.it's just that... 只不过,只是 46.be over 结束,完成 47.in the city of ......市 48.a one-year program 一个一年期的项目 49.people who need help 需要帮助的人 50.something we can do for them 我们能为他们做的事 本单元目标句型:

转述他人话语:What did sb. say? He said I …She said she…They said…

1. 许老师告诉我徐梦蝶会说二种语言。2. 许老师说地球绕着太阳转。3. 许老师告诉我他将去北京。4. 许老师说欧洋正在做作业5. 许老师说王硕研勤奋。6. 在英语上,与听相比,我更擅长于读。In English, I’m better at reading than listening.

7. 情况怎样? How’s it going?

8. 她不想再当我最好的朋友了。She didn’t want to be my best friend anymore.

9. I said it would start a bad habit , and that she would do her own work.

10. That’s about all the news I have now. Mum and Dad send their love.

11. She said helping others changed her life.

12. Young people today need to experience different things

13. I can open up my students’ eyes to the outside world and give them a good start in life. 本单元语法讲解:

直接引语和间接引语

(一)直接引述别人的原话,叫做直接引语;用自己话转述别人的话,叫做间接引语。间接引语一般构成宾语从句。直接引语必须放在引号内,间接引语则不用引号。直接引语改为间接引语时,除将引语部分变成宾语从句外,还必须对直接引语中的人称、时态、指示代词、时间状语、地点状语等进行改变。

1. 时态的变化:直接引语变为间接引语时,通常受转述动词said,asked等的影响而使用过去化的时态, 即 把原来的时态向过去推,也就是一般现在时变一般过去时,现在进行时变为过去进行时等。 例如: Tom said to me,―My brother is doing his homework.‖

→Tom said to me that his brother was doing his homework.

另外,在过去时的引述动词之后,当转述客观真理或是为了表示引述的状态和情况到现在仍然是事实时, 仍然用一般现在时。 老师说:“光的传播速度比声音快多了。”

→老师说光的传播速度比声音快多了。

时态变化的一般规律:一般现在时 →一般过去时;

现在进行时 →过去进行时;

一般将来时 →过去将来时;

现在完成时 →过去完成时;

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一般过去时 →过去完成时

2. 人称的变化。人称变化规则“一随主,二随宾,第三人称不更新”语时与主句的主语保持一致,直接引语中的第二人称改为间接引语时与主句的宾语保持一致,直接引语中的第三人称改为间接引语时人称不变。

例: like very much." → liked it very much.

主语 第一人称 第三人称

broke He told me that 主语 宾语 第一人称 第二人称

3. 人称代词、指示代词、时间状语、地点状语等等的变化;根据意义进行相应的变化。 如: She asked Jack,―Where have you been?‖ →She asked Jack where he had been.

He said,―These books are mine.‖ →He said that those books were his.

(二)直接引语改为间接引语时,都使用陈述语序,但是因为原句的句式不同,所以变成间接引语时所用的连词会有所不同。

1.陈述句的间接引语:陈述句由直接引语变间接引语,由that引导,可以省略。

―I want the blue one.‖ he told us. ―我想要兰色的。‖ 他说。

→He told us that he wanted the blue one. 他说他想要兰色的。

2. 疑问句的间接引语

直接引语如果是疑问句,变成间接引语后,叫做间接疑问句。间接疑问句为陈述语序,句末用句号,动词时态等的变化与间接陈述句相同。引述动词常用ask, wonder, want to know等间接疑问句一般有三种:

(1).一般疑问句由直接引语变为间接引语时, 由whether或if 引导。 如:

―Can you tell me the way to the hospital?‖ The old man asked.

那个老人问:―你能告诉我去医院的路吗?

→The old man asked whether I could tell him the way to the hospital.

那老人问我是否能告诉他去医院路。

(2). 特殊疑问句由直接引语变为间接引语时,仍由原来的疑问词引导。 如:

―Which room do you live in?‖ He asked. ―你住哪个房间?‖他问我。

→He asked me which room I lived in. 他问我住哪个房间。

(3). 选择疑问句由直接引语变为间接引语时,由whether/if …or引导。 如:

―Is it your bike or Tom’s? Mum asked. 妈妈问:―这是你的自行车还是汤姆的?‖

→Mum asked whether/if it was my bike or Tom’s.妈妈问这是我的自行车还是汤姆的。

3. 祈使句的间接引语当祈使句变为间接引语时,间接祈使句的引述动词常用tell,ask,order,beg,request, order等,而把直接祈使句变成带to的不定式短语。 如:

Jack said, ―Please come to my house tomorrow, Mary. ‖ 杰克说:―玛丽,明天请到我家来。‖ →Jack asked Mary to go to his house the next day. 杰克请玛丽第二天到他家去。

―Don’t touch anything.‖ He said.―不要碰任何东西。‖他说。

→He told us not to touch anything. 他对我们说不要碰任何东西。

4. 某些代词,限定词,表示时间或地点的副词和个别动词在间接引语中的变化规则:

直接引语 间接引语

today that day

now then, at that moment

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yesterday the day before the day before yesterday two days before

tomorrow the next day / the following day the day after tomorrow two days after, / in two days next week/ month etc the next week/month etc last week/ month etc the week / month etc. before here there this that these those come go bring take

Unit 5 If you go to the party,you’ll have a great time!

1. have a great/good/nice/wonderful time =have fun = enjoy oneself 玩得高兴 3. end of year party 年终晚会 4. take … away 拿走,取走

5. all the time=always 一直,始终,总是 6. ID card 身份证

7. old people’s home 养老院 8. make money 赚钱

9. around the world = all over the world 全世界,世界各地

10. go to college 上大学 11. work hard 努力工作(学习) 12. a professional athlete 职业运动员 13. a dream job 理想的职业

14. make a living (by) doing 通过…谋生

do sth for a living 做某事谋生 play sports for a living靠体育运动为生 15. play sports 进行体育运动 = get/do exercise 16. get injured 受伤 35.花费相关短语的总结:

sb. pay some money for sth. 某人为某物花了…(钱)。(pay---paid) Sth. cost sb. some money/time. 某物花了某人…(钱/时间)。(cost---cost)

Sb. spend some time/money on sth.某人花了…(时间/金钱)在某事上。(spend-spent) Sb. spend some time/money (in) doing sth. 某人花了…(时间/金钱)做 It takes/took sb. some time to do sth. 花了某人…(时间)做某事。

17. in fact 事实上,实际上 18. mobile phone 移动电话

19. too much 太多(修饰不可数名词) too many太多(修饰可数名词复数) much too 太......(修饰形容词或副词) 20. laugh at sb 嘲笑某人 21.wear jeans 穿牛仔 22.let sb in/out 让某人进/出 23.half the class 一半的学生

24.have a difficult time with/doing sth做某事有困难 25.be famous for 因….而著名 26.be famous as 作为…而著名

27.work with 与......打交道;和......一起工作 28.bring sth to ... 把某物带来...... 29.watch a video 看录像 30.get an education 接受教育 31.The rules for... ......的规则 32.study for a test 为考试而学习

33.have a chance to do sth 有一个做......的机会 34.in class 在课堂上

本单元目标句型:

1. If you do, you’ll… 2. I’m going to … 3. You should…

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4. Don’t you want to …? 5. Don’t you think ….?

①如果李老师去参加晚会,我们将会玩得非常高兴。 If Ms Li goes to the party, we’ll have a great time. ②如果你穿牛仔裤去晚会,李老师将不会让你进入。If you wear jeans to the party, Ms Li won’t let you in.

6.For many young people, becoming a professional athlete might seem like a dream job.

7.If you become a professional athlete, you will be able to make a living doing something you love.

8.However, professional athletes can also have many problems.

9.If you are famous, people will watch you all the time and follow you everywhere. This can make life difficult.

10. If you become rich, you will have a difficult time knowing who your real friends are.

11.In fact, many famous people complain that they are not happy. 本单元语法讲解:

if 引导的条件状语从句。If是连词,所连接的句子 叫条件状语 从句,表示假设或条件,意思是 ― 如 果…的话‖,用法如下:

表示假设,表示将会发生和可能发生的事,或进行提醒警告。句子结构如下: If +句子(一般现在时),+主句(主语will/shall/may/can) +动词原形)(不能用be going to)

a. If you finish your homework , you can go out and play.

b. If I have enough money next year , I will go to travel .

注意:宾语从句中的if与条件状语从句中的区别。宾语从句中的if “是否”相当于whether,引导宾语从句,时态根据句意来确定。

I don't know if (是否)(如果) 我不知道明天是否会下雨。如果下雨,我将呆在家里在。

Review of Units 1-5

1. watch out = be careful = look out = take care 小心,当心,注意

3. would like to do sth. 想要做某事

= feel like doing sth. = want to do sth.

4. the dinning room 餐厅

5. make friends (with) (和??)交朋友

6. see sb. doing sth. 看见某人在做某事

see sb. do sth. 看见某人做了某事

7. make predictions 做预测

8. hope to do sth. 希望做某事

= wish to do sth.

9. In order to 为了

Unit 6 How long have you been collecting shells?

1. how long 多长(对for+一段时间提问)

how soon 多久(对in+一段时间提问)

for+一段时间

Since+时间点

Since+从句(从句中多用过去式) Since+ 一段时间+ago 2. a skating marathon 滑冰马拉松 3. a pair of 一双,一副,一把,一条 a pair of skates 一双溜冰鞋 a pair of jeans 一条牛仔裤

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a pair of glasses 一副眼镜

4. raise money (for charity)(为慈善机构)募捐,筹钱 5. the whole five hours=all the five hours 整整五个小时

6. three and a half years 三年半 = three years and a half

7. thanks for (doing sth) 因……而表示感谢 8. run out of 用完,用尽

9. by the way 顺便说一下,顺便问一下 10. in Russian style 以俄罗斯的风格 11. fly kites 放风筝

12. a talent show 才艺表演 13. finish doing sth. 结束做某事

14. be interested in=take an interest in 对…感兴趣 15. Chinese dynasty 中国的王朝 16. famous characters 著名人物 17. think of 考虑,想起

18. in Russian style 俄罗斯的风格

19. tell sb. about sth. 把……的情况告诉某人 20. enjoy doing sth. 喜爱做某事 21. the Olympic Games 奥运会 = the Olympics

22.far away 在远处

23.be hard to understand很难理解 24.make a list列一个清单

25.the most common/unusual hobby最普通/最不寻常的兴趣爱好

26.learn about Chinese history学习关于中国历史 27.thousands of 数千

28.be welcomed by受到…的欢迎 29.the more…the more…越…越…

30.anyone else 其它任何人(else总是后置) 31.the capital of…的首都/省会 32.be certain to do确定做某事 33.miss my family想念我的家

34.on my seventh birthday在我七岁的生日时 35.an interesting city with a colorful history 一个具有多姿多彩历史的有趣城市 36.Collectors’ club收集者俱乐部 37.old coins 古币

38.talk to /with sb 和某人交谈

39.globes with animals 带有动物的玻璃球 40.be the first one to do sth 第一个做......的人 41.tell sb about...告诉某人关于... 42.more than=over 超过;多于 43.learn a lot about 了解......很多

本单元目标句型:

1. How long have you been skating? 你滑冰有多长时间了? 2. I’ve been skating since nine o’clock./since I was four years old. 我从九点一直滑到现在/我从四岁一直滑到现在。 3. I’ve been skating for five hours. 我一直滑了五小时 。

4. Alison was the first one to start and has been skating for the whole five hours. Alison是第一个开始并且已经滑了整整5个小时。

5. For every hour they skate, each student raises ten yuan for charity. 每滑一个小时,每位学生可为慈善事业筹集10元钱。

6. My mom says I have to stop, because we’ve run out of room to store them. 妈妈说我必须停止了,因为我们已经没有地方来存放他们了。

7. I particularly love globes with animals. If you know anyone else who collects them, please tell me. 我特别喜欢动物雪球仪。如果你知道其他人收集他们的话,请告诉我们。 8. By the way, what’s your hobby? 顺便问一下,你的业余爱好是什么? 9. I’m interested in the job as a writer.我对这份当作者的工作很感兴趣。 10. How many Chinese dynasties can you think of? 你能想起多少中国朝代?

11. There is some European influence in the city, and some of the old buildings in Harbin are in Russian style.这个城市有欧洲文化的影响,而且哈尔滨的一些老建筑还是俄罗斯风格的。新 课 标第 一网 12. For a foreigner like me, the more I learn about Chinese culture, the more I enjoy living in China. 对于一个像我一样的外国人来说,我对中国文化了解越多,我就越喜欢住在中国。

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13. And although I live quite far from Beijing, I’m certain I will be here for the Olympic Games in 2008. 尽管我住得离北京很远,但我相信2008年奥运会我一定在这儿。

本单元语法讲解:

现在完成进行时:表示从过去某时开始一直持续到现在,有可能一直延续下去的动作。常与for, since,how

long,these days等表示一段时间的状语连用。 现在完成进行式结构:

肯定句:主语+have / has +been+ doing/ 否定句:主语+have / has +not+been+ doing 一般疑问句:Have / Has +主语+been+ doing/

1.I have been writing the letter since then.从那时起我一直在写这封信。(动作从过去一直持续到现在还在继续)

2.I have been collecting stamps for ten years.自从10年前我就收集邮票了(动作从过去一直现在还在收集)。 3. How long have you been living here?你在这儿已经住了多长时间了。(―居住‖动作从过去一直现在还在继续)

现在完成进行时和现在完成时的区别:

1现在完成进行时比现在完成时更强调动作的延续性:

2如果没有时间强调,现在完成进行时表示动作仍在进行,现在完成时则表示动作已经结束, 3现在完成进行时一般不适用于表状态的动词,而现在完成时则可

Unit 7 Would you mind turning down the music?

1. turn down (音量)放小,(光线)调暗

turn up (音量)放大,(光线)调亮 turn on 打开(开关、按钮) turn off 关(开关、按钮) 2. not at all 一点也不

3. right away = in a minute=at once 立刻,马上 4. do/wash the dishes 洗碗 5. put on 穿上(动作) wear 穿着(状态) dress sb. 给某人穿衣

6. help sb. with sth.=help sb (to) do sth 帮助某人做 某事

7. make posters 制作海报

8. have a long telephone conversation煲电话粥 9. wait in line 排队 10. cut in line 插队

11. follow sb. around 跟某人周围

12. get mad at/with sb= get annoyed with sb= get angry with sb 生气,感到恼火

13. try (not) to do sth. 尽力(不去)做某事 14. seem like 看上去像……

15. even if/though 尽管、即使 16. take care = be careful 小心 17. in public places 在公众场合 18. in public 公开地,当众地 19. break the rule 不遵守规则 follow the rules 遵守规则 20. put out 熄灭 21. pick up 捡起、拾起 22. feed the dog 喂狗

keep the dog 养狗

23. return sb sth=return sth to sb 把…还给… =give back sth to sb

是代词时放在中间) 24 a terrible haircut 一个糟糕的发型 25. all the time 一直

26. it’s better to do最好做某事=had better do 27. be polite/impolite 有礼貌/不礼貌 28. must be 一定是 29. keep down 抑制,放低

30. be allowed to do sth 被允许做......

allow sb to do sth 允许某人做某事

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31. take care (not)to do= be careful 小心(不)做

某事

32. drop litter 乱丢垃圾

33. clothing store 服装店

34. No problem=that's no problem 没问题

35. order food 点食物

36.another pair 另一双;另一条

37.be at a meeting=have a meeting 在开会

38.in every culture 在每一种文化领域

39.can't stand doing sth 不能忍受做某事 40.go back to 回到...... 41.be polite to sb 对......有礼貌 42.be with sb. 和......在一起 43.talk loudly 大声讲话 44.at first 起初 45.in all situations 在各种情况下 46.The pen doesn't work.这支钢笔坏了。 =The pen is broken. =There is something wrong with the pen. 本单元目标句型:

1. Would you mind cleaning the yard? 你介意打扫院子吗?

2. Not at all. I’ll do it right away. 一点也不. 我马上就扫.

3. Would you mind not playing baseball here. 你介意不要在这打棒球吗?

4. Would you mind giving me a smaller one?

5. Sorry, we’ll go and play in the park.对不起,我们到公园去打.

6. Could you (please) make dinner? 请做晚饭好吗?

7. That’s no problem . 没问题.

8. Could you (please) not smoke here?

=Would you mind not smoking here?

= Would you (please) not smoke here?

=Please don’t smoke here, will you?请不要在这里吸烟,好吗?

9. If you finish these tasks, we can go to a movie tonight.

10. Your barber gave you a terrible haircut.

11. You ordered a hamburger with French fries but only got a hamburger.

12. I don’t like waiting in line when a shop assistant has a long telephone conversation.

13. This happens to me all the time in the school library.

14. Perhaps in the future I should try not to be so polite.

15. The way people behave is different in different cultures and situations.

16. We might want to ask someone to behave more politely if we see them breaking a rule of etiquette.

17. This may seem like a difficult word at first, but it can be very useful to understand.

18. In fact, we should also take care not to cough or sneeze loudly in public if possible. 本单元语法讲解:

表示委婉、客气的请求的句子: 你(不)介意......吗?

表示不介意的回答: Certainly not. /Of course not. /No, please do.

表示不同意或不赞成某人做某事,不能直接回答 Yes , I mind. 应说Sorry ./ I'm sorry

Yes, you'd better not. 然后再陈述拒绝或反对的理由。 你介意某人做某事吗?

例:would you mind my/me closing the window?=Would you mind if I close the window? 你介意我把窗户关上吗? 请你(不)做某事可以吗?

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回答时要用can而不能用could.(Yes , I can./ Sorry, I can't.) 你愿意......吗?

请(不)做......好吗? 请(不)做某事。

Unit 8 Why don’t you get her a scarf?

1. photo album 相册 2. leave school 毕业离校

3. take care of = look after=care for 照顾,照看 4. too … to … 太……而不能…… 5. these days 目前,现在 6. a pot-bellied pig 大肚猪 7. not … at all 根本不,一点也不 8. fall asleep 入睡 9. give away 分发,赠送 10. pay for 付……的款 11. rather than 而不是

instead of (doing sth)代替,而不是 12. in different ways 以不同的方式 13. as … as 与……一样…… not as/so…as… 与…比不如其… 14. native speakers 说本族语的人

15. encourage sb. to do sth. 鼓励某人做某事 16. make progress in... 在某方面取得进步 17.give money to charity 把钱捐给慈善事业 18. have fun with sth. 做某事有乐趣 = have fun doing sth. 19. hear of 听说

38.感叹句的构成:

What+a/an+adj.+ 可数名词单数(+主语+谓语)! = how +adj. +a/an +可数名词单数(+主语+谓语)! What +adj.+可数名词复数/不可数名词(+主语+谓语)! How +adj/adv.(+主语+谓语)!

20. take an interest in = be interested in (doing)sth 对……感兴趣

21. make friends with 和……交朋友 22. get her a scarf 给她买一条围巾 23. compare with sth. …与…相比 24. not creative enough 不够有创意

25. easy/difficult to take care of 容易/难养活 26. half way 半道、中途 27. different kinds of 不同种类

28. make progress by doing 通过…取得进步 29. be able to 能够(可用于各种时态)

Can 能(只有一般现在时和一般过去时could) 30.a six-year-old child 一个6岁的孩子 31.on stage 在舞台上 32.all age groups 各个年龄段

33.sleep all day=sleep the whole day 整天睡觉 34.win the prize 获奖

35.make a special meal 做特别的一餐 36.enough to do sth 足以能做 形容词/副词+enough enough+名词

37.from across China

= from all over China来自全中国

本单元目标句型:

1. What should I get my mom for her birthday? 我应该为我的妈妈买什么?

2. Why don’t you/Why not buy /What about buying/How about buying a scarf? 为什么不买条围巾呢? 3. What’s the best gift you have ever received? 你曾收到的最好礼物是什么? 4. What a lucky guy! 多幸运的家伙! 5. I think a dog is a good pet for a 6-year-old child.

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6. Really? I don’t agree. Dogs are too difficult to take care of. 7. Pot-bellied pigs make the best pets.

8. Now she is too big to sleep in the house, so I made her a special pig house. 9. The movie was boring. I fell asleep half way through it. 10. Gift giving is different in different countries.

11. In the USA, some people ask their families and friends to give money to charity rather than buy them gifts.

12. In Sweden, doing something for someone is the best gift. People don’t need to spend too much money. Instead, making a meal is enough.

13. Some of these singers were able to sing English songs just as well as native speakers. 14. She said that singing English songs made her more interested in learning English. 15. It suggests ways for Beijingers to take an interest in learning English.

本单元语法讲解:

表示提建议的句型:

1. Why not/why don't you/we 为什么不……? 2. ......怎么样? 3. 你最好(不要)做某事。 4. 我(们)做……好吗?‖ 5. Let’s 咱们做……吧,好吗?

6. Would/will/can /could you please do sth? 请做......好吗?

Unit 10 Have you ever been to an amusement park?

1. have been to 到过某处(现在已回来) have gone to 到某处去了(现在还没有回来)

have been in/at 在某处呆了多久 副词前不用to) 2. an amusement park 游乐园 3. a water park 水上公园 4. a roller coaster 过山车

5. see sb. doing sth. 看见某人正在做某事 see sb. do sth. 看见某人做了某事 6. walk around 四处走动 7. take a ride 兜风 8. on board 在船上

9. take different routes 走不同的路线 10. end up with sth 以…结束 end up doing sth 以做某事结束 11. argue with sb. 与某人争吵

12. an English-speaking country 说英语的国家 13. an exchange student 交换生 14. a flight attendant 一名机组乘务员

15. a tour guide 导游 16. such as 例如

for example例如(后用逗号隔开) 17. listening skills 听力技能 18. in Southeast Asia 在东南亚 19. take a holiday 度假 20. three quarters 四分之三

21. have problems (in) doing sth. /with sth 做某事很困难

22. during the daytime 在白天期间 in the daytime 在白天 23. all year round 全年,一年到头 24. wake up 醒来,唤醒,叫醒 Wake sb. up 叫醒某人

25.think about doing sth 思考做某事 26.so much fun如此多的乐趣 27.welcome to 欢迎来到 28.be welcomed by受到…欢迎 29. think about 考虑 30.think of 想起;认为

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31. rather than 宁可;而不是

32. neither…nor… 既不…也不…(谓语动词使用就近原

则)

33. on the one hand,… on the other hand,…. 一方

面…,另一方面…

34.the best time to do sth 做某事的最佳时间

35.the reason for … 的理由

36.a zoo called/named...一个叫做……的动物园

37.travel to... 到……去旅行

38.it's fun to do sth 做……有趣 39.outside of China 在中国以外,在国外 40.the way to do sth 做……的方法 41.a good place to... 一个……的好地方 42.take lessons 上课 43.it's because…that... 正是因为……才…… 44.close to... 离……近 45.far (away) from... 离……远 46.try new food 尝试新食物 47.be asleep 睡着的 48.be awake 醒着的 本单元目标句型:

1. Me neither.

2. It’s fun to learn another language.

3. Three quarters of the population are Chinese. 四分之三的人口是中国人(谓语动词用复数形式)

4. What’s the population of China? 中国的人口是多少?(不用how much提问)

5. the population of China is 1.3 billion中国的人口是13亿。(谓动词用单形式)

6. You can see Disney characters walking around Disneyland all the time.

7. These are huge boats that also have the Disney theme. You can take a ride on the boat for several days, and you sleep and eat on board.

8. The boat rides all take different routes, but they all end up in the same place.

9. It is just so much fun in Disneyland.

10. When I was a young girl, all I ever wanted to do was traveling, and I decided that the best way to do this was to become a flight attendant .

11. It was because I could speak English that I got the job.

12. It’s all I have ever wanted to be.

13. Maybe when I leave school I’ll think about becoming an English teacher rather than a tour guide.

14. What other job is he thinking of doing?

15. For many Chinese tourists, this small island in Southeast Asia is a wonderful place to take a holiday.

现在完成时句型举例:

1. Have you ever been to an amusement park? 你曾经去过游乐园吗?Yes, I have./ No, I haven’t.

2. I have never been there. Me neither=Neither have I.=I haven't,either. 我也没有.

3. Where is he? He has gone to the Beijing. (不能用come/arrive)

5. I’ve never been to an aquarium. 我从没去过水族馆. 我成为这的学生有一年了. (不能用become)

=I became a student here a year ago. (不能用become)

8. I have just/ever/already/never seen the movie. Have you ever heard of the man before? 本单元语法讲解:

现在完成时

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构成:主语+have/has+动词过去分词

否定句:主语+have/has+not+动词过去分词

一般疑问句:Have/Has+主语+动词过去分词

1).现在完成时态表示过去发生的动作对现在造成的影响或结果。本时态标志词:

already (―已经‖,用于肯定句中,放在have /has之后或句尾);

yet (―仍然‖―还‖,用于疑问句或否定句的句尾)

just(―刚刚‖,放在have /has之后);

before(―以前‖,放在句尾);

ever(―曾经‖,放在have /has之后)

never (―从没有‖,在have /has之后)

since+点时刻或从句; for+段时间; how long(疑问句中用来提问since/for短语的)

so far;till now;by now(到目前为止;迄今)

recently近来in the past/last+段时间 在过去的几年中

once(一次),twice, three(four…) times

It is the+最高级+n.+ (that) sb.have ever done

例:1.What’s the best gift you have ever received? 你曾收到的最好礼物是什么?

2. It's the best film I have ever seen.

= I haven't seen such a good film before .这是我看过的最好看的电影

例句:1.Our teacher has just left.

2).某个动作从过去已经开始,一直持续到现在,还有可能持续到将来.动作的持续性要通过一段时间来表示一 段时间的表达方法有两种:

for: +一段时间 for a year for two weeks for three years

Since +过去的某一时刻, since nine since last week

Since + since you came ; since you got home.

注意:结束性动词不能和表示一段时间的时间状语连用,但是它们可以转换成相应的延续性动词.

1.直接用延续性动词

buy– have;catch(get) a cold –have a cold;borrow—keep;become—be;put on-- wear

2.转换成be+名词

join the army – be a soldier;join the Party –be a Party member;

go to school– be a student

3转换成be+形容词或副词

die—be dead;finish – be over;begin—be on;leave—be away ; fall sleep – be asleep; close – be closed come to/ go to/arrive at(in)+某地—be in(at) +某地

4.转换成 be+介词短语go to school– be in school ; get up_ be up;

例: I bought the pen three days ago.

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3)现在完成时与一 般过去时的区别:

现在完成时和一般过去时的动作都发生在过去。现在完成时强调过去发生的动作对现在造成的影响和结果,不能和表示过去的时间状语连用。一般过去时只表示过去的动作和状态,与现在没有关系。有具体的过去时间状语要用一般过去时。

He lived in Chongqing in 2008. 他2008年住在重庆。(他目前住在哪里并不清楚) He has lived in Chongqing since 2008. 他自从2008年就住 在重庆。(他目前还住在重庆) Tom has bought a blue car. 汤姆已经买了一辆蓝色小车。(表明汤姆现在仍在使用) Tom bought a blue car. 汤姆买了一辆蓝色小车。(不涉及汤姆现在是否在使用)

另外,since主句要用现在完成时,从句用一般过去时。 主句-现在完成时 从句-一般过去时

Unit 10 It’s a nice day, isn’t it?

1. small talk 闲聊

2. look through 浏览,快速查看 3. a thank-you note for一封...感谢信 4. be friendly to sb. 对某人友好 5. feel like (doing) sth. 想要(做)……

6.have a hard/difficult time doing sth. /with sth =have problem doing sth/with sth做某事有困难 7. come along 到达,出现,跟着来,赶快 8. have a good day 好好玩一天 9. at least 至少

10. forget to do sth. 忘记去做某事

forget doing sth. 忘记做过某事

11. cross a busy street = go/walk across a busy

street 穿过一条繁忙的街道 12. get along/on … with sb. 与某人相处的… 13. on Saturday night 在周六的晚上

at night 在晚上

14. at the school dining room 在学校的餐厅里 15. it’s +adj+for sb +to do sth

16. one of +the +最高级+名词复数 最 …之一

17. practice doing sth 练习做某事 18.a ball game fan 一位球迷

19.the price is high/low 价格高、低 20.wait for 等候

21.by noon 到中午时 22.at noon 在中午

23.get along in a new place 适应新环境 24.watch sb do sth 观看某人做某事

watch sb doing sth 观看某人正在做某事

本单元目标句型:

反意疑问句句型如下:

注意:以下本单元语法反意疑问句容易考到的几个句型:

1. It looks like rain, doesn’t it? Yes, it does./No, it doesn’t看起来要下雨了,是吗? 2. He’s really good, isn’t he? 他确实好,是吗? 3. You are new here, aren’t you? 你是新来的, 是吗?

4. You have never been to Beijing, have you? ( never表达否定含义,后面用肯定) 5. She has few friends, does she? (few表达否定含义,后面用肯定) 6. Tom had little work to do, did he? (little表达否定含义,后面用肯定)

7. You can hardly do the work, can you? (hardly表达否定含义,后面用肯定) 8. Let’s go home, shall we?

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9. Don’t be late again/Let us go home, will you?(祈使句用will you;但Let’s开头的用shall we)

10. Thank you so much for asking/inviting /having me!非常感谢你邀请我

11. How much does that shirt cost=How much is the shirt?那件衬衣值多少钱?

12. He sure is. 他确实是。

13. I was having a hard time finding it until you came along.

14. Friends like you make it a lot easier to get along in a new place.有像你们一样的朋友,使我在新的地方很快就适应了。

15. I’ll think of you as we watch the Black Socks win the game.

16. I’m going to look through the newspaper for a holiday job.

17. Be careful to look both ways before you cross the street. 本单元语法讲解:

反意疑问句的意义及其构成 ??

??反意疑问句又叫附加疑问句,是指当提问的人对前面所叙述的事实不敢肯定,而需要向对方加以证实时所提出的问句。其结构为:前一部分是一个陈述句,后一部分是一个简单的问句。完成后一部分简单问句时,要根据前面陈述句的动词时态和人称来选择适当的助动词进行提问,前后两部分的人称和动词时态要保持一致。如果前一部分用肯定式,后一部分一般用否定式;反之,前一部分为否定式,后一部分要用肯定式,即―前肯定后否定,前否定后肯定‖。 ????

例 You have been to Beijing, haven’t you? 你去过北京,是吗?

1、当陈述句部分的主语是名词时,反意疑问句的主语必须用人称代词来代替。

?? ??例 Your brother has gone to the library, hasn’t he? 你弟弟去图书馆了,是吗?

??2、当陈述句的主语是指示代词this, that时,反意疑问句的主语用it代替;指示代词是these, those时,反 意疑问句的主语用they代替。 ??

?? 例 That isn’t a useful book, is it? 那不是一本有用的书,是吗? ??

?? These are important reading materials, aren’t they? 这些都是重要的阅读材料,是吗? ????

3、当陈述句部分是I am…时,反意疑问句部分通常要用aren’t I;如陈述句部分的主语是I am not时, 反意疑问句部分通常要用am I。 ??

???? I’m late for the meeting, aren’t I? 我开会迟到了,是吗? ??

4、当陈述部分是everyone / everybody, someone / somebody, no one / nobody, none等表示人的不定代词时,

反意疑问句部分的主语多用they,但也可用he;当陈述部分的主语是everything, anything, something, nothing等表示物的不定代词时,反意疑问句部分的主语用it。 ??

?? 例 我在外时,没人来过,是吗?

has gone wrong today, hasn’t 今天什么都出问题了,是不是? ????

5、当陈述部分是―there be + 主语 + 其它‖结构时,反意疑问部分要用―be (not) + there‖结构。

???? 例 some bananas in the basket, aren’t 篮子里有些香蕉,是吗???

6.当陈述部分有hardly, seldom, few, little, no, never, nothing, nobody, nowhere等否定

词或半否定词时,反意疑问句部分要用肯定形式。 注 如果陈述句部分是带有否定前缀或后缀时,反意疑问句部分仍用否定结构。 ??

??例 It’s it? 他不可能犯这样的错误,是吗? ??

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7.感叹句的反意疑问句一律使用否定式,并用be的一般现在时形式。 ??

??例 What a foolish child (he is), isn’t he? 多傻的孩子啊,不是吗?

8.??在宾语从句中,如果陈述句部分是―I /we think (believe, suppose, imagine, expect等) + 宾语从句‖, 反意疑问句部分应与宾语从句的主谓保持一致,并要注意否定转移。 ??

?? 例 I 我认为你以前没有听说过他,是吗? ????

注 :当think等这些动词的主语不是第一人称,或主语是第一人称,而动词时态不是一般现在时或一般 过去时,这时,反意疑问句的助动词和人称代词要与主句保持一致。

HongKong is a good place to take a holiday, doesn't he ?

????9.祈使句构成反意疑问句时,除Let’s用shall we构成反意疑问句外,其它均用will you。

????10.反意疑问句的回答 ??

??对反意疑问句的回答,无论问题的提法如何,如果事实是肯定的,就用yes,事实是否定的,就要用no。反意疑问句部分用肯定式提问时,回答yes或no与汉语正好相反。这种省略回答的yes要译成―不‖,no要译成―是‖。 ????

例 ---He likes playing football, doesn’t he? 他喜欢踢足球,是吗? ????

---Yes, he does. / No, he doesn’t. 是的。/ 不是。 ????

---His sister didn’t attend the meeting, did she? 他妹妹没有参加会议,是吗? ??

?? ---Yes, she did. / No, she didn’t. 不,她参加了。/ 是的,她没参加。 ??

??

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