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阅读必备初中英语句子结构

发布时间:2014-01-17 17:08:17  

Grammar
sentences

句子成份
★ 句子一般由两个部分组成:
主语部分( subject group) 谓语部分( predicate group)

★ 句子成份: 主· 谓· 宾· 表 定· 状· 补

Members of sentence:

S --- subject 主·
P --- predicative 表 O --- object
宾·

Attri.---attribute 定·
Adv.--- adverb
状·

Oc --- object complement 补

1) 主语(subject) 句子的主体,全句述说的对象。一般由 名词,主格代词 担任,常置于句首。 ,动词不定式,动名词 或从句 I like football.

The boy needs a pen.
2) 谓语(predicate) 说明主语的动作或状态。由 动词 担任。常置于主语后。 The train leaves at 6 o’clock. I want a ticket.

3) 宾语(object) 表示vt.的动作对象或prep.所联系的对象。 由n.或相当于n.的词担任。置于vt.或prep.后。 He won the game. On the desk Tome lost his life in the big fire. 4) 表语(predicative) 用以表述主语的特征、状态、身份等。 由n.或adj.担任。置于系动词之后。 He is a student.

除了be 系动词外,还有一些动词也可以用作系动词, 1)表感官的动词: feel, smell, taste, sound, look, appear, seem 等。 2) 表转变变化的动词: become, get, grow, turn, go,等 3)表延续的动词 remain, keep, hold, stay, rest等。

5) 宾补(objective complement) 补充说明宾语的情况 。 由n. /adj. /介宾 /分词 /不定式等担任。 They made him? king. ? I consider the book ? too expensive. ? 6) 定语(attributive) 对名词或代词起修饰、限定作用的词、短语或句子, 汉语中常用‘……的’表示,通常位于被修饰的成分前。

The(black) bike is mine.

说明1:当定语修饰不定代词如:nothing , anything , everything , something 等时,定语要放在其后作后置定语 我告诉他一些有趣的事情。 I tell him something interesting . 说明2:不定式、短语或从句作定语时,也放在被修饰的名词之后。 这间屋子里的男孩子们是10班的。 The boys in the room are in Class Ten.

7) 状语(adverbial)
用以修饰adj. /v. /adv.及全句,位置灵活。通常在句子基本结构 之后,强调时放在句首; 修饰形容词或副词时,通常位于被修饰的词之前; 表示时间、地点、目的的状语一般位于句子两头,强调时放在句 首, 一些表示不确定时间(如:often)或程度(如:almost)的副 词状语通常位于be动词、助动词、情态动词之后,动词之前。

I am very sorry. We often help him. When I grow up , I am going to be a teacher .
(从句作时间状语)

句子类型

简单句 并列句 复合句

Ⅰ.简单句
1. Things changed. 2. Trees are green. 3. We don’t beat children. 4. He gave his sister the piano.
主 + 谓 + 宾 主 + 谓 + 表 主 + 谓

5. I found the book?easy. ?
主 + 谓 + 宾 + 宾补

主 + 谓 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语

Practice
Nobody went. She became a doc

tor. The car caught fire. I will write you a long letter. I will let him? go. ?
主 + 谓 + 宾 主 + 谓 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语 + 宾补 主 + 谓 + 宾 主 + 谓 + 表 主 + 谓

Ⅱ.并列句
This is me and these are my friends.
They must stay in water, or they will die. It’s not cheap, but it is very good. It was late, so I went to bed.

He knocked at the door; there was no answer.
You’re alive! And she’s dead.

Ⅲ.复合句
主语从句 表语从句 宾语从句 同位语从句

名词性从句

状语从句 定语从句
He said that he didn’t like her. A plane is a machine that can fly.

状语从句
分为九类:时间、地点、原因、结果、 目的、条件、让步、方式、程度 1) 时间状语从句 Wait until you are called. When spring came, leaves turn green.
常用的关联词有:as, after, before, since, till/ until, when, while, as soon as, whenever等

2) 地点状语从句 Put it where you found it. Sit down wherever you like.
常用的关联词有:where, wherever, anywhere

3) 原因状语从句 As I didn’t know the way, I asked a policeman
常用的关联词有:because, as, since

4) 结果状语从句
I was in the bath so that I didn’t hear the telephone.
常用的关联词有:so, so that, such that, that

5) 目的状语从句 I’ll show you so you will see how it’s done.
常用的关联词有:so, so that, in order that

6) 条件状语从句
If it snows tomorrow, we will build a snowman.
常用的关联词有:if, unless, in case that, on condition that…

7) 让步状语从句 Though I’m fond of music,I can’t play any instrument.
常用的关联词有:though, although, if even if, even though,

8) 方式状语从句
He did just as you told him.
常用的关联词有:as, as if, as though, how

9) 程度状语从句 So long as you need me, I’ll stay.
常用的关联词有:so, so that, as far as, so long as

Homework
1.复习今天所学的句子结构 2.自行复习名词性从句的内容(必修三) 3.看试卷,做相应知识点.

名词性从句

1) 主语从句
* What he said is not known. * That we shall be late is certain. * It is certain that we shall be late. * How strange it is that the children are

so quiet!

2)表语从句

* That is what he wants to buy.

* The problem is that who we can
get to replace her?

* The reason is that he has lied to
me several times.

3) 宾语从句 * I understand that he is well qualified.

* He said that he didn’t like her.
* I don’t know if you can help me.

4) 同位语从句

* Where did you get the idea
that I couldn’t come?

* The question who should do the work
requires consideration. * Mother made a promise that she would buy me a new coat.

注意!
* * * *

that与what都可以引导名词性从句。 what在从句中充当句子成份(主,宾,表)。 That在句中只起连接作用,不充当成份。 that在引导名词性从句时不可省略(宾语从句除外).

引导词that

& what

That is what he wants to buy. That we shall be late is certain. He said (that) he didn’t like her.

状语从句
分为九类:时间、地点、原因、结果、 目的、条件、让步、方式、程度 1) 时间状语从句 Wait until you are called. When spring came, leaves turn green.
常用的关联词有:as, after, before, since, till/ until, when, while, as soon as, whenever等

2) 地点状语从句 Put it where you found it. Sit down wherever you like.
常用的关联词有:where, wherever, anywhere

3) 原因状语从句 As I didn’t know the way, I asked a policeman
常用的关联词有:because, as, since

4) 结果状语从句
I was in the bath so that I didn’t hear the telephone.
常用的关联词有:so, so that, such that, that

5) 目的状语从句 I’ll show you so you will see how it’s done.
常用的关联词有:so, so that, in order that

6) 条件状语从句
If it snows tomorrow, we will build a snowman.
常用的关联词有:if, unless, in case that, on condition that…

7) 让步状语从句 Though I’m fond of music,I can’t play any instrument.
常用的关联词有:though, although, if even if, even though,

8) 方式状语从句
He did just as you told him.
常用的关联词有:as, as if, as though, how

9) 程度状语从句 So long as you need me, I’ll stay.
常用的关联词有:so, so that, as far as, so long as

Grammar
sentences


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