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Chapter II-Lecture 2(The Paragraph--Building a paragraph)1.3

发布时间:2014-01-18 10:52:22  

Learn to Write
Chapter II: The Paragraph
Lecture Two: Building a paragraph

The Paragraph--2


1. Narration

1. Narration

Ways to build a paragraph

2. Description 3. Argument 4. Exemplification

2. Description
3. Argumentation 4. Exposition

5. Listing
6. Process

Forms of composition

7. Classification
8. Cause & effect

9. Comparison & contrast
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Lecture Two: Building a Paragraph
1. Exemplification 2. Listing 6. Description 7. Argument

3. Process
4. Classification 5. Narration
The Paragraph--2

8. Cause & effect
9. Comparison & contrast


1. Exemplification

Different people have different ideal careers. For example, some people wish to…, while others may hope that …

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Class work—— exemplification Some rules and regulations are unfair. For example, mobile phone companies change items of service without informing their customers.

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2. Listing

The ATM has many disadvantages. First, …. Second, …. Third, …. Last, ….

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Class work

—— listing

I take this course for two reasons. First of all, I’m interested in the course. Second, ….

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3. Process

To make coffee, follow these steps. First, …. And then …., Next ….,

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Class work

—— process

Recycling is easy if you follow these steps. First, you need to know what can be recycled and what cannot. Second, put recyclable things in different containers.

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4. Classification A drink may be classified according to whether or not it contains alcohol. Therefore, basically, there are two types of drinks: alcoholic and non-alcoholic. Alcoholic drinks are spirits, wine, beer. Non-alcoholic drinks may be sub-divided into hot drinks and cold drinks. Hot drinks are drinks like tea and ….
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Class work

—— classification

All my friends can be classified into two kinds. With some of them I can talk about anything, but with some I can only talk about my study.

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5. Narration
Being born on the exact day as my country I thought I was really great. Every Fourth of July, I had a birthday party and all my friends would come over with birthday presents and we’d put on silly hats and blow the horns my dad brought home from A & P. We’d eat lots of ice cream and watermelon and I’ld open up all the presents and blow out the candles on the big red, white, and blue birthday cake and then we’d all sing “Happy Birthday” and ….
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Class work

—— narration

One event made me realize that I was no longer as young as I thought. The other day, I helped a little girl. She said to me: “Thank you, uncle.”

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6. Description
The subway is an assault on your senses. You walk down the steep, smelly staircase onto the subway platform. On the far right wall, a broken clock shows that the time is four-thirty. You wonder how long it h

as been broken. A mother and her crying child are standing to your left. She is trying to clean dried chocolate syrup off the child’s face. Farther to the left, two old men are arguing about the recent tax increase. You can see paper trash roll by like a soccer ball….
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Class work

—— description

After the rainstorm, everything in the city seemed clean and new. The leaves and lawn looked fresh and greener. The mountain range became visible from the distance.

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7. Argument
…. Why should we stop smoking?
There are many reasons for this, but the most important one is that it is harmful. First, it is harmful to the smokers themselves. Medical records indicate strong correlation between smoking and many diseases. Second, it is harmful to people around smokers. The latter are called “second-hand smokers”, who are also victims of smoking. Finally, smoking harms the environment by polluting the air indoor and outdoor with a bad smell hanging around.
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Class work

—— argument

Sitting up late for study may cause many problems. Next morning, you might be late for class. And in class, you might drop off and thus be blamed by the teacher. What’s more, you might feel drowsy and listless all the day. In a word, sitting up late screws up your biological rhythm of the day.
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8. Cause and effect
Good health is affected by a balanced diet. For instance, if our diet lacks Vitamin A, blindness may result. Many problems affecting the skin and the teeth are due to a lack of Vitamin C. When our diet contains recommended amounts of Vitamin A and C, however, our ability to fight diseases like cancer is greatly affected. So it makes sense to go on a balanced diet because this results in a longer and healthier life.
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Class work

—— cause & effect

To be suitably dressed can affect the result of an interview. If the interviewee is dressed formally, it will impress the interviewer that the former is serious about it. For any applicant, floppy and baggy apparels may make the interviewer regard him as an irresponsible and radical person.
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9. Comparison and contrast

point-by-point comparison —— A1-B1, A2-B2, A3-B3

My hometown and my college town have several things in common. First, both are small rural communities. My hometown has a population of only about 10,000 people. Similarly, my college town consists of about 11,000 people. A second way in which these two towns are similar is that they are both located in rural areas. My hometown is surrounded by many acres of farmland. In the same way, my college town lies in the center of farmland. Thirdly, ….
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9. Comparison and contrast

subj.-by-subj. comparison —— A1,2,3; B1,2,3

My hometown and my college town have several things in common. My hometown is a small rural community with a population of only about 10,000 people, and it is surrounded by man

y acres of farmland. Similarly, my college town consists of about 11,000 people, and it lies in the center of farmland.
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9. Comparison and contrast

point-by-point contrast —— A1-B1, A2-B2, A3-B3

Two of my college instructors have very different teaching styles. Professor Zhang is humorous while Professor Smith is serious. Professor Zhang often asks us to have discussions and Professor Smith likes to ask us to give oral presentations. Professor Zhang likes to make full use of multimedia teaching aids but Professor Smith prefers to use chalk and blackboard.
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9. Comparison and contrast

subj.-by-subj. contrast —— A1,2,3; B1,2,3

Two of my college instructors have very different teaching styles. Professor Zhang is humorous. He often asks us to have discussions and likes to make full use of multimedia teaching aids. Professor Smith, however, is serious. He likes to ask us to give oral presentations and prefers to use chalk and blackboard.
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Class work

—— comparison & contrast

My mother and I are very much alike. First, both of us like shopping. We go shopping almost every weekend. Second, we all like making little cute things with pearls and jewels, some of which we often send to our friends as presents. ….

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Homework assignment
1. Readings: pp. 29-35
2. Work in the text book: pp. 112-119

Ex. 2-2 & 3
Ex. 10-3 Ex. 1-1

Ex. 4-2 & 3
Ex. 13-2 & 3

Ex. 8-3

3. For consideration: pp. 112-119 Ex. 3-1 Ex. 7-2 Ex. 9-1 Ex. 14-1 4. For submission: p. 119 Ex.18- 2
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About the last homework
I. Underline the topic sentences ? Not all paragraphs have topic sentences, esp. the first and the last one. ? The first paragraph usually has a thesis statement. ? The last paragraph usually is a conclusion, which may repeat the thesis statement or the title.
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About the last homework
II. About the outline for “Stop Smoking”

Thought about too much for a CET-4 essay Deviation: Remember the title?
? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Why people smoke The current situation of smoking The methods to stop smoking My opinion about smoking What can I do Popularity of smoking The large population of smokers
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About the last homework

Poor vocabulary

bad, badness, harmful, disadvantages, the body or health? People die of smoking? Or: die of smoking-related diseases? Bedness?

Sample for reference
Stop Smoking 1. Harmful to the smokers 2. Harmful to people around smokers 3. Harmful to the environment
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