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新版八年级英语上册知识点Unit 6

发布时间:2014-01-19 11:54:12  

Unit 6 How long have you been collecting shells?

一.【单元目标】

Ⅱ.目标句型:

1. How long have you been doing…? 2. I’ve been doing…since…

3. How long did sb. do…? 4. He / She did sth. for…

5. What do you collect? 6. When did you start?

7. How many do you have? 8. What do you like to collect in the future?

9. What is the most common/unusual/interesting hobby?

Ⅲ.语法

现在完成进行时

二.【重难点分析】

1. 现在完成进行时

构成:

肯定句:主语 + have / has been + doing

否定句:主语+have/has+not+been+doing

一般疑问句:Have/Has+主语+been+doing?

现在完成进行时表达“某一动作从过去开始一直持续到现在,有可能还要持续下去”,现在完成进行时的句子中多用延续性动词,如:live,learn,study,work等。

(1)I have been learning English for ten years. 我学英语已经十年了。

(2)She has been skating for four hours. 到现在为止她滑冰已经有四个小时了。

(3)I have been collecting stamps since I was ten years old. 我从十岁起就一直在集邮。 在这几个句子中,have和has是助动词,疑问形式需把助动词提前,否定形式在have或has后面加not,have not和has not可以分别缩写成haven’t和hasn’t,如:

(1)Have you been doing your homework since this morning? 从今天早晨起你就一直在写作业吧?

(2)Has he been writing the letters to his friend? 他是一直在给他的朋友写信吗?

(3)I haven’t been seeing films for a long time. 我有很长时间没有看电影了。 (表明没有看电影这个动作从过去一直持续到现在,还要继续持续下去。)

2.现在完成进行时与现在完成时的区别:

(1)现在完成时强调动作的完成,而现在完成进行时侧重的是动作的持续进行。 如:

I have read a book about birds. (已经读完)

I have been reading a book about birds.(一直都在读,现在还在读,有可能会继续读下去)

(2)两种时态都有延续性, 但现在完成时往往只说明一个事实,一种影响或结果,无感情色彩;现在完成进行时表示一个动作的延续、重复,有时有一定的感情色彩。 如:

She has been singing all the day. 她都唱了一整天了。(抱怨、厌烦)

三.【重点词汇】

1. since的用法:

(1)conj.

①(引导时间状语从句,从句中常用过去时,主句用一般时态或完成时)自从……以来;……以后

eg.

It was years since l had seen her.自从我见到她(到那时)又过去好几年了。

his just a week since we arrived here.我们到这儿刚好有一周了。

②(引起原因状语从句,通常置于句首)既然;因为

eg.

Since he says so,it must be true. 既然他这么说,那一定是真的。

(2)prep. 自……以来

eg.

I have lived here since childhood.自小我就住在这儿。

He hasn't been home sincel993.1993年以来他还没有回过家。

(3)adv.

①(与完成时态连用)从那以后;后来

eg.

He left the city in 1985 and has returned only once since.

他1985年离开这座城市,自那以后只回来过一次。

②以前

(4)构成短语:ever since 从那以后(一直)

long since 很久以前;早已

2. since,from和for

(1)from是介词,后接名词、动名词,表示事情的开始点,以from短语作状语时,句中的谓语动词可用一般现在、过去和将来时,如:

The movie is on from 8:00 p.m. to 10:00 p.m. 这个电影在晚上8点到10点上映。 They chatted at the meeting from beginning to end.他们在会议上自始至终都在聊天。

(2)since则为介词或从属连接词,其后接名词、动名词或从句,表示从某一特定时间起直至现在或过去某一特定时间为止,依然继续着的事情的开始点,在以此为时间状语的句子中,谓语动词常用完成时。

如:

Many things have happened since they came here.自他们来这儿以后,发生了许多事情。

The teacher said that John had made great progress since last semester.

老师说从上个学期以来约翰取得了很大的进步。

(3)for 是介词,后接名词,可以用来计算持续的时间,表示事情从开始到结束所持续的时间,谓语动词常用过去时或完成时,for与一般现在时连用,表示时间一直持续到将来。 如:

The meeting lasted for hours. 会议持续了几个小时。

I studied the piano for three years. 我学过三年钢琴。

I've known her for five years. 我认识她已经五年了。

How long are you here for? 你在这里要待到什么时候?

3. favorite 作名词,指“最爱的物品”,favorite也可作形容词,作形容词比较级和最高级形式。

例如:

My favorite food is dumpling.我最喜欢的食物是饺子。

4. stop表示“停止,结束,阻止”

The light turned red.I have to stop. 红灯亮了,我不得不停下来。

(1)stop作名词,意为“车站,站点”。

例如:

I get off at the next bus stop.我在下一站下车。

(2)stop作动词,意为“停止”,常用于stop doing sth.结构中,表示“停止做某事”,指停止正在做的事。

例如:

The students stop talking.学生停止了讲话。(动名词talking作宾语)

(3)stop to do sth. 则表示“停下来去做某事”,指停止原来的事去做另外一件事。 例如:

The students stop to talk.学生们停下来(开始)讲话。(不定式to talk作目的状语) We should stop to have a rest.我们应该停下来休息一会儿。

(4)stop sb.(from)doing sth. 表示“叫某人停止做某事,阻止某人做某事”。

例如:

What can stop me(my)going? 有什么能阻止我去呢?

Nothing shall stop us from studying.什么都不能阻止我们学习。

5. have to do sth. 表示“不得不做某事”,指客观条件的“不得不”

I have to finish the work by myself. 我不得不自己完成这项工作。

6. run out of… 意为“从……地方跑出来;用光……”

Class is over.The students run out of the classroom. 下课了,学生们从教室里冲了出来。

四.【课文解析】

1. How long have you been in class today?

你今天上了多长时间的课?(或你在课堂多长时间?)

(1)how long “多长”或“多长时间”。对长度或时间段提问。

-- How long have you learned English? 你学英语多长时间了?

-- For two years. 两年了。

(2)in class 在上课;在课堂上,其反义词为out of class “在课外”。

We should read more books out of class. 我们在课外应该多读些书。

I have been in class for one hour. 我上了一个小时的课。

(3)现在完成时

①表示过去发生的动作对现在造成的影响。

eg.

I have seen the film many times.这部电影我已看过多次。(已经非常了解这部电影) ②表示过去某一时间开始一直延续到现在的动作。

eg.

I have lived here since 2001.自从2001年以来,我一直住在这儿。(“住”这动作延续到现在)

③构成:“have/has+过去分词”构成。

eg.

--Where is Jim and Mike? 吉姆和迈克在哪儿?

--They have gone to the Great Wall. 他们去游长城了。

2. Alison was the first one to start.艾丽森是第一个开始(滑)的。

(1)“be the first / second…+n. + to do…”表示“……是第一/ 二个做某事的”。

He is the last one to leave here. 他是最后—个离开这里的。

She was the first one to get to the school.她是第一个到校的。

(2)to start在这里是动词不定式作定语。

3. I'd like to collect stamps because they are interesting.我喜欢集邮,因为它们特别有趣。

(1)would like to do表示“想要做某事”。

例如:

Would you like to come to join my birthday party? 你愿意来参加我的生日晚会吗?

(2)collect意为“收集,搜集”,常用作及物动词,后跟名词或代词作宾语。

例如:

I like collecting all kinds Of Chinese stamps very much.我非常喜欢收集各种中国邮票。

4.Thanks for sending me the snow globe of the monster. 非常感谢您送我怪兽雪花球形玻璃器。

(1)thanks for…相当于thank you for…意为“为……感谢你”,后多跟名词短语或动名词。 例如:

Thanks for your last letter. 谢谢你的上封来信。

(2)send sb. Sth.相当于send sth. to sb. 表示“送给某人某物”

He sent me a present for my birthday.

He sent a present to me for my birthday.我过生日他送了我一件礼物。

5. By the way,what's your hobby? 顺便提一下,你的个人爱好是什么?

(1)这是一个特殊疑问句的简单句,by the way在句中作插入语。介词短语by the way意思是“且说,顺便提一下,还有”,常用来介绍一般性的话题,或在脑子里突然想起的事情。 例如:

We shall expect you,by the way,dinner will be at eight.我们正在等着你,还有晚饭是八点开。

I was reading when the earthquake occurred,by the way,it was “The Last Day of Pompeii”.地震发生时我在看书,顺便提一下,我看的是“庞培城的末日”。

By the way,have you seen her lately? 顺便问一下,你近来见过她吗?

(2)名词hobby表示“爱好”是可数名词。

例如:

Your hobby is reading. 你的爱好是看书。

One of my hobbies is astronomy. 我的爱好之一是天文学。

Plenty of men are excellent cooks as a hobby. 很多男人菜做得好,只是作为一种爱好。

6.It made me think about differences in food cultures between China and western countries.它使我想起了中国和西方国家在饮食文化方面的差异。

(1)make 使役动词“使;让”,后面接不定式作宾语补足语时,不带to,类似的还有let和have。

eg.

He made the students laugh.他把同学们逗笑了。

The children must be made to clean their own room. 必须叫孩子们打扫自己的房间。 Aunt Li tried to make us stay for supper. 李大婶要留我们吃晚饭。

(2)think about 考虑;回想,想起;认为

eg.

think about a plan 考虑一项计划

I always think about her when it snows.每当下雪的时候,我总是想起她。

What do you think about the film last night? 你认为昨晚的电影怎么样?

He was thinking about the time he spent in the army.他正在回想他在部队度过的日子。 We need to think about the plan.我们需要考虑一下这个计划。

(3)介词between表示在二者之间

There is a fence between his garden and our garden. 在他的花园和我们的花园之间有一道栅栏。

You're to sit between Moira and me. 你坐在莫伊娜和我之间。

五.【词语辨析】

1. every和each

(1)each一定数目中的“每一个”;“个别”意义较重,表示各有不同,更强调个人或个别。 eg. Each one has his weakness. 每人都有每人的弱点。

(2)every数目不确定的许多人或物中间的“每一个”;“总合”意义较重,表示“大家一致”。 eg. Every one of us is here. 我们都到了。

(3)each可作主语、同位语、定语和状语,而every只能作定语。

2. interest,interesting与interested

(1)interest作名词,意为“兴趣,趣味”,用作动词时指“使(人)产生兴趣”。

例如: He shows an interest in music. 他对音乐感兴趣。

What you said interests me. 你的话引起了我的兴趣。

(2)interesting作形容词,指“有趣的,引起兴趣的”,可作表语或定语,指物或人本身能引起兴趣。

例如: The film is very interesting. 电影非常有趣。

He is an interesting man. 他是一个有趣的人。

(3)interested是由动词interest加-ed构成的形容词。意为“感兴趣的”,其主语一般是人,常用于be/get/become interested in结构中,表示“对……感兴趣”。

例如:

When he was only a child,he got interested in science.当他还是个孩子时,就对科学产生了兴趣。

3. how long,how often 与 how soon

(1)how long 的意思是“有多长”,用来提问有多长时间,答语通常是more than two weeks 等表示一段时间的话。

例如:

--How long are you going to stay here? 你打算在这里待多久?

--Five days. 5天。

--How long did he live in China? 他在中国住了多长时间?

--More than two years. 两年多。

(2)how often的意思是“多长时间一次”,用来提问在某一特定的时间内进行某个动作的次数,答语通常是never,sometimes,quite often,usually,three times a year等表示频度的副词或短语。

例如:

--How often do you go to the library? 你多长时间去一次图书馆?

--Once a day. 一天一次。

(3)how soon用来询问“需要多长时间能,过多久”,谓语动词多用终止性动词,即某一动作要花多长时间才能完成或发生,常与将来时连用,答语常用in a week/month/year等。 例如:

--How soon can you finish the work? 你完成那项工作还要多久?

--May be in three days. 大概3天后。

--How soon will he get here? 他到这儿需要多久?

--In half an hour. 半小时。

4. have与must

have to与must都有“必须”的意思,但有其不同之处:

(1)have to有时态和人称变化,带有客观因素,意思是“不得不”;must无时态和人称变化,后面接不带to的不定式,带有主观因素,意思是“必须,一定”。

例如:

I have to go now.It's dark. 我必须得走了。天已黑了。

I must go. 我得走了。

(2)must not表示“不许,一定不能”;don't have to表示“不必”。

例如:

You mustn't go now. 你现在不许走。

You don't have to go so early. 你不必走那么早。

(3)Must I…?的否定回答是No,you needn't.或No,you don't have to.

例如:

--Must I stay here now? 我必须留在这吗?

--NO,you needn't./you don't have to. 不,你不必。

5. fairly与rather

fairly与rather同义但用法不同:

fairly一般指(褒义的)理想的情形,rather一般指(贬义的)不太理想的情形。例如: The weather is fairly fine today.今天的天气相当好。

The weather was rather bad yesterday.昨天的天气相当不好。

It is a fairly easy question.

这是一个相当容易的问题。(容易而适当)

It is a rather easy question.

这是一个相当容易的问题。(大容易了而不适当)

一、用所给单词的正确形式填空。

1. Thank you for ___________ (help) me with my English.

2. Many children are ________ (interest) in ________ (collect) stamps because they think it _________ (interest) to collect them and they can learn a lot from it.

3. You have been _________ (play) computer games for a long time. It is bad for your eyes.

4. Our teacher told us some _____________(different) in food between ___________(west) countries and China.

5. In China people don’t eat ___________ (separate). They usually order food to share.

6. English is very ______ (use). So we should try our best _________ (learn) it well.

二、用所给动词的正确形式填空。

1.—How long __________ your father________ (work) in the factory?

—Since he ___________ (leave) college.

2. How long __________ you __________ (listen) to music last night?

3. When ____________you ________ (attend) the after-school club?

4. He is always the first one _______ (arrive) at school and the last ______ (leave) school.

5. We _______ (be) friends for the whole ten years.

6. _________ (collect) old coins is my father’s hobby.

7. My father had me ______ (clean) my bike, but I had it ________ (clean) in the shop.

三、按要求变换下列句型。

1. They have been talking for the whole three hours.(一般疑问句)

_________________ they __________________ for the whole three hours?

2. Li Lei told me he did well in the final exam.(同义句)

Li Lei ______________ me ______________ he did well in the final exam.

3. To spit in public places is not polite.( 同义句)

______________ isn’t polite ______________ spit in public places. 对划线部分提问)

_____________________ have you been playing football?

5. you , pictures , with, them , do, the , books , in , like (连词成句)

_________________________________________________________________?

四、单项选择。

( ) 1. There ______ a pair of sport shoes under the bed.

A. are B. is C. have D. has

( ) 2. There are many trees on _______ sides of the road.

A. each B. every C. both D. all

( ) 3. We ______ 1000 English words since we ______ to this school.

A. learn, come B. have learning, came

C. have been learning, come D. have learned, came

( ) 4. We have run _______ rice, we will have to buy some this afternoon.

A. out B. of C. out of D. out to

( ) 5. He is interested in _______ English songs.

A. to collect B. collect C. collecting D. collected

( ) 6. The child _________ trees for the whole four hours with his parents.

A. plants B. have been planting C. has been planting D. has been planted

( ) 7. The big tree in front of my house is _______ years old.

A. hundred B. hundreds of C. hundreds D. one hundred of

( ) 8. Yesterday I ________ when I was cooking.

A. had my finger cut B. had cut my finger C. had my finger cutted D. had my finger to cut

( ) 9. My bike doesn’t work. I will _______ this afternoon.

A. make it mend B. have it mended C. have it mend D. have it to mend

( ) 10. Have you ever ________ the Great wall?

A. been to B. gone to C. go to D. been

( ) 11. We like those who have only one idea but make it ______.

A. to work B. working C. work D. works

( ) 12. In Great Britain it isn’t polite ______ from each other’s plate.

A. eat B. to eat C. eating D. for eating

( ) 13. That bag isn’t mine. It may be __________.

A. somebody’s B. somebody else C. somebody’s else D. somebody else’s

( ) 14. They have been skating __________.

A. for three hours ago B. since three hours ago C. three hours ago D. since three hours

( ) 15. _______, what’s your hobby?

A. In the way B. On the way C. To your way D. By the way

五、完形填空。

通读全文, 掌握其大意, 然后选择最佳答案填空。

Answer the Telephone

The telephone rang and the secretary(秘书), Miss Simpson answered it.

“May I a man said.

“Who is , please?” Miss Simpson asked.

“Mr. Bright.” the man answered. Mr. Calder was in the office at the moment. Miss Simpson put her hand the mouthpiece(送话器) and to him.

“Mr. Alan Bright, sir.” she said. “He wants to to you.”

“What? Again!” Mr. Calder exclaimed (惊叫). “He wants to sell us a kind of new typewriters, he?”

“Yes, sir,” Miss Simpson said. “He yesterday.”

“And he rang up five last week. We don't new typewriters. I told him that yesterday.” Mr. Calder said angrily.

“Then what shall I ir?” she asked.

“Tell him I'm notthe office.” Mr. Calder said.

Miss Simpson spoke the mouthpiece, “Mr. Bright,” she said. “I'm afraid you speak to Mr. Calder now. Mr. Calder that he is not in his office now. ”

( ) 1. A. ask B. speak C. talk D. tell

( ) 2. A. said B. saying C. spoke D. speaking

( ) 3. A. on B. in C. over D. with

( ) 4. A. spoke B. speak C. speaks D. asks

( ) 5. A. He's B. That's C. It's D. This is

( ) 6. A. tell B. say C. ask D. speak

( ) 7. A. does B. doesn't C. don't D. isn't

( ) 8. A. call B. calls C. called D. calling

( ) 9. A. hours B. times C. time D. minutes

( ) 10. A. need B. use C. have D. sell

( ) 11. A. ask B. speak C. say D. tell

( ) 12. A. out B. on C. off D. in

( ) 13. A. in B. into C. to D. over

( ) 14. A. couldn't B. don't C. can't D. wouldn't

( ) 15. A. says B. said C. say D. told

六、阅读理解。

A

When you are ill, you should go to see a doctor. After the doctor looks you over, he will write you a note to take to the chemist for some medicine. Chemists are usually good at reading doctors’ notes. But sometimes doctors write too badly and even the chemist can not read them.

One day a woman wrote to a doctor to invite him to have dinner with her family in the restaurant. The doctor wrote an answer, but he wrote too badly and the woman could not read it. “What shall I do?” she asked her husband, “I don’t know whether he is going to come or not. I don’t want to call and say that I don’t understand him.”

Her husband thought for a few minutes and then he had an idea. “Take it to the chemist,” he said, “He will be able to read it for us.”

“Thank you,” the woman said, “That’s a good idea.” She went to the chemist’s shop and gave the doctor’s note to him. The chemist looked at it for a long time.

“Could you wait a moment, Miss?” he said, Then he went to the back of the shop. After a few minutes he came back, carrying a large bottle. He gave the bottle to the woman.

“Take one spoonful(一匙) every day.” He told the woman.

( ) 1. What did the doctor do when he was invited to have dinner in the restaurant?

A. He said he could come on time B. he wrote the woman an answer

C. he was very glad to come D. He wrote a note to the chemist

( ) 2. Why couldn’t the woman understand the “note”?

A. Because the doctor wrote badly.

B. Because the woman didn’t know much about medicine.

C. Because the doctor didn’t like to go

D. Because the woman never went to school.

( ) 3. The husband wanted his wife to _______.

A. call the doctor or have dinner with them.

B. go to the chemist and get some medicine.

C. take the reply to the chemist for help D. read it again

( ) 4. In the story, the word “chemist” means “______’ in Chinese.

A. 护士 B. 化验师 C. 药剂师 D.药房

( ) 5. What did the man in the chemist’s shop give the woman at last?

A. A piece of good advice. B. The right idea of the doctor.

C. An invitation from the doctor. D. A bottle of medicine.

B

An important question about eating out is who pays for the meal. If a friend of yours asks you to have lunch with him, you may say something like this, “I’m afraid it’ll have to be someplace cheap, as I have little money.” The other person may say, “Ok, I’ll meet you at McDonald’s.”

This means that the two agree to go Dutch, that is, each person pays for himself. He may also say, “Oh, no, I want to take you to lunch at Smith’s,” or “I want you to try the Chinese dumplings there. They are great.” This means the person wants to pay for both of you. If you feel friendly towards the person, you can go with him and you needn’t pay for the meal. You may just say, “Thank you. That would be very nice.”

American custom about who pays for dates (约会) are much the same as in other parts of the world. In the old days, American women wanted men to pay for all the meals. But, today, a university girl or a woman in business world will usually pay her way during the day. If a man asks her for a dance outside the working hours, it means “Come, as my guest.” So as you can see, it is a polite thing to make the question clear at the very beginning.

( ) 6. The passage tells us _______.

A. how to eat out B. where to eat out C. what to eat out D. who pays for the meal

( ) 7. If you have little money,_______.

A. you’ll have a cheap meal B. you’ll borrow some from others

C. you’ll ask your friend to pay for your meal

D. you will not want your friends to ask you to dinner

( ) 8. “Go Dutch” in this passage means ________.

A. 去饭馆 B. 就餐 C. 订餐 D. 各自付款

( ) 9. Sometimes your friend takes you to lunch. It means _______.

A. he’s going to lend you money to you B. he’s going to pay for your meal

C. he’ll be angry with you D. he can’t understand you

( ) 10. In America, some girls and women _______now.

A. ask men to pay for their meals B. try to pay for the men’s meals

C. try to pay for their own meals D. never have anything outside

七、翻译下列句子。

1. 谢谢你送给我的邮票。

Thank you _______________________________me the stamps.

2.—你做了多长时间的作业了? —两个小时了。

—How long _______________ you _________________________ your homework? —______ two hours.

3. 自从她六岁以来, 她一直弹钢琴。

She has been_________________________ since she ______________ six years old.

4. 那使我想起了美语和英语的不同。

That _______ me of _______________between American English and British English.

5. 我的头发太长了, 明天我将去理。

My hair is too long, I________________________ it _________________ tomorrow.

八、书面表达。

帮助他人是一件快乐的事,请写一件你经历过的帮助别人的乐事,并谈谈你的快乐,80个词左右。

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