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新版八年级英语上册知识点Unit 10

发布时间:2014-01-19 11:54:14  

Unit 5 If you go to the party,you’ll have a great time!

【单元目标】

Ⅱ.Sentence structures:

1. If you do, you’ll… 2. I’m going to …

3. You should… 4. Don’t you want to …?

5. Don’t you think … ?

Ⅲ.语法小结

1. if条件句

2. 现在进行时表示将来的时间

一. if条件句

1. if条件句:条件句用于陈述语气,表示假设的情况可能发生,其中 if 是“如果”的意思。

2. 用法:

(1)条件状语从句通常由连词if引导,意为“如果、假如”,主句不能用be going to表示将来,而应该用shall,will。

If you leave now, you are never going to regret it. (错误)

If you leave now, you will never regret it. (正确)

(2)if “如果”,引导条件状语从句,if从句则用一般现在时,主句用一般将来时。如:

If it rains tomorrow, I shan’t climb the hills.

If I go to college, I will never become a great soccer player.

注意宾语从句中的if与条件状语从句if的区别。宾语从句中的if“是否”相当于 whether,引导宾语从句,时态需根据语境确定。

I don't know if it will rain tomorrow. 我不知道明天是否会下雨。

二. 现在进行时表示将来的时间

1. 用be doing表示将来:主要意义是表示按计划、安排即将发生的动作,常用于位置转移的动词,如:go,come,leave,arrive等, 也可用于其他动作动词,如:

We are having fish for dinner. 我们晚饭吃鱼。

We are moving to a different hotel the day after tomorrow. 后天我们会去另外一个旅馆。

这种用法通常带有表示将来的时间状语,如果不带时间状语,则根据上下文可表示最近即将发生的动作。

A: Where are you going?

B: I am going for a walk. Are you coming with me?

A: Yes, I am just coming. Wait for me.

2. 现在进行时表示将来和用be going to 表示将来意思比较接近,但是现在进行时更强调事先已安排好,即将去做的事情, 而be going to 一般只表示打算做某事,有做某事的意图。我们来看两个例子:

She is having a meeting at 9 tomorrow. 她明天早晨9点有个会。

We are leaving for London next week.我们下周出发去伦敦。

这两个句子里就是用现在进行时表示将来已经安排好要做的事情。

IV. 重点难点分析

1. too much 和 much too

too much 后接不可数名词,用来表示数量太多,意思是“……太多了(数量多)”;much too后接形容词,用来说明程度的,意思是“太……(程度深)”如:

much too heavy 太重了 (表程度)

错误:He has drunk much too water.

正确:He has drunk too much water. 他喝了太多的水。(修饰不可数名词,表数量)

2. be famous for 和 be famous as

be famous for表示“因……而出名”, for后接表示出名的原因;be famous as则表示“以……身份而著名”,as 后接职业、身份或地位,表示作为……职业、身份或地位是著名的,如:

France is famous for its fine food and wine. 法国以其佳肴和美酒著名。

France is famous as a romantic country. 法国作为一个浪漫的国家而出名。

3. I want you to remember the rules for school parties.

我想让你记住参加学校聚会的规则。

want sb. to do sth. 想让某人做某事

4. travel around the world 周游世界

e.g. Her dream is to travel around China. 她的梦想是周游全中国。

5. If we have it today, half the class won’t come.

如果我们今天开聚会,全班有一半的同学将不来参加。

won’t 是 will not 的缩写

if 从句用一般现在时,表示假设,主语用一般将来时。

6.reasons for becoming a professional athlete 赞同成为一名职业运动员的理由 for prep. (表示赞成、支持),其反义词为against

eg. Are you for his plan or against it? 你是赞成还是反对他的计划?

Which team did you vote for? 你投票给哪一个队(组)?

7.reasons against becoming a professional athlete 反对成为一名职业运动员的理由。 against prep. 反对,与…对抗

注意:介词后面用名词或动词ing的形式

eg. Are you against my plan? 你反对我的计划吗?

Our played against No.1 Middle School at basketball yesterday. 我校和一中昨天比赛篮球。

8.begin the story with the words.以这些话开头讲这个故事。

begin … with… “以…开始(开头)”

eg. The word begins with “s”.这个词以“s”开头。

Does he know that a year begins with January?

9. consequence 后果、结果

eg. We should consider the consequences before doing.

10. have a great time 玩得高兴

11. take away 运走,取走

eg. Don't take it away. I'll use it. 不要将它拿走,我要用。

12. make a living 谋生

v eg.He makes living as a driver. 他以开车谋生。

13. make money 挣钱

eg. After he became famous, he made lots of money.

14. let in 允许……进入,嵌入

eg. Don’t let the beggar in. 不要让那个乞丐进来。

Ⅴ.课文详解

1. For many young people, becoming a professional athlete might seem like a dream job.

对许多年青人来说,成为一名职业运动员可能似乎是一份理想的职业。

might (表示可能性,推测)

might do 或许,说不定(一般表示比may 较低的可能性)

eg. She might win the prize .她或许会获得那个奖。

The child might be home already.那孩子说不定已回家了。

seem like+ 名词 好像…,似乎…

e.g. It seems like years since we last met. 我们似乎好几年不见了。

2. You'll be able to make a living doing something you love. 你能做你喜欢的事来谋生。 be able to +动词原形,“有能力做某事”

e.g. She is able to learn English well. 她能学好英语。

Doing something you love.做你喜爱的事。

you love 定语,修饰前面的something。

3. People all over the world will know you.全世界的人将会认识你。

all over the world 作定语,修饰它前面的名词people。

4. This is a great chance that many people do not have.

这是一个许多人所不能得到的难得的机会。

that many people do not have是一个定语从句,修饰它前面的chance。

great (表示程度,放在名词之前)非常的,异乎寻常的

eg. a great talk 健谈的人

She is a great friend of mine. 她是我非常要好的朋友。

5. Watch you all the time and follow you everywhere.一直看着你,你走到哪都跟着你。 all the time 一直

eg. Look! The monkeys are running and jumping all the time.看,猴子们一直在跑在跳。 everywhere 副词(adv.)到处

I've looked everywhere for it.为了找它,我到处找了个遍。

The dog followed him everywhere.无论在哪,那狗都跟着他。

6. get injured =be injured 受伤

injured (adj)

eg. He was badly injured in the accident.他在那次事故中受了重伤。

7. You'll have a difficult time knowing who your real friends are.

你将很难知道谁是你真正的朋友。

who your real friends are是一个宾语从句,它作knowing一词的宾语,这是一种“特殊疑问词+陈述语序的”宾语从句。

e.g. I don’t know where he is from.我不知道他来自哪里。

特殊疑问词+陈述语序

Can you tell me how old he is? 你能告诉我他多大吗?

how old he is是宾语从句。

8.I can’t remember how to get to your house.我记不起来怎样去你家了。

how to get to your house是不定式作remember 一词的宾语(此处不定式是指一个特殊疑问词+to+动词原形)

这个不定式短语可以用宾语从句来替换如下:

I can’t remember how I can get to your house.

E.g. Can you tell me how to get to Luxun Park?

We know who we will ask.

9.get enough exercise 得到充分的锻炼

exercise 名词,“锻炼”

10.go back home 回到家,此句可以换成return home

11. laugh at you 嘲笑你 laugh at sib.嘲笑某人

E.g. Don’t laugh at a person who is in trouble.

我们不要嘲笑陷于困境的人。

12. How many aliens dye their hair brown? 多少外星人把他们的头发染成棕色? dye v.把…着色,染色

She dyed her white skirt green.她把白色裙子染成绿色的。

Ⅵ.词语辨析

1.get to 与arrive

get to 与arrive均为“到达”之意。

①get to后面接名词,e.g. get to Shanghai/New York

但“到达这里/那里”则为get here/ get there。因为here和there为副词,所以它们前面不加to。

②arrive是不及物动词,它后面不能直接跟名词,必须与介词in/或at连用之后+名词。 e.g. They arrived at Jim’s house at 2p.m. (小地点之前用介词at)

When did they arrive in Beijing? (大地点之前用介词in)

I didn’t know when he arrived. 我不知道他何时到达的。

此处arrived后面不需要宾语,故也不要加in或at。

“到达这里/那里”则改为arrive here/ there

“到家”则为”arrive home”,因为here, there, home均为副词,所以不加in/at。

2. join和take part in

join与take part in均为“参加”之意,是动词

①但join后面跟一个组织,政党,社团,团体等,“参加并成为其中一名成员” eg. join the Party 入党

join the League入团

She wants to join the singing club.

另外,join sb. 是“参加到某人的行列”之意

eg. Won’t you join us in a tennis match? 你不想参加我们网球比赛吗?

He joined us for dinner. 他与我们共进晚餐。

②take part in (动词短语)指参加(某种活动)

eg. Are you going to take part in the discussion? 你要参加讨论吗?

He took part in the speech competition? 他参加了演讲比赛。

Did they take part in that meeting last Monday? 他们上周一参加那次会了吗?

一、词汇测试。

A.用所给单词的适当形式填空。

1. What will you do if you go to the old_______________ (folk) home to visit?

2. Among the students Tom works the _____________ (hard).

3. Lucy can’t go to school today because she is__________ (bad) ill.

4. Many___________ (charity) sent money to help the poor people.

5. If you become a ____ (profession) athlete like Yao Ming, you can make much money.

B.根据句意及首字母提示完成单词。

1. He won the first place in the long jump, so he is a c___________.

2. That old man makes a l________ by collecting and selling waste paper.

3. My Chinese friends tell me Chongqing is f________________ for “Hot Pot”.

4. They said they enjoyed t____________________ during the winter holidays.

5. Jack’s father is a l_______________; he knows a lot about law.

二、用所给动词的正确形式填空。

1. Thank you for___________________ (remind) me the time of his coming.

2. When I came to the check-out, I___________ (realize) that I had no money with me.

3. My English teacher always lets me_______ (choose) the answer more carefully.

4. Tom is a good football player; he is good at____________ (play) football.

5. The students will go to the Summer Palace if it _____________ (not rain) tomorrow.

6. If you helped me with my English, I______________ (not fail) the exam.

7. It_____________ (hurt) your eyes to read in such poor light.

8. I like watching the children______________ (swim) and jump.

9. Mary asked Li Ming ___________ (help) him with his Chinese.

10. Can you finish _____________ (read) this book in five days?

三、句型转换。

1. Can you tell me how I can get to the nearest post office? (同义句)

Can you tell me ______________________________the nearest post office?

2. Work hard, or you will not pass the exam. (同义句)

____________you____________ work hard, you will _____________ the exam.

3. They are having an English evening. (用tomorrow作时间状语改写句子)

They _________________________ an English evening tomorrow.

4. Some students go to school by bike every day. (同义句)

Some students _________________________ school every day. (对划线部分提问)

__________________________ are there on the farm?

四、单项选择。

( ) 1. —Listen! Somebody is coming. —No, _____ is coming. I can’t hear_____.

A. somebody, anybody B. anybody, somebody

C. nobody, anything D. somebody, somebody

( ) 2. We _____ go on a picnic if it _____ rain tomorrow.

A. don’t, isn’t B. don’t stop C. shall, doesn’t D. aren’t, doesn’t

( ) 3. He always thinks of ______ more than himself.

A. other B. others C. the other D. the others

( ) 4.Get up early or you can’t ______ the early bus.

A. catch B. catch up C. catches D. catches up with

( ) 5. Da Shan speaks Chinese ______ for us to understand.

A. good enough B. enough good C. well enough D. enough well

( ) 6. If you don’t want to go swimming, I ______.

A. won’t; too B. also won’t C. won’t, either D. won’t ,neither

( ) 7. He was_________ tired _________ he couldn’t go on working.

A. too…to B. such…that C. so…that D. too…that

( ) 8. It’s hard___________ the work in two days.

A. finishing B. to finish C. finish D. finishes

( ) 9. Our teacher said sound____ much more slowly than light.

A. traveled B. was traveling C. has traveled D. travels.

( ) 10. I don’t know if she________. If she_______, let me know.

A. comes; comes B. will come; comes

C. comes; will come D. will come; will come

( ) 11. You________ to school tomorrow if you go to look after your mother in hospital.

A. don’t need come B. don’t come C. needn’t to come D. needn’t come

( ) 12. Everyone knows that “I” ___ a word and also a letter in English.

A. am B. is C. are D. be

( ) 13. She said that she _____ more time in English next year.

A. will spend B. will take C. is going to cost D. would spend

( ) 14. What an______ story! I’m much ______ in it.

A. interested, interesting B. interesting, interested

C. interesting, interesting D. interested, interested

( ) 15. Oh, it’s you, Lily! ______ you ______ here.

A. I don’t know, were B. I didn’t know, are

C. I knew, are D. I think, were

五、完形填空。

people’s health. Many people like to watch play sports games. They buy tickets them.

games in different seasons. Sometimes they play inside the room, sometimes they play outside. We sports here and there. Some sports are rather people different countries cannot understand each ( ) 1. A. good for B. good at C. good D. good to

( ) 2. A. other B. others C. the other D. the others

( ) 3. A. and B. but C. or D. so

( ) 4. A. in front B. in the front C. in the front of D. in front of

( ) 5. A. change B. are C. play D. start

( ) 6. A. same B. different C. the same D. the different

( ) 7. A. see B. look C. find D. watch

( ) 8. A. Sometimes B. When C. Or D. So

( ) 9. A. from B. to C. outside D. inside

( )10. A. friend B. friendly C. friends D. more friendly

六、阅读理解。

A

Two men were sitting together in a plane. They were on a long journey. One of the men was a businessman. The other was a farmer. They sat without talking for a while, then the farmer said, “Let’s do something to pass the time.”

“What do you want to do?” the businessman asked.

“We can ask each other riddles.” The farmer said.

“OK. Let’s make the rules first,” the businessman said, “If you don’t know the answer to a riddle, you pay me $100. And if I don’t know the answer, I’ll pay you $100.”

“That’s not fair(公平). You are a businessman with much knowledge. You know more things than I do. I am just a farmer.” the farmer said.

“That’s true.” The businessman said, “What do you want us to do?”

“If you don’t know the answer to a riddle, you pay me $100. And if I don’t know the answer, I’ll pay you $50.” The farmer said. The businessman thought about this, then he said, “OK. That’s fair. Who will go first?”

“I will,” the farmer said. “Here is my riddle. What has three legs when it walks, but only two begs when it flies?”

The businessman thought for a long time and said, “Mm, that’s a good one. I’m afraid I don’t know the answer. ” He gave the farmer $100, then said, “Tell me the answer.”

“I don’t know.” the farmer said, and gave him $50.

( )1. The story happened_____.

A. on a farm B. in a shop C. before a long plane journey D. between two passengers

( ) 2. What does the word “riddle” means in this story?

A. Something to win money.

B. Something to help to make rules.

C. A difficult question to find the answer to.

D. A kind of game in doing business.

( ) 3. Why did the businessman agree to give more money if he lost?

A. He made much more money than the farmer.

B. He thought he knew more than the farmer.

C. He was interested in making riddles.

D. He was better at playing riddle games.

( ) 4. The farmer _____ .

A. didn’t enjoy himself on his long journey

B. didn’t want to pay even one dollar

C. spend all his money on the plane ticket

D. won fifty dollars by playing the riddle game

( ) 5. Which of the following is NOT true?

A. The two men made rules for their riddle.

B. The farmer was more clever than the businessman.

C. The two men made their riddle game more interesting by playing it for money.

D. The businessman knew the answer to this riddle.

B

Now machines are widely used all over the world. Why are machines so important and necessary(必要的) for us? Because they can help us to do things better and faster.

A washing machine helps us to wash clothes fast. A printing machine helps us to print a lot of books, newspapers, magazines and many other things fast. Bikes, cars, trains and planes are all machines. They help us to travel faster than on foot.

The computer is a wonderful machine. It was invented not long ago. It not only stores(贮存) information (信息) but also stores numbers millions of times as fast as a scientist does.

Let’s study hard and try to use all kinds of machines to build China into a modern country.

( ) 6. Machines can help us to do things better and faster, so they_____.

A. are difficult to make B. are expensive

C. are important but not necessary D. are very helpful

( ) 7. We have to travel on foot without_____.

A. bikes B. machines C. planes D. trains

( ) 8. Computers can store information and numbers_____ a scientist does.

A. a little faster than B. as fast as

C. much faster than D. much more slowly than

( ) 9.If we want to build China into a modern country. We must__________.

A. study hard B. try to use all kinds of machines

C. invent many machines D. all above

( ) 10. A printing machine can help us___________.

A. print a lot of books B. read more books C. invent many machines D. wash clothes fast

七、根据汉语完成英语句子。

1.这一著名歌唱家捐赠了许多钱给希望工程。

The well-known singer _____________________________ to “Hope Project”.

2.世上无难事, 只怕有心人。

______________________is__________________ if you set your mind to do it.

3.我认为你应该去上大学。

I think you should __________________________________________.

4.如果你真那样做了, 你会玩得很开心的。

You will __________________________________________if you do like this.

5.如果你带手机进课堂, 老师会没收的。

If you take you mobile phone into the class, the teacher will ______________________.

八、书面表达。

某个星期天,父母不在家,Uncle John和Aunt Mary来访。请用英语写一篇短文,描述一下你是怎样招待客人的。词数80以上,文体不限。

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