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新版八年级英语上册知识点Unit 9

发布时间:2014-01-19 11:54:20  

Unit 9 Have you ever been to an amusement park?

【单元目标】

Ⅱ.目标句型:

1. —Have you ever been to…?

—Yes,I have. /No,I haven’t.

2. I/He/She has / have never been to…

3. Where have you been?

4. Where do you want to go?

5. How long have you been doing…?

6. What do you like best about doing sth.?

7. What kind of job do you want?

8. How do/did you do sth.?

9. How do you spell your name?

Ⅲ.语法

现在完成时

A.表示过去发生或已经完成的动作对现在造成的影响或结果,或从过去已经开始,持续到现在的动作或状态。

如:

The car has arrived. 车子来了。(结果:车子已在门口)

Someone has broken the window. 有人把窗户打破了。(结果:窗户仍破着) 现在完成时句子通常有recently,lately,since,for,in the past few months/years等词做时间状语。

肯定形式:have/has + done

否定形式:have/has + not +done

一般疑问句:have或has放于句首。

B.现在完成时的用法

1)现在完成时所表示的动作在说话之前已完成,而对现在有影响。所以常常后面不用时间状语。现在完成时所表的动作离说话人的说话时刻可近可远。

如:

He has gone to London. (说话人认为他不在该地)

He has been to London. (说话人认为他在该地)

2)现在完成时所表示的动作开始于过去,持续到现在,也许还会持续下去。常用for和since表示一段时间的状语或so far,now,today,this week (month,year)等表示包括现在时间在内的状语。

例如:

He has studied English for 5 years.

He has studied English since 2001.

Now I have finished the work.

注意:

表示短暂时间动作的词,如:come,go,die,marry,buy等的完成时不能与for,since等表示一段时间的词连用。

3)现在完成时还可用在时间和条件状语从句中,表示将来某时完成的动作。 例如:

I’ll go to your home when I have finished my homework. If it has stopped snowing in the morning,we will go to the park. 【重点词语】 1.record (1)record作名词,表示“记录” This is a record of school attendance. 这是一份学生考勤记录。 He kept a record of what the speaker sail. 他把说话人所说的话都记录了下来。 (2)record作名词还可表示“有关某人或某物过去的已知事实;档案记录”。 He has an honorable record of service. 他有光荣的服务记录。 (3)record作动词,表示“写出以作参考、记录”。 例如: The tape recorder has recorded his voice 录音机已经录下了他的声音。 Listen to the speaker carefully and record what he says. 仔细听讲,然后记下他所说的话。 2. have been to表示“到(去)过某处”,现在已不在那个地方。 如: He has been to England. 他曾到过英国。(现在已经不在英国了) Have you ever been to the Great Wall? 你到过长城吗?(现在已经不在长城上) have gone to表示“去了某处”,“到某处去了”,现在已不在说话的地点了。 如: He has gone to England。 他已去英国了。(已经不在说话的地方,到达英国或者在去英国的路上) 3. time n. [U] 时间,时候 如: Time never stands still. 时间不会停滞不前。 The time has come for us to speak out. 是我们大胆讲话的时候了。 n. [C] 一段时间,时刻 如: You have taken a long time writing the letter. 你用了很长时间写这封信。 We had a good time together. 我们一起度过了愉快的时光。 n. (多用复数)时代 如: He is one of the best actors in modern times. 他是现代最好的演员之一。 In Shakespeare’s time there were no actresses on the English stage. 莎士比亚时代英国舞台上没有女演员。 n. 次;倍 如: This is the first time that I have ever been abroad. 这真是我第一次出国。 Your room is three times the size of mine. 你的房间是我的三倍大。 注意: 作“倍,次”,必须用于“三次(倍)”以上,一、二次(倍)用once,twice表示。 4. attract (1)用作及物动词,可直接跟名词或代词作宾语。

The noise attracted his attention. 喧嚷声引起了他的注意。

(2)attract常用于be attracted to sb / sth结构,意为“喜爱某人或某物”。

I’m very attracted to her. 我非常喜欢她。

5. discover

(1)作“发现”讲时,作及物动词,后跟名词作宾语,指的是那些原来已存在的,但不为人知的物或事等

They discovered him stealing public property. 他们发现他盗窃公共财产。 Who discovered the America? 谁发现了美洲?

(2)discover还可意为“知道事实,答案”

I soon discovered the truth. 不久我便知道了真相。

6. one…the other表示“(两者中的)一个……另一个”,该短语是代词短语,强调两个当中的一个……另一个……。注意其基数必须是两个。

I have two sister. One is a doctor, and the other is a teacher. 我有两个姐姐,一个是医生,一个是老师。

Hold it in this hand,not the other. 用这只手握着,不要用那只手。

7. for example表示“例如……”,该短语常用在句中作插入语,用于举例说明情况,可放在句首、句中或句末,但常用逗号与正文隔开。常置于句首。

We feed many animals,for example,cows,pigs,dogs,horses etc.

我们喂养很多的动物,例如奶牛、猪、狗、马等等。

For example,Jack Booth,a 21-year-old man,gave up his job in San Francisco Library a year ago.

例如,21岁的杰克·布斯在一年前放弃了他在旧金山图书馆的工作。

For example,I know the film star Zhang Ziyi. 譬如,我认识电影明星章子怡。

8. mean

(1)mean作及物动词,意为“意思是,意味着”。

What does this word mean? 这个单词是什么意思?

(2)mean意为“意思是……”,还可跟that引导的宾语从句。

例如:

The teacher meant that you must listen carefully in class.

老师的意思是你上课必须认真听讲。

(3)mean还可意为“意味着……”,后跟动名词作宾语。

What he said means sending you to the hospital. 他说的话得意思着要送你去医院。

(4)mean还可意为“打算,意图”,后跟动词不定式作宾语。

例如:

I don’t mean to hurt you. 我并无意伤害你。

What do you mean to do next? 你下一步打算做什么?

9. own

(1)own意为“自己的,特有的”,常与名词所有格连用,起加强语气的作用。 It’s nice if I can have my own room. 我要是能有自己的房间就好了。

(2)own作代词,意为“属于某人之物”,相当于一个名词性物主代词。

Those books belong to the library but this is my own.

那些书是图书馆的,但这本是我自己的。

(3)own还可作动词,表示“拥有,有”。

We don’t rent our house; we own it. 我们的房子不是租的,是我们自己的。

(4)own作动词,还可表示“承认,自白”。 He owned to have done it. 他承认曾经干过这件事。 10. ask for表示“要求,请求”。 Bill did a lot for me without asking for any reward比尔为我做了许多事,没要任何报酬。 Don't serve water at meals unless someone asks for it.除非有人要,就餐时不要端水上去。 I've asked for an interview with the manager. 我已请求与经理见面。 If you get into difficulties,don't hesitate to ask for advice. 如果你陷入困境,应立即去请求建议。

If I had asked for direction,I wouldn't have lost my way.

我要问一问方向的话,就不会迷路了。

【重难点分析】

1.——Have you ever been to a water park? 你曾去过水上公园吗? ——No,I haven’t. 不,没去过。

——Me,neither. 我也没去过。

(1)have been to表示某人“去过某地,现在已经回来了”,可用于各种人称。

I have been to the Summer Palace. 我去过颐和园。

Have you ever been to Shanghai? 你曾经去过上海吗?

I have never been to the city. 我从没去过那座城市。

(2)副词ever意为“曾经,以前,无论何时”表示一个不确定的时间。主要用于否定句、疑问句、条件句、比较句等。

Have you ever been to Paris? 你曾去过巴黎吗?

We hardly ever go out at night. 我们晚上很少出去。

(3)本句中Me,neither. 是口语化的简略回答。一般情况下用Neither have I,为“neither + 系/助/情态动词+主语”结构,neither在此意为“也不……”,表示主语所做的动作与前面提到过的人或事相同,是为了避免语言重复,其中的系/助/情态动词在时态上与前一句保持一致,而在数上要与其后的主语一致。例如:

— I can’t swim. 我不会游泳。 — Neither can I. 我也不会。

I don’t want to go, neither will I. 我不想去,也不会去。

He didn’t go to school. Neither did she. 他没去上学,她也没去。

(4)若在肯定句中表示“也……”,则要用“so +系/助/情态动词”。

I am a student,so is my sister. 我是学生,我妹妹也是学生。

He can swim,so can I. 他会游泳,我也会。

I feel happy,so does he. 我高兴,他也高兴。

2. All the houses look like houses in Holland.

所有的房子看起来像荷兰的房子。

句子look是系动词,后跟介词短语作表语。look like表示“像,与……相似”是一动词短语。

He looks so much like his brother that people often mistake them for each other. 他和他弟弟十分相像,人们常错认他们。

These houses look exactly like each other,which makes the street look very dull. 这些房屋一模一样,使这条街显得单调乏味。

3. Most of us have probably heard of Mickey Mouse, Donald Duck, and many other famous Disney characters. 我们大部分人可能都听说过米老鼠、唐老鸭还有其他许多有名的迪士尼人物。

(1)hear of为动介结构,后面常接名词、代词或动名词作宾语,表示听到有关某事的消息或情况。

They have never heard of that. 他们从未听说过那件事。

hear of后一般不接从句,要接从句时,则不用of。例如:

I heard our Chinese teacher was ill. 我听说我们的语文教师病了。

(2)probably表示“可能”,是一种推测。

He will probably succeed. 他很可能会成功。

4. I want to study in an English-speaking country. 我想到一个说英语的国家深造。

(1)want to do sth 意为“想要做某事”。

Did you want to tell me something? 你想告诉我些什么吗?

(2)English-speaking是合成形容词,表示“说英语的”,注意spoken English表示“英语口语”。

5. I've never been to an amusement park like it before. 我以前从未去过那样的露天游乐场。

(1)副词never作“永不,决不”解,表示全部否定,一般指经常性的状态,不用于修饰一次性的具体动作;一般位于系动词及助动词之后,实义动词之前,如修饰动词不定式或分词,则要放在不定式或分词之前;never可用于句首加强语气,其后的句子要主谓倒装。 I can never understand why Mary said nothing about her wrongs.

我绝不理解玛丽说的她什么也没有做错。

I hope never to see him again. 我希望再也不要见到他。

He is never late for class. 他上课从不迟到。

Never have l seen such a strange person. 我从来没看见过这样的怪人。

(2)before用作副词表示“以前”。泛指“以前”时,谓语动词可用一般过去时表示过去发生过,,也可用现在完成时则表示对现在的影响。用于特指时通常置于表示具体时间的名词之后。

We saw that film before. 那部电影我们以前看过。

I have never seen such a beautiful scene. 我从来没有见过这样美丽的景象。 It came across my mind that l had met him somewhere before.

我突然意识到我曾在什么地方见过他。

6. Here's what two of our students said about our school.

这里就是两个我们的学生所说的关于我们学校的情况。

(1)这是一个含有主语从句的倒装的主从复合句。连接代词what既引导主语从句,又在从句中作said的宾语。

What he said is true. 他所说的是真的。

What l need most is your help. 我最需要的是你的帮助。

What we need badly are more teachers. 我们急需的是更多的老师。

(2)副词here置于句首要用倒装语序,主语为代词部分倒装,主语为名词全部倒装。 Here it is. 给你。

Here is a letter for you. 这是给你的来信。

Here comes the bus! 汽车来了!

Here's the book you're looking for. 这就是你正在找的书。

Here he comes! 他来了!

7. It was because I could speak English that I got the job.

正是因为我会讲英语我才得到了这份工作。

这是一个强调结构,强调原因状语从句。强调结构的句式是“It+be+被强调成分+that…”。被强调的是简单句的主语、宾语、宾补或状语,不能强调谓语、定语或表语。强调对象是人作主语时可用who,作宾语时用whom,其余一律用that。

It was my father who/that did the experiment in the lab yesterday evening.

正是父亲昨天晚上在实验室作实验。

It was at the gate of the school I met Tom. 正是在校门口我见到汤姆。 It was last week that l attended an art exhibition for the first time.

是上周我才第一次参观一个艺术展览。

It was not until he broke my favorite vase that l flew into rages.

我是在他打碎了我的花瓶时才生气的。

It was because he was ill that he didn't come to the school yesterday.

正是因为他病了昨天才没来上学。

【词语辨析】

1. hear,hear of与hear from

(1)hear为及物动词,意为“听见,听到”,后可跟复合宾语,hear sb do sth表示“听见某人做了某事”或hear sb doing sth表示“听见某人正做某事”。

We listened but could hear nothing. 我们留心听,却什么也没有听见。 I heard her singing in her room. 我听见她正在房间里唱歌。

(2)hear还可作“听说”讲,后常跟that引导的宾语从句。

I heard that he was ill. 我听说他病了。

I heard that it’s a good film. 我听说那是部好影片。

(3)hear of意为“听说”,后跟人或物作宾语。

I’ve never heard of that place. 我从未听说过那个地方。

Have you ever heard of that story? 你听说过那个故事吗?

(4)hear from意为“收到某人的来信”,后跟人作宾语。

How often do you hear from your sister? 你多长时间收到你姐姐的一次信? I heard from him last week. 我上周收到他的信。

2. find,find out与look for都含有“寻找,找到”的意思,但其含义和用法却不同。

(1)find意为“找到,发现”,通常指找到或发现具体的东西,也可指偶然发现某物或某种情况,强调的是找的结果。

Will you find me a pen? 你替我找支钢笔好吗?

He didn’t find his bike. 他没找到他的自行车。

(2)look for意为“寻找”,是有目的地找,强调“寻找”这一动作。

I don’t find my pen;I’m looking for it everywhere. 我没有找到我的钢笔,我正到处找。

He is looking for his shoes. 他在找他的鞋子。

(3)find out意为“找出,发现,查明”,多指通过调查、询问、打听、研究之后“搞清楚,弄明白”,通常含有“经过困难曲折”的含义,指找出较难找到的、无形的、抽象的东西。 Please find out when the train leaves. 请查一下火车什么时候离站。 Read this passage,and find out the answer to this question.

读这篇短文,找出这个问题的答案。

3. already,still与yet

(1)already用于肯定的陈述句,也可用于疑问句,表示期待肯定回答,或表示惊讶。或用于否定句,也带有否定含义。

When I arrived, he was already there. 我到达时,他已在那儿了。

Is it six o’clock already? 已经到6点钟了吗?

(2)still通常置于句子中间,意为“仍然,依旧”。例如:

She still doesn’t understand. 她仍然不明白。

(3)still还可作形容词,意为“静止”。例如:

The soldier stood there still. 那位士兵站在那一动不动。

(4)yet与already意思相近,一般用于否定句和疑问句中,常置于主要动词之前或句末。例如:

We have not yet been there. 我们还没有到过那儿。

4. other,others,the other,the others,another,any other,any others

(1)other作形容词,通常用在单数或复数名词的前面,意为“别的;其他的;另外的”。 I'll come again some other day. 我改日再来。

(2)others(=other+复数名词) 泛指“部分”含义,用于已知的一些人或物中,除去某些后余下的人或物中的一部分。

The students of Class Four are cleaning the classroom. Some are carrying water,others are sweeping the floor. 四班的学生们在打扫教室。一些人在打水,另一些人在扫地。

(3)the other

the other表示已知的两个(或两部分)人或事物中,特指的“另一个”或“另一些”,其后可跟单数或复数名词。

I have two brothers. One is a doctor,and the other is a teacher.

我有两个兄弟。一位是医生,另一位是教师。

(4)the others(=the other+复数名词)指一定范围内除去一个或一部分后,“余下的人或物的全部”。

This composition is better than the others. 这篇作文比其他那些都好。

(5)another泛指不定数中(三者或三者以上)的“另一个”。another前面不能用定冠词the,它作为限定词(定语)通常与单数名词连用,但是它后面可以跟few或基数词的复数名词。 This glass is broken,get me another please. 这只玻璃杯坏了,请给我再拿一个。 I'll stay here in another few days. 我要在这儿再呆几天。

注意:other和another都可以用来修饰数词,表示“另外的;附加的”,但是结构不同。other的位置是“数词+other+复数名词”,相当于more的用法;而another则是“another+数词+复数名词”。

今天下午我又写了两封信。

I wrote another two letters this afternoon.

=I wrote two other letters this afternoon.

=I wrote two more letters this afternoon.

(6)any other 表示一个之外的其它任何一个,而不是两个之中的另一个。

(7)any others 表示一些之外的其他一些。

一、根据句意和首字母提示完成单词。

1. Have you ever b___________ to a museum?

2. They have p___________ seen the movie. It’s so interesting.

3. I hope that they will have a w______________ time in the amusement park.

4. In the last twenty years great c_____________ have taken place in Linyi.

5. I d_____________ that the most exciting thing in the holiday is traveling.

6. After she g___________ from the university, she became a flight a_________.

7. He has been a tour g______________ for a lot of years.

8. Chinese students are interested in European c_________________.

9. Many people , e_____________ young people like American movies.

二、用所给的正确形式填空。

1. He ___________ ever ___________ (be) to the History Museum several times.

2. — _______________ you ever _____________ (be) to the zoo?

—Yes. I ________ (go) there last summer. I _______ (see) many kinds of animals there.

3. —Where is Mr. Wang?

—He _________ (go) to the library. He wants to borrow some library books.

4. Rodgers ______ (plant) those trees. He _______ (do) it the day before yesterday.

5. We ______ (learn) English for more than two years.

6. When he ____________(finish) his work, he ____________(ring) me up.

三、按要求变换下列句型。

1. They have ever been to an English-speaking country. (一般疑问句)

______________ they ever ______________ to an English-speaking country . (对划线部分提问) _______________________ she ________________ a flight attendant. (对划线部分提问) _______________________ has his father __________________ to America?

4. Linda is taller than any other girl in her class. ( 同义句)

Linda is __________________________ girl in her class.

5. improve , why , you , do , English , want , to , your (连词成句)

______________________________________________________________?

四、单项选择。

( ) 1. —I can sing the song in English. —________.

A. So I can B. So can I C. I can so D. Too can I

( ) 2. —Why don’t you buy one of the scarves for your mum? —They are not ______.

A. beautiful enough B. enough beautiful C. too beautiful D. beautifully enough

( ) 3.The food in the restaurant is good ______ the price is too ______.

A. and ; high B. but ; high C. but ; expensive D. because ; low

( ) 4. I think a dog is a good pet for _________ child.

A. a 6-year-old B. an 6-years-old C. a 6-year old D. a 6 years-old

( ) 5. —I have never been to a water park. —________ I.

A. So have B. Neither have C. So do D. So am

( ) 6. Maybe when I graduate, I’ll think about ________ an English teacher.

A. become B. becoming C. became D. to become

( ) 7. There are about six ________ students in our school.

A. thousand B. thousands C. thousands of D. thousand of

( ) 8. —Have a wonderful time! —___________.

A. Have a wonderful time, too. B. Thank you C. Certainly D. You are welcome

( ) 9. Neither of the two boys ________ from the USA.

A. come B. don’t come C. comes D. doesn’t come

( ) 10. Have you ever seen him ________?

A. ago B. two days ago C. before D. just now

( ) 11. He made some new _________ in science.

A. discovers B. discovered C. discovery D. discoveries

( ) 12. Neither the students nor the teacher ________ the answer to the question.

A. know B. knows C. don’t know D. doesn’t know

( ) 13. Mr. Jack ________ China for several years.

A. has been to B. has come to C. has been in D. came to

( ) 14.—Would you like some tea or coffee? —______ is OK.

A. Neither B. Either C. Both D. Any

( ) 15. His brother ________ for three months.

A. has joined the army B. has been in the army C. has become a soldier D. joined the army

五、完形填空。 ago. 便利). You can see the country you are traveling through. Modern trains have comfortable seats and dining cars. They make even the longest journey(旅程wish—meal, or at a hotel to spend the night. That by car is popular for pleasure trips, ( ) 1. A. impossible B. possible C. good D. bad

( ) 2. A. fastest B. faster C. slowest D. slower

( ) 3. A. spend B. took C. cost D. worth

( ) 4. A. faster B. fast C. slower D. slow

( ) 5. A. enjoy B. harmful C. enjoyable D. tired

( ) 6. A. prefer to B. prefer C. prefers D. prefers to

( ) 7. A. pleased B. pleasure C. pleasant D. please

( ) 8. A. take B. spend C. cost D. visit

( ) 9. A. jeep B. truck C. car D. bike

( ) 10. A. owns B. own’s C. owns’ D. own

( ) 11. A. to B. from C. as D. with

( ) 12. A. whatever B. wherever C. however D. whichever

( ) 13. A. enjoy B. like C. love D. eat

( ) 14. A. what B. why C. where D. which

( ) 15. A. in B. with C. for D. on

六、阅读理解。

A

In the 13th century, the famous Italian traveler, Marco Polo, traveled a long way to China. During his stay in China, he saw many wonderful things. One of the things he discovered was that the Chinese used paper money. In western countries, people didn’t use paper money until 15th century. However, people in China began to use paper money in the 7th.

A Chinese man called Cai Lun invented paper almost 2000 years ago. He put these pieces of paper together and made them in a book.

Now paper comes from trees. We use a lot of paper every day. If we keep on wasting so much paper, there will not be any trees left on the earth. If there are no trees, there will be no paper. So how can we save paper? We can use both of every piece of paper, especially when we are making notes. We can choose drinks in bottles instead of those in paper packets(小包). We can also use handkerchiefs(手帕) and not paper ones. When we go shopping, we can use fewer paper bags. If the shop assistant does give you a paper bag, we can save it and reuse it later.

Everyone can help to save paper. If we all think carefully, we can help protect trees. We should do it now, before it is too late.

( ) 1. When Marco Polo was in China, he _________.

A. discovered Cai Lun invented paper B. learned to make paper

C. discovered Chinese people used paper money D. learned to use paper money

( ) 2. People in Western countries first used paper money in the ________ century.

A. 17th B. 15th C. 13th D. 7th

( ) 3. Which of the following is NOT the way of saving paper?

A. To use both sides of every piece of paper

B. To use the paper bags from shops more than once.

C. To use cotton handkerchiefs instead of paper ones. D. To grow more trees.

( ) 4. Which of the following is not true?

A. If we keep on wasting paper, we will have no paper to use.

B. The Chinese people used paper money earlier than the people in Western countries.

C. A Chinese man called Cai Lun invented paper money about two thousand years ago.

D. We can use the paper bags from the shops again.

( ) 5. Which is the best title of the passage?

A. Saving Paper B. The History of Paper

C. Cotton Handkerchiefs Back Again D. Cai Lun Invented Paper

B

Jack had gone to the university to study history, but at the end of his first year, his history professor(教授) failed him in his exams, and Jack would have to leave the university. However, his father decided that he would go to see the professor to urge(强烈要求) him to let Jack go on his studies the following year.

“He’s a good boy,” said his father, “and if you let him pass this time, I’m sure he’ll improve a lot next year and pass the exam at the end of it really well”

“No, no, that’s quite impossible.” Said the professor at once, “Do you know, last month I asked him when Napoleon had died, and he didn’t know!”

“Please, sir, give him another chance(机会).” Said Jack’s father. “You see, I’m afraid we don’t take any newspapers in our house, so none of us even know that Napoleon was ill.”

( ) 6. Jack would have to leave the university because _________.

A. he didn’t like history B. he didn’t pass the exam

C. he was a good boy D. he didn’t know Napoleon was ill

( ) 7. Jack’s father wanted the professor _______.

A. to tell him a story B. to give Jack a lesson

C. to let Jack pass his exams that time D. to let Jack leave the university

( ) 8. In “at the end of it” the word “it” means _______.

A. Jack’s exams B. the university C. Jack’s first year D. Jack’s second year

( ) 9. “Impossible” means _______.

A. possible B. not possible C. untrue D. not true

( ) 10. Jack didn’t know when Napoleon had died because________.

A. he didn’t do well in his history B. he didn’t take any newspaper

C. he didn’t know Napoleon D. he didn’t know Napoleon left the university

七、翻译下列句子。

1. —我从来没有去过游乐场。你呢? —我也没有。

—I have _________________ to an amusement park. __________________ you?

—_____________________________ I.

2. 以前我从来没读过这么好笑的故事。

I _____________ never ______________ a funny story like ___________________.

3. 你曾经和你的同桌争吵过吗?

_________________ you ever ____________________________ your deskmate?

4. 你为什么想去讲英语的国家工作?

____________ do you want to __________ in an _____________________ country?

5. 我们每天花一个小时做作业。

It _________ us an hour ________________ our ______________.

八、书面表达。

你到过什么地方?你对它有什么深刻的印象?请用英语写一篇短文来介绍你游历过的城市或风景点。80词左右。

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