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新版八年级英语上册知识点Unit 8

发布时间:2014-01-19 11:54:21  

Unit 8 Why don’t you get her a scarf?

【单元目标】

Ⅱ.目标句型:

1. What should I get for sb…? 2. How about sth./doing sth.?

3. How do you like sth.? 4. What about sth./doing sth.?

5. Why don’t you buy/get…? 6. Why not buy/get…?

7. They’re too expensive/cheap/personal… 8. Great!/Good idea!/OK…. I’ll get/buy…

9. My best gift is… 10. It’s good for sb. to…

11. It can make sb….

Ⅲ.重点句型

1. Why don’t sb. do sth.? 2. How about结构 3. too…to结构

【重点词汇】

1. improve

作不及物动词,表示“改进,改善”

例如:

His work is improving slowly. 他的工作提高得很慢。

His health is improving. 他的健康正在好转。

也可作及物动词,表示“使某物改进,改善”。

例如:

He studies harder to improve his English. 他更加努力提高英语水平了。 This is not good enough. I want to improve it. 这还不够好,我要加以改进。

2. remember v. 记住,记起

I can’t remember your name. 我记不起你的名字。

As far as I can remember,this is the third time we’ve met.

我记得这是我们第三次会面了。

remember doing sth表示“记得做某事”;动名词doing具有完成的意义 I remember taking (having taken) the medicine at the right time.

我记得已按时服过药了。(吃过了)

remember to do sth表示“记住去做某事”;不定式to do表示未做的动作

I remember to take the medicine at the right time. 我记住要按照服药。(还没吃)

3. too…to,这个短语虽然是肯定的形式,但是表达的是否定的意思:“太…以至于(不能)…”。

如:

He is too old to work. 他太老了,不能工作了。

The box is too heavy for the little girl to carry. 这箱子太重,小女孩搬不动。 如在too前面或者后面有否定词not,则整个句子表达肯定。

如:

This question is not too difficult to answer. 这道题不太难回答。 He is too clever not to see that. 他很聪明,不会不懂这一点。

4. spend…on 在…上花(时间或金钱)

如:

He spends a lot of money on books. 他花许多钱买书。

I spend half an hour on my homework every day. 我每天要花费半小时做作业。 I always spend weekends with my family. 我经常和我的家人一起过周末。

spend…(in) doing sth.花(时间或金钱等)做某事。

如:

The government will spend money looking after the patients.政府要花钱去照料那些病人

5. instead 代替,替代

作副词,常放在句首或句末

It’s too hot to walk,we’ll go swimming instead. 太热不宜散步,我们改去游泳。 The girl stopped watching TV,she danced instead now. 那个女孩不看电视了,而去跳舞了。

He is tired,let me go instead. 他累了,让我替他去吧。

instead of后跟名词、代词或动名词,表示“代替……,而不是……”。

例如:

He’ll go to Italy instead of France. 他要去意大利而不去法国。

I’ll go instead of him. 我将代替他去。

He played the whole afternoon instead of doing his homework.

他玩了一下午而没做作业。

6. touch 触,碰

The branches of the tree touched the water. 树枝碰到了水面。

Visitors are not allowed to touch the exhibits. 参观者请勿触摸展览品。 Don’t touch that pot;it’s very hot. 不要摸那口锅,它很烫。

常用短语:in touch with 有联系;对某事熟悉

lose touch 失去联系,停止联系

out of touch 无联系;生疏

7. native 本地的,本族的,本国的

Chinese is our native language. 汉语是我们的母语。

It’s a native fruit. 这是一种当地产的水果。

one’s native country / land 本国,祖国

native place 出生地

one’s native language 本国语,本族语

反义词:foreign 外国的;外交的;外国产的;外来的

8. increase 增加,增大,增多

Travel increases one’s knowledge of the world. 旅游提高一个人对世界的认识。 He increased the size of his farm year by year. 他逐年扩大他的农场规模。 The population of this town has increased by 5 percent. 这个镇的人口已经增长了5%。 常用短语: increase by 增加了……

increase to…… 增加到……

9. support 支持;继续;养活

He has a large family to support. 他有一大家子人要养活。

He was supported home by the man. 他被那个人扶回了家。

support 还可作名词,表示“拥护;支持”

There is strong public support for the change. 公众大力支持这一变革。

10. enough 意为“充足,足够”

enough作副词,可用于修饰形容词、副词、动词等,通常置于被修饰语之后。 I don’t know him well enough to ask him for help. 我和他不够熟悉,不好请他帮忙。 This room is big enough for five of us to live in. 这房间给我们5个人住够大了。 enough还可作形容词,用于修饰可数名词复数或不可数名词,置于名词前或后均可。

Do you have enough time? 你的时间够用吗?

We have money enough to buy the house. 我们有足够的钱买这所房子。

11. take care of 表示“照顾,照料,爱惜”是及物的动词短语。

During the illness of their mother the children were taken care of by a neighbor. 在孩子们的母亲患病期间,他们由一位邻居照顾。

A good car should last you a long time if you take care of it.

如果你爱惜的话,一部好汽车会让你长时间使用。

She ought to take care of her health more than she does. 她该比现在更注意健康。

【重难点分析】

1. Why don’t you do sth.?

这是给别人提建议,建议某人做什么事情的句型。

如:

Why don't we come more often? 咱们为什么不经常来这里呢?' Why don't you do it this way? 为什么不用这种方法做呢?

Why don't you have another try? 为什么不再试一次呢?

Why don’t you buy a book for your father? 给你爸爸买本书怎么样? 这个句子还可以写成Why not do…?

如:

Why not get her a camera? 为什么不给她买个相机呢?

这个句型还有发出礼貌地邀请的用法。

如:

Why don’t you have a drink of tea? 请喝茶。= Why not have a drink of tea?

2. How/What about…? 表示“……怎么样/好吗?”

这个句型是询问听话这一方对某事物的看法或者意见。about是个介词,它后面要接名词或者doing。

如:

How about his playing football? 他足球踢得怎么样?

What about swimming with us? 和我们一起游泳怎么样?

How about her English? 她的英语怎样?

3. —When did Joe get it? 乔是什么时候收到的礼物?

—On his sixth birthday. 在他6岁生日时。

(1)on one’s …… birthday 表示“在某人的……岁生日时”,要用序数词。

On his tenth birthday,his parents gave him a new bike as birthday present. 在他10岁生日那天,他的父母给他买了一辆新的自行车作为生日礼物。

(2)介词on表示“在具体的某一天或某一天的上、下午”。

We will have a party on Christmas Day. 圣诞节那天,我们将要举行一个晚会。

4. Is it someone in your family? 是你家里的什么人吗?

句中it用来确指身份不明的人。

--Who is it? 是谁呀?

--It's me,Mary. 是我,玛丽。

--Who is at the door? 谁在门口?

--It's the postman. 是邮递员。(主语是who,身份不明,故用it指代) Mr Smith is at the door.He wants to see you.

史密斯先生在门口,他想见你。(主语是Mr Smith,身份明确,故用he指代)

5. The movie was boring,I fell asleep half way through it. 这部电影令人厌烦。在放映了一半时我就睡着了。

(1)boring表示“令人厌烦的”,bored表示“厌烦的”

The book was boring. When he read the book,he felt bored. 这本书很令人厌烦。当他读的时候,觉得很烦。

bored在这里是过去分词作形容词用,许多动词的现在分词和过去分词均可作形容词,区别在于过去分词有被动意味,常指“……对……感到……”,主语通常是“人”,后面多接介词;而现在分词有主动意味,指“使人……的”,常用作表语,而主语通常是“物”。 例如:

He is interested in science. 他对科学很感兴趣。

The story is very interesting. 这个故事很有趣。

I was surprised at his answer. 我对他的回答感到吃惊。

The result is surprising. 结果使人吃惊。

(2)fall asleep意为“睡着了”,fall是连系动词,asleep是形容词,作表语。

When he was reading,he fell asleep. 他看书时睡着了。

6. In the USA,some people ask their families and friends to give money to charity rather than buying them gifts. 在美国,一些人要求他们的家人和朋友把钱捐给慈善机构而不是给他们买礼物。

(1)本句中两个to,第一个to为不定式符号,后为动词原形,第二个to作介词。 例如:

The teacher asked me to take the books to the classroom 老师让我把书拿到教室里去。

(2)rather than表示“与其……(不如……),不是……(而是……)”是连词词组,可在两个并列的成分中选择,也可连接两个谓语、两个表语、两个主语等。当主句有动词不定式,rather than后可接带to的动词不定式或不带to的动词不定式,也可以用动名词形式。

例如:

Things fall to the earth rather than go up into the air.东西落到地面上而不是飞向天空。 These shoes are comfortable rather than pretty. 这些鞋子谈不上漂亮但穿起来很舒服。 I rather than you,should do the work. 该做这工作的是我,而不是你。

I think I’ll have a cold drink rather than milk. 我想喝冷饮,不想喝牛奶。

The color seems like yellow rather than green. 这颜色看上去更像黄色而不像绿色。

7. People don’t need to spend too much money.

人们不需要花费太多的钱。

(1)need在本句中作实义动词,表示“需要”,有人称、数和时态的变化,其后常接名词、代词或动词不定式作宾语。

Do you need any help? 你需要帮助吗?(名词)

I can give you some help. Do you need it? 我可以帮助你,你需要吗?(代词) I need to go right now 你需要现在就走。(不定式)

need表示“必须”,还可作情态动词,没有人称、数和时态的变化,接动词原形作谓语,直接加not构成否定形式。只用在否定句和疑问句中。

例如:

I needn’t finish that work today. 我今天不必把那项工作做完。

Need you go right now? 你一定得现在走吗?

(2)too much意为“太多”,用于修饰不可数名词。

There is too much time left. 还剩下太多的时间。

8. Later,the same gift may be given away to someone else.

后来,同样的礼品可能被赠送给别人。

该句为含有情态动词的被动语态。give away表示“赠送,捐赠”是固定的短语动词。 例如:

He has decided to give all his money away to charity. 他已决定把所有的钱都捐赠给慈善机构。

I've given the books away to a library. 我已经把那些书捐赠给一家图书馆。 Her little boy had cried so heavily when they had given the dog away.

他们把狗送给别人时,她的小儿子哭得很厉害。

They are giving away free toys when you spend more than $30 in the store.

如果你在那家商店消费超过30美元,他们免费赠送玩具。

9. Twenty-four singers from across China recently competed by singing a number of popular English songs.来自全中国的24名歌手最近通过唱若干首流行英语歌曲来比赛。

(1)句中“by+动名词”表示“通过某种方式或手段”,在句中作方式状语。

I did not think she would do any good by coming over. 我认为她过来不会有什么好处。 There is nothing to gain by waiting. 等待将一无所获。

He taught himself to play the violin by practising all night.

通过整夜练习他自学拉小提琴。

(2)a number of表示“许多,大量,若干”是量词词组,其后只跟可数名词。

The parents were invited to see the program,and a number“people came,too. 父母应邀来看节目,不少人也来了。

There were a number of people out this afternoon. 今天下午许多人出去了。

A number of accidents always occur on such days. 在这种日子里常常有事故发生。

10. If there were new words in a song,I looked them up in the dictionary.

如果在歌曲里有生词,我就查字典。

这是一个含有条件状语从句的主从复合句。主句中look up表示“(在词典、书籍中)查找”。

按照英语习惯用法,“查字典”为look up the words in the dictionary,不说look up the dictionary。另外,look up是“动副”结构的及物的短语动词,名词作宾语置于副词前后皆可,代词作宾语要置于副词之前。

If you don't know the meaning of a word,look it up in a good dictionary.

如果你不知道一个词的意义,就去查一本好词典。

You can look up her telephone number in the book.

你可以在电话簿里查找她的电话号码。

Will you look up a train for me in the timetable?

你可不可以帮我在行车时刻表中查找一个列车车次?

11. As you go to your home by the ocean may you never forget those sweet hours that we spent in the Red River Valley and the love we exchanged mid the flowers.当你通过海洋到你家时,祝你永远不会忘记我们一起在红河谷度过的那些甜蜜时光以及我们一起在花丛中交换的爱情。

这是一个含有时间状语从句的主从复合句,主句中又含有两个定语从句。hours和love既在主句中作forget的并列宾语,又分别是其后定语从句所修饰的先行词。在前一个定语从句中,关系代词that既引导定语从句,又在从句中作spent的宾语;在第二个定语从句的主语we前,省略了既引导定语从句,又在从句中作exchanged宾语的关系代词that或which。主句中may用倒装语序表示祝愿。例如:

May you succeed! 祝你成功!

May you be happy! 祝你幸福!

May God bless you! 愿上帝保佑你!

as用作连接词表示时间关系,用来引导时间状语从句,意思也是“当……的时候”,往往可与when或while通用,但它着重指主句和从句中的动作或事情相并发生。例如: I saw him as he was getting off the bus. 当他下公共汽车时,我看见了他。 As he walked on,he felt himself getting more and more tired. 他继续往前走的时候,感到越来越疲乏。

As the day went on,the weather got worse. 随着时间的推移,天气变得更糟。 I was coming in as he was going out. 我进来时他正出去。

My pen trembles as I write it. 我一边写,笔一边颤抖。

Helen heard the story as she washed. 海伦洗衣服的时候听到这个故事。

As I left the house I remembered the key. 当我们离开房间的时候,我想起了钥匙。

【词语辨析】

1. spend,cost,take,pay表“花费”

(1)spend的主语必须是“人”,宾语可以是钱、精力、时间等。

如:

He spends much money on books. 他平时将很多钱用在买书上。

He spent a lot of money(in)buying a new car. 他花很多钱买了一辆新车。

(2)cost的主语必须是“物”或“事”,表示“费用”、“耗费”,后接life,money,health,time等,侧重于“花费”的代价。

如:

The book cost him one dollar. 这本书用了他一美元。

It costs you 12 pounds to go to London by ship. 乘船到伦敦要用12英镑。

(3)take表示“花费”时,其主语一般是“一件事”,有时主语也可以是人,它说明事情完成“花费了……”。

如:

It took me ten minutes to go to the post office. 到邮局用用了我十分钟时间。 It takes a lot of money to buy a house as big as that. 买一座像那样的房子要花很多钱。

(4)pay的基本意思是“支付”,作为及物动词,宾语可以是“人”、“钱”,

如:

He paid the taxi and hurried to the station. 他付了出租车的钱,急忙向车站赶去。 They had to pay two hundred francs. 他得付一百法郎。

We'll pay you in a few days. 几天后我会给你钱。

(5)pay for的宾语为“物”、“事”,for表示支付的原因。

如:

You'll have to pay me ten dollars a week for your meals. 你得每周付给我十美元饭钱。 注意:

下面两句中 pay for的意义不同。

Of course we have to pay for what we buy. 当然我们买东西得付钱。

Don't worry about money;I'll pay for you.别担心钱,我会替你付的。

2. other与else两者都有“别的,其他的”的含义,但用法有区别:

(1)other是形容词,用于名词的前面;else作副词或形容词用时,常修饰不定代词或疑问代词,并置于其后。

Some are playing football. Other students (或用代词Others) are watching.

一些学生在踢足球,其他的学生在观看。

What else can you see in the classroom? 在教室里你还能看见其他的什么东西?

(2)other与else有时可相互转换。

He is taller than any other student in his class.

= He is taller than anybody else in his class. 他比班里的其他学生都要高。

What else can you see?

=What other things can you see? 你还能看见其他东西吗?

3.receive与accept两者都做“收到”讲,但具体含义有所不同。

(1)receive的意思是“接到”“收到”“受到”。它指“接”“收”的动作或事实,并不包含接收者本人是否“接受”的意思。

I received a letter from my mother. 我收到了母亲的一封信。

We received a warm welcome there. 我们在那里受到了热烈的欢迎。

(2)accept的意思是“接受”“领受”“承认”“接纳”。指经过考虑,同意或愿意接受强调“收到”的结果是“接受”了。

We received the present,but we did not accept it.我们收到了那份礼物,但没有接受它。 He accepted the invitation with pleasure. 他愉快地接受了邀请。

一、用所给单词的正确形式填空。

1. Would you mind ____________ (attend) the meeting instead of me.

2. ____________ (read) in the sun is bad for your eyes.

3. This kind of pet is too _____________ (hair).

4. He was so tired that he fell fast ______________ (sleep).

5. This question is very __________ (easy), and he can answer it _____________(easy).

6. Wang Hong is the ____________ (win) of the contest.

7. Reading English in the morning is a good way ____________ (learn) English.

8. In the barn there are too many _____________ (mouse).

9. They chose this house _____________ (live) in.

二、用所给词的正确形式填空。

Last night the first episode(一段情节) of the series(连续剧Channel 5. It was an interesting science fiction series about a scientist, Professor Spark, and his fantastic(奇异的) time machine. (want) to travel to the future, but something (go) back to the age of the dinosaurs(恐龙 (be) very excited. It was an opportunity(机会) for him to study the Jurassic Period(侏罗纪). The (not know) how to hunt. how to ss knife, a box of matches, and … his brain. ?

三、按要求变换下列句型。

1. He has given away all the gifts to the children.(否定句)

He _________________________ away all the gifts to the children.

2. They thought he was the best writer in the newspaper.(否定句)

They ___________________________ he was the best writer in the newspaper. 对划线部分提问)

________________________________ him this present?

4. It’s not creative enough to buy a scarf for my mother.(同义句)

__________________________________________ a scarf isn’t creative enough.

5. I, have, time, my, do, to , enough, finish, homework, not (连词成句)

__________________________________________________.

四、单项选择。

( )1. — Where are you going?

—I’m going shopping.

—___________? —Certainly.

A. Will you give me pen B. Could you get a pen for me

C. Can I help you D. What are you going to buy

( )2. John is much better than I________.

A. to playing chess B. for playing chess C. at playing chess D. in playing chess

( )3. He has ___________ daughter_______ Mary.

A. a eight years old , name B. an eight-years-old , named

C. an eight-year-old , named D. a eight-year-old , naming

( )4. The classroom is very dirty today. It is hard _______.

A. cleaning B. to clean it C. to cleaning D. to clean

( )5. I don’t think you are right. So I can’t ________ you.

A. agree with B . agree to C. agree on D. agree

( )6. —I’m going to buy a birthday cake.

—_________? —No. My friend’s daughter.

A. Is it your son B. Is it for someone in your family

C. When are going to buy it D. Is it your birthday

( )7. Life _______ a pig isn’t always perfect.

A. of B. with C. from D. to

( )8. After school he didn’t go home. _______ he went to the Internet café.

A. But B. While C. Instead D. Instead of

( )9. In Japan the same gift may ________ to someone else.

A. give back B. give away C. be given back D. be given away

( )10. —Is that your eraser? —No, ______ is red. It must be ________.

A. my , somebody else B. mine , somebody else’s

C. mine , someone else D. my , someone else’s

( )11. The contest ________ during Beijing Olympic Games.

A. will be held B. was held C. will be had D. hold

( )12. Mary likes to learn words _______.

A. in heart B. by heart C. with heart D. into heart

( )13. Mum’s birthday is coming. What about _______ her some flowers?

A. get B. getting C. to get D. got

( )14. He was very excited about _______a picnic.

A. having B. to have C. have D. to having

( )15.—Did you make anyone _______ the word? —Yes. I have made the word _______.

A. to look up , look up B. to look up , looked

C. look up , to be looked up D. look up , looked up

五、完形填空。

A

Once Einstein gave a lecture in many places in America. His driver always listened to him and knew the lecture so well that he was sure he could give it himself. So Einstein agreed that the driver gave the lecture for him.

As nobody knew Einstein there, the driver gave the lecture for Einstein that evening. At first he was a bit afraid, but Einstein's smile made him feel better. He gave a good lecture and the people were quite pleased. Then the driver started to leave and Einstein followed him without a word.

When they got to the door, a man asked the driver a difficult question. The driver said that the question was very easy, and told the man to ask his driver behind to answer it.

根据短文内容填空, 每空限填一词

Einstein gave the (1) _______ lecture again and again. His driver (2) _______ to his lecture so many times (3) _________ he wanted to give it (4)_______. When Einstein knew it, he let the driver (5) ________ the lecture for him that night. The driver gave a (6) ________ lecture and the great scientist was quite pleased. When they were (7) ________ the lecture room, a man asked the driver a question. To show (8) __________ easy the question was, the driver asked Einstein who followed him (9) ________ to answer it (10) ________ of him.

B

对话填空,在对话空白处填上一个合适的词,使对话意思完整(10分)

A:B’ s. She likes to collect beautiful things.

A:No. It(be hers. She likes to collect cards but not album.

B:Look! There’ it.

A:“Your daughter, Mary!”B:Really? Happy birthday to you!

A:you! I’ today.

六、阅读理解。

A

I’m taking my family to other countries to have a trip. My wife and I and our two children are all going along. My elder brother will go with us, too. He has never been overseas and he is even more excited than the children. My father is so old that he’d like to stay at home and take care of the house.

We’re going by train to New York, and then take a ship to Europe . When we arrive in Europe, we’re going to some countries for sightseeing (观光). We’ll go to places either by train or by bus. We’re going to fly home.

It took us a long time to decide where to go, but I think we’ll have a very interesting trip. We’ll go to England, France and Italy. We also talked about how we would go to Europe. At first we wanted to fly because it would be faster and would save more time, But my brother likes to take a boat trip and the children like that, too.

( ) 1. How many people of the family will go to have a trip?

A. Three B. Four C. Five D. Six

( ) 2. My father will not go on the trip because ____.

A . he doesn’t like travels B. staying at home is more interesting

C. he is too old to travel D. nobody wants to take him along

( ) 3 . We’re coming back home by_____ .

A. sea B. air C. bus D. train

( ) 4. In Europe we will _____.

A. go sight-seeing at the seaside B. to go to different countries by ship

C. buy a lot of presents D. go from place to place by train or by bus

( ) 5. My brother and my children would like to _____.

A. do some shopping in Europe B. study the Italian language in Italy

C. enjoy a trip by ship D. learn French in France

B

Bill Gates was born on October 28, 1955. He grew up in Seattle, Washington. He was a very clever boy. His favorite subjects at school were science and math. When he was 13, he started to play with computers. At that time, computers were large machines. Once he was very interested in a very old computer. He and some of his friends spent lots of time doing unusual things with it. In the end, they worked out a software program with the old machine. Bill sold it for $4,200 when he was only 17.

In 1973, Bill went to Harvard University(哈佛大学). In his third school year, he left Harvard to work for a company called Microsoft. Bill began his company in 1975 with his friend Paul Allen. They thought the computer would come into every office and every home soon. So they began developing(发展) the software for personal computers. They improved(改进) the software to make it easier for people to use computers.

( ) 6. Bill Gates grew up in _______.

A. Canada B. Australia C. America D. Germany

( ) 7. What subjects did Bill like best at school?

A. Science and math B. Languages and art C. Math and languages D. Music and P.E

( ) 8. Bill’s company worked hard at _______.

A. making large machines B. playing computer games

C. mending old machines D. developing software

( ) 9. Bill started to play with computers ______.

A. in 1955 B. in 1968 C. in 1973 D. 1975

( ) 10. The word “personal” means _______.

A.个人的 B.公众的 C.大型的 D.昂贵的

七、翻译下列句子。

1. 明天是我哥的生日, 我该给他买点什么呢?

Tomorrow is my _______________. ____________ I ___________________ for him?

2. 你曾经受到的最好的礼物是什么?

What’s the ____________________ gift you _____________________?

3. 大肚猪太难照顾。

Pot-bellied pigs are _______ difficult ________________________.

4. 在不同国家送礼不同。

_______________ is different in _______________________________.

5. 他想和他妈一起去也不愿一个人呆在家里。

He wanted ____________ with his mother ____________________ at home all by himself.

八、书面表达。

你上次生日是怎么过的?请用英语写一篇短文, 介绍你的上次生日。

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