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发布时间:2014-01-19 12:53:43  

A Good Heart to Lean On

Lead-in
How many kinds of love should we keep in mind?
Tips

Love between family members

Maternal love

Children’s love for their parents
Paternal love

Lead-in
How many kinds of love should we keep in mind?
Tips

Romantic love

Love between friends

Care for people around

Lead-in
How many kinds of love should we keep in mind?
Tips

Love for the nature

Love for animals

Background Information Manhattan
Manhattan is a suburb of New York.

Brooklyn
Brooklyn is a suburb of New York.

Ebbets Field
Ebbets Field was the stadium built by and named after Charlie Ebbets, the owner of the Brooklyn Dodgers baseball team.

Dodgers
Dodgers: the name of a baseball team; the team originally played in Brooklyn, but now plays in Los Angeles, California.

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Text Study Notes to the Text Words and Expressions Writing

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Understanding Structure Analysis Summary

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Text Study—Understanding

I. Understanding
The text tells a man’s memory of his father. Now find the topic of each part and answer the questions with the help of the key words given.

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Text Study—Understanding

Find the topic
____ e Paras. 1—2
____ d Paras. 3—4

a. What my father looked for was
a good heart, not pity.

b. I miss my father very much. c. My father participated in many
things in some way.

a Paras. 5—7 ____

____ c Paras. 8—11 d. How my father went to work. ____ b Paras.12—13 e. I was embarrassed to be seen with my father.

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Text Study—Understanding

Paras. 1—2

1. How did the writer feel to be seen with his father when he was young? Why?
embarrassed, crippled, unwanted attention 2. What did the father always say when he started out with his son? set the pace, adjust to

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Text Study—Understanding

Paras. 3—4

3. Why can going to work be a matter of pride?
nasty, sick, others could not 4. How did the father go to work when the weather was very bad? wagon, cling, tunnel basement

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Text Study—Understanding

Paras. 5—7 5. Why do I now feel amazed at what my father did? amazed, courage, subject to, shame, stress 6. What is a proper standard to judge people? a good heart

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Text Study—Understanding

Para. 8 A general point: My father tried to participate in many activities in some way.

Example 1
keep the team going as a manager

Example 2 go to dances and parties

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Text Study—Understanding

Para. 11
I now know he participated in A general point: some things through me, his only son.

Example 1 played ball

Example 2 joined the Navy

Example 3
visited his office

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Text Study—Understanding

Paras. 12—13

Why does the writer often think of his father, now that his father has been gone for many years?
sorry, unworthy, regretted, trifles, fortune, a good heart

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Text Study—Structure Analysis

II. Structure Analysis
A. The Way to Develop This Passage:
Narrations + Comments How does a crippled father help his son keep balance through his deep care for others? The writer

narrates this story with comments. Can you identify the comments from the narration?

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Text Study—Structure Analysis

Paragraphs
1—4 5

Ways of Development
Narration __________ Comments

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7

Narration
Comments ___________

8—11
12—13

Narration
Comments ____________

Typical expressions for narrating?

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Text Study—Structure Analysis

Typical Expressions for Narrating
? When I/he/sth.…

? I/he would…
? At such times… ? On one occasion… ? The next day… Work in pairs. Find as many such expressions as you can in the text.

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Text Study—Structure Analysis

B. The Way to Develop Paragraphs:
General Point + Examples The story includes some paragraphs in which the writer starts with a general point and then presents a number of examples to support his point. Look at one of the paragraphs.

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Text Study—Structure Analysis

Example 1 Paragraph 11 = General Point + Example 2 Example 3

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Text Study—Structure Analysis

The General Point :
I now know he participated in some things through me, his only son.

Example 1: When I played ball (poorly), he “played”
too.

Example 2: When I joined the Navy, he “joined” too. Example 3: And when I came home on leave, he
saw to it that I visited his office...

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Text Study—Summary

III. Summary
When I was growing up, I was ___________ embarrassed to be seen with my _______________ severely crippled father. He would _____ lean on me but it was difficult to _________ coordinate our steps. He went to work ____________ despite nasty weather, sometimes in a child’s wagon. I am _______ amazed at how much courage it must have taken for a grown man subject himself to such shame and stress to ______ _____.

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Text Study—Summary

Unable to _______ engage in many activities, my father still tried to participate in some things through me, his only son. He never invited pity for himself, nor showed ____ envy of the more able. He has been gone many years now, but I think of him often. I want to say to him: You set the _____. pace I will try to _____ adjust to you. __

Focus Study Useful Expressions

Focus Study
1. A good heart to lean on. (title) Meaning: A good heart to depend on for support and encouragement.(可依赖的好心;善心可依 ) 2. More than I realized, Dad has helped me keep my balance. (sub-title) Meaning: I did not realize fully that it is Dad who helped me keep the equal state of my mind.(我没有完全意识到,正是父亲帮助我保 心理平衡。)

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Notes to the Text—Focus Study

3. If he ever noticed or was bothered, he never let on. (L4)
ever 从来, 曾经, 究竟

a.用于否定句、疑问句和条件从句:从来 b.用于表示比较的从句:曾经 c.用于特殊疑问句:究竟,到底,用任何方式
___ b It is raining harder than ever. a Nothing ever makes him angry. ___ ___ c Who ever can it be?

4. I would inwardly struggle at the unwanted attention.(L3) Meaning: In the mind I would battle

my negative feelings about the attention which I didn’t want. (我很

反感这些讨厌的注视。)
5. Once there, he would cling to the hand-rail until he reached the lowest steps that the warmer tunnel air kept free of ice. (L14) Once he was there, …(When the subject of the main clause is the same as that of the subordinate clause, sometimes, the subject of the subordinate clause can be omitted.) ? ?Ex. VI, P63

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Notes to the Text—Focus Study

Once there, he would cling to the handrail until he reached the lower steps that the warmer tunnel air kept free of ice. The long sentence can be divided into: ① he would cling to the handrail ② until he reached the lower steps

③ that the warmer tunnel air kept free of ice
他就紧抓着地铁通道口的扶手/一直往下走/ 因为地铁空气暖和,下面几级台阶没有冰雪。 Tips for translating long sentences

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Notes to the Text—Focus Study

Tips for translating long sentences 长句: 修饰语多; 并列成分多; 语言结构层次多 1. 找出全句的主、谓、宾语,从整体上把握句 子的结构。 2. 找出句中所有的非谓语动词、介词短语和从 句的引导词。

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Notes to the Text—Focus Study

3. 分析从句和短语的功能。例如,是否为主语从 句、宾语从句、表语从句等。 4. 分析词、短语和从句之间的相互关系。例如, 定语从句所修饰的先行词是哪一个。 5. 注意插入语等其他成分。 6. 注意分析句子中是否有固定词组或固定搭配。

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Notes to the Text—Focus Study

6. When I think of it now, I feel greatly surprised at how much courage it must have taken for my father to experience such shame and stress. (L18) Normally, when you clip the modifiers (修饰语), you will see the key idea. A modifier can be a clause, prepositional phrase, adverbial phrase, indefinite phrase, etc.
e.g.

The key idea: I feel greatly surprised.

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Notes to the Text—Focus Study

7. He never talked about himself as an object of pity, nor did he show any envy of the more fortunate or able. (L21) never…, nor… 从不……, 也从不……

I have never been to Paris, nor ____ has my wife.
He is not a football fan, nor_____ am I .

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Notes to the Text—Focus Study

8. Now that I am older, I believe that is a proper standard by which to judge people... (L24) which to judge: 疑问词 + 不定式

Translation
? 我真不知道该说什么。 ? 你已经决定国庆节去哪儿了吗? ? I really don’t know what to say. ? Have you decided where to go for the National Day?

? 9. Unable to engage in many activities, my father still tried to…(L27) ? ?Although he was unable to… ? Introducing me, he was really saying,… (L41) ? ?When he was introducing me, he was… ? [In English, adjectival phrases and -ing verb phrases are often used as adverbials showing time, condition, reason, concession, and so on.] ? e.g. Staying up ver

y late last night, he didn't wake up until 11:00 AM. ? ?Because he stayed up…

English Equivalents of Chinese

1. 保持心态平衡 2. 表露出来 3. 协调步伐 4. 确定步速 5. 带病上班 6. 引以为荣的事 7. 流露出对· · · · · · 的羡慕 8. 在某人身上寻找· · · · · · 9. 用于判断人的标准 10. 以某种方式

to keep one’s balance to let on to coordinate one’s steps to set the pace to go to work sick to be a matter of pride to show envy of… to looked for… in sb.
standards by which to judge people

in some way

English Equivalents of Chinese

11. 使· · · · · · 正常运转 12. 享受做· · · · · · 的乐趣 13. 爆发 14. 满足于做某事 15. 在极度无助的情况下 16. 要求假装被打倒 17. 参与 18. 休假回家 19. 嫉妒别人 20. 找回心理平衡

to keep… going to have a good time doing… to break out to be content to do sth. in frustration to be urged to take a dive to participate in to come home on leave to be envious of others to regain one’s balance of mind

Creative Application of Expressions

靠在· · · · · · 上/依靠
及时赶到/办到/做到 依附/依靠/坚持 没有· · · · · · 的/免于· · · · · · 的 务必做到

to lean on to make it to cling to

free of
to see (to it) that

Word Using
Old to New Chinese to English

Word Experiencing

New Words & Expressions
lean: be against a wall or other surface 倚;靠
lean on/against eg. There is a ladder leaning against/on the wall. 有一架梯子靠在墙上。 balance: consider in relation to sth. else; compare 权衡,比较 eg. You have to balance the positive points of living in a big city against the negative ones. 你必须权衡居住在大城市的利弊。 balance of nature生态平衡;off balance 差点摔倒,不平衡 in the balance 结果未定的;

severe
severe shortage/wound/ pain 严重短缺/重伤/剧痛 severe limitation/discipline严格的限制/纪律 severe test/ competition严峻的考验/激烈的竞争

inward---outward ;inwardly--- outwardly bother
vt. make sb. feel worried or upset 使苦恼 eg. His rudeness bothers me. 我讨厌他的粗鲁。 vi. make an effort to do sth. 尽力,费心 eg. Few people ever bothered to talk to him. 很少有人费心和他讲话。

halt
bring to a halt使停止 call /cry a halt(命令)停止,结束
come to /make a halt 停止

impatient: easily annoyed; not patient
不耐烦的,没有耐心的 be impatient with eg.你对她太没耐心了,她还只是个孩子。 You‘re too impatient with her. She’s only a child.

pace
to walk at an easy/ a quick pace 从容地走/快步走 to keep pace with the time 跟上时代的步伐 set the pace 起带头作用

adjust
adjust (sth./oneself ) to sth. eg. The body quickly adjusts itself to changes in temperature. 人体能很快自行调节以适应气温变化。

despite + n./ doing sth.
in spite of / regardless of

eg.尽管天气不好, 他

们的假日仍然过得很愉快。 They had a wonderful holiday despite the bad weather.

cling (clung, clung)
(to) hold sb. or sth. tightly |抱住,抓紧 eg. They clung to each other as they said goodbye. 他们告别时紧紧相拥。 (to) continue to believe or do sth. |坚持,忠于 eg. She clung to the hope that he was still alive. 她仍希冀他还活着。

amaze
be amazed at We were amazed at the change in his appearance. 我们对他外表的改变感到惊讶。

stress
under/driven by (the) stress of 为…所迫,为…所驱使 eg. He is under stress because he has too much work to do. 由于要做的工作太多,他感到压力很大。 lay/place/ put stress on/ upon 着重于,把重点放在…上 eg.那所学校注重英语。 That school lays stress on English.

complain
complain of / about We've received many complaints about goods quality. 我们收到了不少关于有关产品质量的投诉。

envy/ envious
be envious of sth./ show envy of

engage
be engaged in (doing) sth.从事…, 忙于… =be busy with eg. He is engaged in his second novel. to engage in =to take part in or involved in eg. We tried to engage him in conversation, but in vain. 我们设法使他们跟我们谈话,但没成功。 be engaged to sb. 与某人订婚 eg. 他和那个教授的女儿订婚了。 He was engaged to the daughter of the professor. ? engaged a.忙碌的,使用中的; 已订婚的
? engagement n.订婚; 约会; 保证

occasion on occasion(s)有时,间或 He has been known on occasion to lose his temper. 大家都知道他有时会发脾气。 on the occasion of 在…之际

urge
urge(sb.) to sth./ to do sth./ that 力劝;敦促 eg. The President urged his staff to action. 总统鼓励他的阁僚们采取行动。 She urged him to stay with her. 她力劝他留下和她在一起。 The report urged that all children be taught to swim. 这份报告呼吁教所有的儿童游泳。

reluctance
adj. reluctant be reluctant to do sth.:be unwilling to do sth. She is reluctant to go with her classmates.

worthy
be worthy of (doing) sth./ being done be worthy to do sth. eg. What he has done is worthy of praise/ being praised/ is worthy to be praised. 他所做的事值得表扬。

worth
be worth (doing) sth. eg. The novel is worth reading.

worthwhile
It is worthwhile doing/ to do sth. eg. It is worthwhile to read the novel in our free time.

let on : tell sb. sth., esp. sth. that has been kept secret
泄露,透露
eg. She never let on she was married.

她从不透露她已经结婚。

make it:
manage to arrive somewhere on time 及时赶到 eg.你们一定要及时赶到机场。 Try your best to make it to the airport.

be successful at sth. |办到,做到
eg. I knew that he would make it when I first saw him. 第一次看到他,我就知道他会尽力办到的。

break out :begin to happen 突然发生,爆发
eg. A fire broke out in the basement of the building. 大楼的地下室发生了火

灾。

on leave: away from work or duty| 休假
eg. I‘m in charge of the department when the manager is on leave. 经理休假时,由我主管本部门工作。

see (to it) that: make sure that sth. is done |务必做到
eg. Will you see to it that everyone gets a ticket for the concert? 请确保每人都拿到音乐会的票。

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Words and Expressions—Word Using

A mini-test
1. We went to see the exhibition ____ the storm. A. but for B. in spite C. in spite of D. despite of 2. My camera can be ______ to take pictures in cloudy or sunny conditions. A. treated B. adjusted C. accepted D. suited

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Words and Expressions—Word Using

3. He leaned ______ the view that we started off at once. A. towards B. over C. on D. upon 4. She always makes some _______ over shortages and high prices. A. dislikes B. complaints C. troubles D. discontents

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Words and Expressions—Word Using

5. The manager assured the customer that his complaint would be seen _____ immediately. A. on B. at C. to D. with

6. _____ his great wealth, he always remained a man of simple tastes.
A. Except for C. Although B. With regard to D. Despite

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Words and Expressions—Old to New

II. Old to New
seriously begin a journey surprise exactly join help force make sure
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

severely start out amaze precisely engage in aid urge see to

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Words and Expressions—C to E

III. Chinese to English
保持平衡 难堪 协调一致 缺勤 免受…… 使……遭受 参加(活动) 开玩笑
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

keep one’s balance embarrass coordinate miss free of subject to engage in/participate in... kid

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Structured Writing Practical Writing

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Writing—Structured Writing

I. Structured Writing

Normally, a writer starts with a general point and then presents a number of examples to support his point.

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Writing—Structured Writing

a general point example 2

example 1 example 3

Living by the sea has many advantages. They include a milder, less extreme climate; access to a wide variety of fish and shellfish; and an easy means of transport and communication. These factors have meant t h a t m o s t c o a s t a l s i t e s were developed early in human history.

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Writing—Structured Writing

A general point: living by the sea has many advantages.

Example 1: less extreme climate

Example 2: access to a wide variety of fish and shellfish

Example 3: easy means of transport and communication

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Writing—Structured Writing

Writing Task
Write your own paragraph, which starts with a general point with some examples to support it. Topic: Difficulties in Learning English

Tips for Writing

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Writing—Structured Writing

Tips for Writing
1. Decide on the topic. 2. Write correctly the topic sentence. 3. Turn the topic sentence into a question. 4. Give answers to the question.

For your reference

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Translation
? 1. to decide to accept the new post; be well paid ? I have decide

d to accept the new post. ? Even though it is not well paid. ? I have decided to accept the new post, even though it is not very well paid.

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? 2. The job is thought to be simple. ? until it is really started. ? The job has been thought to be simple until ( it is )really/ actually started.

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? 3. Now that you are planning to move to Canada. ? You must try to adjust to the cold weather in winter. ? Now that you are planning to move to Canada, you must try to adjust to the cold weather in winter.

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? 4. He promised to help us (to) buy the house, but with a little reluctance.

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? This is an important meeting. ? Please see (to it) that you are not late for it.

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? He is an experienced businessman. ? He has engaged in foreign trade for quite a few years. ? He is an experienced businessman who has engaged in foreign trade for quite a few years.

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The End of Section A

To Section B


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