Week 9 应用文翻译 – 城市介绍
? 总体来说，翻译作业中语病较少，翻 译译文质量较高。
? 部分译文语篇意识较弱，每个句子基本没 有语病，但放在一起，构成一个篇章，读 起来语感不好。 ? 问题如下： ? 1. 没有照顾到中英文的衔接连贯方式不同。 ? 译文从头到尾都重复Beijing一词语，没有 适当地替换。 ? 2. 在构成语篇时，通常每句话都是“主 位—述位”，也就是从已知信息到未知信 息的句子组织方式。如果打乱了这个顺序， 句子之间的衔接可能就不流畅。
? 北京是中华人民共和国的首都，是中国政治、经济和文化中心。北京历史悠 久。在战国时期（公元前475年—公元前221年）北京曾经是燕国的首都。从 公元12世纪开始，北京又先后成为金、元、明、清4个封建王朝的国都。最后 一个封建王朝—清朝—在辛亥革命中被推翻了。 ? 在20世纪20年代初，北京成了中国新民主主义革命的摇篮。1919年一场波澜 壮阔的反帝、反封建的学生运动—五四运动就是从这里开始的。这场运动最 终导致了1921年中国共产党的建立。1949年10月1日，毛主席就是在北京向 全世界宣告中华人民共和国成立了。 ? 北京地处华北平原北部，北、东、西3面环山。城市面积16800平方公里，折 合6486平方英里。年平均气温55华氏度，也就是说11.9摄氏度。年平均降雨 24英寸，或是696毫米。 ? 北京的人口已经超过1000万，其中城区人口600多万，郊区400多万。北京市 包括4个区，6个近郊区，9个远郊区。
? Beijing, the capital of the People’s Republic of China, is the country’s political, economic, and cultural center. The city’s long history dates back to very early times. During the Warring States Period between 475 and 221 B.C., it was the capital of the state of Yan. From the 12th century onward, Beijing was the capital of 4 feudal dynasties – the Jin, Yuan, Ming, and Qing. The last dynasty, the Qing, was overthrown during the Revolution of 1911.
? In the early 1920’s, Beijing became the cradle of China’s new democratic revolution. The May Fourth Movement, a massive student movement against imperialism and feudalism, began here in 1919. This movement eventually led to the founding of the Chinese Communist Party in 1921. It
was in Beijing on October 1, 1949 that Chairman Mao Zedong proclaimed to the world the founding of the People’s Republic of China. ? Geographically, Beijing is located in the northern part of the North China Plain, surrounded by mountains on the north, east, and west. The city covers an area of 16，800 sq. km., or 6，486 sq. mi. The annual temperature averages 55 degrees Fahrenheit, or 11.9 degrees Centigrade. The annual rainfall averages 24 in., or 696mm. ? Beijing has a population of more than 10 million; over 6 million live in the urban area, and over 4 million on the outskirts. The city of Beijing consists of 4 urban districts, 6 suburban districts and 9 outlying counties.
? a port on the sea ? the Oriental Pearl ? China’s largest seaports and major industrial and commercial center ? China’s political, economic and cultural center ? China’s important center of economy, finance, trade, science and technology, information and culture ? an international economic, financial and trade center ? playing a leading role in boosting economic development ? 在经济发展上保持着这一龙头地位 ? attract ? unique charm
? an international metropolis ? One of the noted historic and cultural cities in China ? 中国的历史文化名城 ? Sheshan State Holiday Resort ? Dianshan Lake Scenic Area ? the Sun Island Holiday Resort ? Shanghai regional culture ? China’s major eastern gate to the outside world ? Having merchantile ties with … ? over 70 sites of historical interest and cultural relics under the protection of the state and municipal governments
? the Exhibition of the World’s Architecture ? a complete collection of buildings with different architectural styles ? the Finance and Trade Building ? the International Convention Center ? elevated inner beltway ? a tourist destination that boasts quite a few tourist attractions and holiday resorts ? a cherished paradise for gourmets ? authentic Muslim and vegetarian foods
? combining the cultures of the south and the north ? melting the cultures of the east and the west ? a modernized international metropolis ? Visit Xi’an , and you will know China’s history of 2000 years; visit Beijing, 500 years; visit Shanghai, 100 years
? Beijing, also known as Peking, is a metropolis in northern China, and the capital of the People's Republic of China. Governed as a municipality under direct administration of the central government, Beijing borders Hebei Province to the north, west, south, and for a small section in the east, and Tianjin Municipality to the southeast. Beijing is one of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China.
? Beijing is divided into 14 urban and suburban districts and two rural counties. ? Beijing is a major transportation hub, with dozens of railways, roads and motorways passing through the city. It is also the destination of many international flights arriving
in China. ? Beijing is recognized as the political, educational, and cultural center of the People's Republic of China, while Shanghai and Hong Kong predominate in economic fields.
? Few cities in the world besides Beijing have served as the political and cultural centre of an area as immense as China for so long. Beijing is renowned for its opulent （豪华的 ）palaces, temples, and huge stone walls and gates. Its art treasures and universities have long made the city a centre of culture and art in China.
? Mao Zedong proclaiming the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949. On 31 January 1949, during the Chinese Civil War, Communist forces entered Beijing without opposition. On 1 October of the same year, the Communist Party of China, under the leadership of Mao Zedong, announced in Tiananmen the creation of the People's Republic of China and renamed the city back to Beijing.
? At the time of the founding of the People's Republic, Beijing Municipality consisted of just its urban area and immediate suburbs. The urban area was divided into many small districts inside what is now the 2nd Ring Road. The Beijing city wall was torn down to make way for the construction of the 2nd Ring Road.
? The city's climate is a rather dry, monsooninfluenced humid continental climate, characterised by hot, humid summers due to the East Asian monsoon, and generally cold, windy, dry winters. Spring can bear witness to sandstorms blowing in from the Mongolia, accompanied by rapidly warming, but generally dry, conditions. Autumn, like spring, sees little rain but is crisp and short. January averages ?3.7 °C (25.3 °F), while July averages 26.2 °C (79.2 °F). Annual precipitation is around 570 mm (22.4 in), and the majority of it falls in the summer months. Extremes have ranged from ?27.4 to 42.6 °C (-17 to 109 °F).
? A leading global city, New York exerts a powerful influence over global commerce, finance, media, culture, art, fashion, research, education, and entertainment. As host of the United Nations Headquarters, it is also an important center for international affairs.
? Located on a large natural harbor, the city consists of (is composed of): five boroughs The Bronx（布朗克斯 ）, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island（斯塔滕岛 ）. ? The city's 2009 estimated population approached (estimated at )8.4 million, and with a land area of 305 square miles (790 km2), New York City is the most densely populated major city in the United States.
在纽约的五大区中，曼哈顿（Manhattan）最为出名，它的建筑 密度很高，高楼林立，是美国金融和贸易的中心，有人说这里是 把人类智慧变为财富的地方。 而曼哈顿也是富人钟情的居住区域 。沿着世界上富有盛名的中央公园（Central Park）向北向东， 就是纽约有名的上东区（Upper East Side），这里聚集了金融 、投资银行的富豪们。
? New York s
erved as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. ? New York City is located in the Northeastern United States, in southeastern New York State. The city's land area is estimated at 304.8 square miles (789 km2). Its total area is 468.9 square miles (1,214 km2 ). 164.1 square miles (425 km2) of this are water and 304.8 square miles (789 km2) is land.
? New York City has a humid subtropical climate. The area averages 234 days with at least some sunshine annually, for an average of 2540 hours of bright sunshine per year. Winters are cold and wet. The average temperature in January, the area's coldest month, is 32.1 °F (0.1 °C). However temperatures in winter could for a few days be as low as 20 °F (?7 °C) and as high as 60 °F (16 °C). Spring and autumn are unpredictable, and can range from chilly to warm, although they are usually pleasantly mild with low humidity. Summers are typically hot and humid with a July average of 76.5 °F (24.7 °C).
? The city receives 49.7 inches (1,260 mm) of precipitation annually, which is fairly spread throughout the year. Average winter snowfall for the past century has been 28 inches (71 cm), but this usually varies considerably from year to year, and snow cover usually remains for a few days. Hurricanes and tropical storms are rare in the New York.
? The city's population density, low automobile use and high transit utility make it among the most energy efficient cities in the United States. Its greenhouse gas emissions are 7.1 metric tons per person compared with the national average of 24.5. New Yorkers are collectively responsible for 1% of the nation's greenhouse gas emission though they comprise 2.7% of the nation's population.
? Tourism is one of New York City's most vital industries, with more than 40 million combined domestic and international tourists visiting each year in the past five years.