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牛津8B Unit 1 Grammar(B)

发布时间:2014-01-20 11:51:20  

8B
Unit 1 Past and Present

Grammar (B)

Learning aims
? 1.能够在语境中正确运用现在完成时。 ? 2.运用现在完成时谈论发生在过去并与现 在有联系的事情。 ? 3.理解并运用常与现在完成时连用的时间 表达方式。

Did it….?

Has it ….?

Did they….? Have they ….?

Did they….?

Have they ….?

Did he….?

Has he ….?

Did she….?

Has she ….?

Did it….?

Has it ….?

Have a try!
她以前曾去过上海。 She has been to Shanghai before. 他在上海10年了。 She has been in Shanghai for ten years 他已学英语五年了。
He has studied English for five years.

他去上海了。 He has gone to Shanghai.

现在完成时的时间状语
◆常与不确定的时间状语连用,如:already,

never, ever, just, yet, before, up to now, so far, for the last few weeks等, 表示“到目前为止”所发生的动作. ◆还可以和包括现在在内(到说话时仍未结束) 的,表示一段时间的状语连用,如:now, today, this morning (afternoon, evening, week, month, year), these days, since, for a long time等.

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现在完成时的主要用法
一.表示从过去某一时刻开始并一直延 续到现在的动作或事情,但动作或事 情现在已经结束。 Someone has just turned off the light. (有人刚把灯关了。)

I have already finished my homework.
(我已经完成了家庭作业。)
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现在完成时的主要用法
二.表示从过去某一时刻开始并一直延 续到现在的动作或事情,但动作或事情可能仍在继 续。

I want to see how much the place has changed since I saw it last.
我想看看从上次见到那地方以来它发生了多大 变化。

I have learnt English for more than ten years.
我已经学了 10 多年的英语。 上一页

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现在完成时的主要用法
三.表示人曾有过或到目前为止从 未有过的经历.
Have you ever been to the Summer Palace?
(你曾去过颐和园吗?)

I have never had a car.
(我从未有过汽车。)

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现在完成时的主要用法
四.现在完成时还常与句型 This is the first time…,It’s the first time …连用。

This is the first time he has driven a car . 这是他第一次开车。

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现在完成时的主要用法
五.现在完成时和最高级连用表示到现 在为止是最…的。
What a boring film!
一部多么令人厌烦的电影啊!

It’s the most boring film I’ve ever seen.这是我看过的最令人厌烦的电影。

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现在完成时的知识点检查
has written (write)the 1.He_______

yet. repaired 修理)your bike yet? 2.____you_____( Have have come 3.Computers_____(come)into use recently 近来). ______( seen any exhibitions 4._____you____ ___ _____ (看展览) Have recently?No.Is it about changes century in Beijing over the past_____( 世纪)? 5.He____ ______ ____ ______(忘记标 题),hasn

’forgotten t he? has the title
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sentence

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★一、since短语或从句表示过去的动

作延续至今,since之后的时间为一点。
Mr. Smith has worked here since 1984.
(1984年以来,史密斯先生一直在这工作。)

He’s learned about 5,000 English words since he went to college.
(他上大学以来大约学了五千个英语单词。)

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★二、for短语表示动作延续多长时

间,for的宾语为时间段。
1.We have known each other for

twenty years. (我们认识有二十年 了。) 2.I haven’t seen her for a long time.
(我好久没有见到她了。)

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选用 for和 since填空:
for a long time. 1.We haven’t seen each other ______ since 10 years 2.His father has been in the Party ______ ago. for 3.The film has been on ______ 20 minutes. since he came to 4.Mr Green has worked here ______ China. for 5.His grandparents have been dead ______ several years. since we met last time. 6. It’s five years _______
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for后面应该接“段时间”; since后面应该接“点时间”或者“句子”。
关键点: 1 since for 主句都用现在完成时,主句动词为延续性. 2 since引导的从句通常采用“一般过去时”

★just,

recently是完成时的时间状语, just now 有a moment ago 之意,是 一般过去时的时间状语。 The train has just arrived.
(火车刚到。)

Did you see Joan just now?
(你刚才看到琼了吗?)

Have you heard from your family lately/recently?
(你最近收到家人的来信了吗?)

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lost 1.I______(lose)my pen just now. have lost I______ just _____(lose)my pen .
(我刚才丢了钢笔) has bought 2.She_____ just _____(buy) a book. bought She_______ (buy) a book just now. (她刚才买了本书)

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★七、ever和never也是现在完成时常

见的时间状语。前者意思是“曾 经”,多见于疑问句或否定句中; 后者意思是“从来没有”,表示全 部否定。 “Have you ever seen the film?” “No. I have never seen it.”
(“你曾经看过这部影片吗?” “没有, 从来没看 过。”)

Nobody in our class has ever been there. (我们班没有人去过那。)
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★八、already和yet常见于现在完成时

中,有“已经”之意。前者一般用 在肯定句中,后者用在疑问句中。 yet在否定句中有“还”之意。
“Has the bus left yet”? “Yes. It has already left.” “No. It hasn’t left yet.
“汽车开走了吗?” “是的,已经开走了。” “不,还没有开走。 ”
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“already” 用于现在完成时的肯定句中, “yet” 用于现在完成时的否定句和疑问句中. 用“already” “yet”填空
He has ( already ) visited many places in China. ( ) already 注意 "already" 在句中的两种位置. The train hasn't arri

ved yet .火车(到现在) 还没有到。 Has she arrived yet ? 她已经到了吗? Hasn't he come ? 她还没来吗? yet

Complete their conversation using the present perfect tense of the verbs in brackets with the correct time expressions.
ever travelled Simon: Have you_______________ (travel) by plane?
haven’t travelled Daniel: No, I________________ ( not travel ) by plane

yet _______, but I’ll fly to Sanya this summer. My parents and I will stay there for a whole week to enjoy the sun and the beach.

Simon: I’m sure you’ll enjoy the trip. By the way, did you has owned know that my family___________( own) a boat
since _______ 1920?

has owned Daniel: I can’t believe your family___________( own) for a boat _____________ over 80 years! have already seen Simon: In fact, you ______________( see) it in the sitting room.

Daniel: Oh,yes,but that’s not a real boat. It’s only a model! Simon: I know, but it looks like a real one. It’s just smaller. Daniel: I must say that it’s the best model have ever seen I__________(see ).

Simon: Thank you, Daniel.

in the past few years 意思是“过去 几年来”,可作现在完成时的时间 状语;in the past意思是“在过去”, 常作一般过去时的时间状语。 Great changes have taken place in my hometown in the past few years.
(过去几年来,我的家乡发生了很大的变化。)

Where did you work in the past?
(你过去在哪里工作?)
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before泛指“以前”时,可用于现 在完成时中;ago表示“现在的一段 时间以前”,是一般过去时的时间 状语。 I’ve never been to Japan before.
(我以前没去过日本。)

She went to Japan a year ago.
(她一年前去了日本。)

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even since 、then与from then on (after that)都有“打那以后”之意,前者是完 成时的时间状语,后者常用作一般过去 时的时间状语。 She’s lived here ever since then. (打那
以后,她一直住在这。)

I didn’t hear of Jim from then on/after that.
(打那以后,我就没有吉姆的消息。)

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动 词 填 空:
Have you cleaned 1._____ ________(clean) the room?

have done Yes, we __________(do) that already.
do did When _______ you ______(do) it? did We _______(do) it an hour ago. Has he ______(see) seen 2.______ this film yet? Yes. When _____ it? did he _____(see) see

He ______ saw it last week.
have been 3. How many times _____you______(be) there?
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have read (read) the novel twice. It’s interesting. 4. I __________

has gone 5. She _________(go) to Pairs, hasn’t she? Yes.
go did she _______(go) How ______ there? went She _______(go) there by air.

have developed 6. So far, many countries _______________(develop) their software programs.
gave 7.Mr Chen ______(give)up smoking last year. has given 8.Mr chen __________(give) up smoking since last year.

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you

inter

view 采访

your partner

? ? ? ?

1. the changes to our school 2. the changes to your family 3. the changes in your study …any topic you want to talk about

? 1、了解一般过去时与现在完成时最基 本的区别是 一般过去时强调动作发生的时间
现在完成时侧重动作的结果 2、牢记现在完成时不能与表示过去的时间连用, 包括疑问词when 3、知道现在完成时的两种特点 (1):过去对现在 (瞬间性动词) (2):过去到现在(延续性动词)


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