The Present Participle as Adverbial （现在分词做状语）
-ing分词是由动词原形加词尾-ing构成，表示与 主语主动关系。-ing分词同样有时态和语态的变 化，通常有下表几种形式（以do为例）： 主动形式 被动形式 一般式 doing being done
having been done，完成 所表示的时间在主句的 动作之前表示被动可直 接用过去分词V+ed
-ing分词的一般式的动作表示和后面句子的动 作是同时进行的动作；完成式的动作是先于 后面句子的动作发生。如： Being a student, he was interested in books. 作为一个学生，他对书本很感兴趣。 Not having studied his lessons very hard, he failed the examinations. 因为没有努力学习 功课，他考试不及格。
-ing分词的否定形式是由not /never 加-ing分词构成。如： Not knowing his address, I could do nothing but stay at home and wait. 不知道他的地址，我只好在家里等着。
-ing分词的被动式表示与后面句子的主语是被 动关系。根据-ing分词动作发生的时间，被 动式有一般被动式(being done)和完成被动式 (having been done)。如： （Having been criticized） by the teacher, he gave up smoking. 被老师批评以后，他把 烟戒了。
现在分词作状语 -ing分词作状语可以表 示时间、原因、结果、 条件、让步、方式或伴 随情况等。
-ing分词短语作时间状语，相当于一个时间状语从 句，。注意：1现在分词所表示的动作与主句的 动作一般是同时发生有时可由连词when, while 引出。2现在分词所表示的动作一发生，主句的 动作就立即发生时，现在分词一般位于句首。 如： While reading the book, he nodded from time to time. 他一边看书，一边不时地点头。 Seeing those pictures, she remembered her childhood. 看到那些画，他想起了她的童年。
Not knowing his address, I can’t send this book to him. 因为不知道他的地址，我不能把这本书送给 他。 Being so excited, Many of us couldn’t go to sleep that night. 因为非常激动，那晚我们许多人都没睡着
His father died, leaving him a lot of money.
She was so angry that she threw the toy on the ground, breaking it into pieces.
The song is sung all over the country, making it the most popular song.
-ing分词作伴随状语，可以放在句子的前面、 后面或中间，表示主语的另一个、较次要 的动作。如：
They stood there for half an hour watching the stars in the sky. 他们在那儿站了半小时，观察着天上的星星。 Following the old man, th
e young people started walking slowly. 年轻人跟在老人的后面开始慢慢地走起来。
Using your head, you will find a way. Knowing all this, they made me pay for the damage. 尽管知道了一切情况，他们还 是要我赔偿损失。 注：-ing分词作状语时，它的逻辑主语就 是整个句子的主语。
有些分词短语可以做独立成分，用来解释整个句子，不受 句子主语的限制。常见的分词短语有： generally(frankly,honestly…) speaking, supposing (假设), judging from(从…判断), talking of（谈到), speaking of （谈到）等。 Generally speaking, girls are more careful than boys. Supposing you lose, what will you do? Judging from his accent, he must be from the north. Talking of travel, have you ever been to Beijing?
1、分词 (短语) 作状语时, 前后两个动作
2 、分词短语做状语时，前面可以加上连词或介 词，但是分词短语和句子之间不能用并列连词(如 but，and)，分词和主句之间可用逗号。
3、用V+ing一般式 还是Having+done完成式， 要看前后两个动作有没明显的先后顺序，在 可能引起误解的场合应该用完成式现在分词 表示先发生的动作。 4、分词的否定形式是在分词短语前面加上 not, never等否定词构成。
After he heard a strong sound, he went out of the room for a look. = Hearing a strange sound, he went out of ….
As the girl was seriously ill, she was taken to hospital immediately. be - being Being seriously ill, the girl was taken to …. As she didn’t know any French, she couldn’t get any one to help her. Not knowing any French, she couldn’t get any one to help her.
Consolidation 1. The secretary worked late into the night, _____ a long speech for the president. A. to prepare B. preparing C. prepared D. was preparing 2. European football is played in 80 countries, ______ it the most popular sport in the world. A. making C. made B. makes D. to make
3.”Can’t you read?” Mary said ______ to the notice. A. angrily pointing C. angrily pointed B. and point angrily D. and angrily pointing
4. ______ a reply, he decided to write again. A.Not receiving B. Receiving not C.Not having received D. Having not received
5．The missing singer was last seen ____ the voice close to the bridge． A．exercising B．to be exercising C．exercise D．to exercise 6.The directors discussed the project that they would like to see ____ the next year． A．carry out B．carrying out C．carried out D．to carry out
7.__________ the classroom, the students went to the playground to watch the football match. A. To clean B. Having cleaned C. Cleaned D. Cleaning 8. When I got back home I saw a message pinned to the door ________"Sorry to miss you; will call later.“ A. read B. r
eads C. to read D. reading 9.________from what he said, he must be the thief who has stolen the car. A. Judging B. Judged C. To judge D. Judge
10.________for the terrible accident, as the public thought, the mayor felt nervous and was at a loss what to do. A. Having blamed B. To blame C. Being to be blame D. Being to blame 11.We slept with the light________ all night long last night. A. burnt B. to burn C. being burnt D. burning 12.________her mother had come, her face lit up. A. Hearing B. Having heard C. When hearing D. When she heard