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英语名词

发布时间:2014-01-20 17:06:42  

名词
一.概念
名词是表示人,事物,地点或抽象概念的名称的词,有专有名词和普通名词之分,还有可数名词与不可数名词之分.
二.相关知识点精讲
1.名词复数的规则变化
情况 构成方法 读音 例词
一般情况 加 -s 清辅音后读/s/ map-maps
浊辅音和元音后读 /z/ bag-bags /car-cars
以s, sh, ch, x等结尾 加 -es 读 /iz/ bus-buses/ watch-watches
以ce, se, ze,等结尾 加 -s 读 /iz/ license-licenses
以辅音字母+y结尾 变y 为i再加es 读 /z/ baby---babies
2.其它名词复数的规则变化
1) 以y结尾的专有名词,或元音字母+y 结尾的名词变复数时,直接加s变复数。例如: 
   two Marys     the Henrys
     monkey---monkeys  holiday---holidays  
2) 以o 结尾的名词,变复数时:
   a. 加s,如: photo---photos   piano---pianos
         radio---radios   zoo---zoos;
   b. 加es,如:potato--potatoes  tomato--tomatoes
   c. 上述a和b两种方法均可,如zero---zeros / zeroes。 
3) 以f或fe 结尾的名词变复数时:
   a. 加s,如: belief---beliefs  roof---roofs
         safe---safes  gulf---gulfs;
   b. 去f,fe 加ves,如:half---halves  
    knife---knives leaf---leaves  wolf---wolves
    wife---wives  life---lives  thief---thieves;
c. 上述a和b两种方法均可,如handkerchief: handkerchiefs / handkerchieves。
3.名词复数的不规则变化
1) child---children  foot---feet  tooth---teeth
mouse---mice    man---men  woman---women 
注意:由一个词加 man 或 woman构成的合成词,其复数形式也是 -men 和-women,如an Englishman,two Englishmen。但German不是合成词,故复数形式为Germans;Bowman是姓,其复数是the Bowmans。
2) 单复同形,如deer,sheep,fish,Chinese,Japanese ,li,jin,yuan,two li,three mu,four jin等。但除人民币的元、角、分外,美元、英镑、法郎等都有复数形式。如:a dollar, two dollars; a meter, two meters。
3)集体名词,以单数形式出现,但实为复数。例如:
people police cattle 等本身就是复数,不能说 a people,a police,a cattle,但可以说a person,a policeman,a head of cattle, the English,the British,the French,the Chinese,the Japanese,the Swiss 等名词,表示国民总称时,作复数用,如The Chinese are industries and brave. 中国人民是勤劳勇敢的。
4) 以s结尾,仍为单数的名词,如:
a. maths,politics,physics等学科名词,一般是不可数名词,为单数。
b. news 为不可数名词。
c. the United States,the United Nations 应视为单数。
   The United Nations was organized in 1945. 联合国是1945年

组建起来的。
d. 以复数形式出现的书名,剧名,报纸,杂志名,也可视为单数。例如:
"The Arabian Nights" is a very interesting story-book. 《一千零一夜》是一本非常有趣的故事书。
5) 表示由两部分构成的东西,如:glasses (眼镜) trousers, clothes等,若表达具体数目,要借助数量词 pair(对,双); suit(套); a pair of glasses; two pairs of trousers等。
6) 另外还有一些名词,其复数形式有时可表示特别意思,如:goods货物,waters水域,fishes(各种)鱼。                          
4. 不可数名词量的表示
1)物质名词
a. 当物质名词转化为个体名词时为可数。
比较:Cake is a kind of food. 蛋糕是一种食物。 (不可数)
These cakes are sweet. 这些蛋糕很好吃。 (可数)
b. 当物质名词表示该物质的种类时,可数。例如:
This factory produces steel. (不可数)
We need various steels. (可数)
c. 当物质名词表示份数时,可数。例如:
Our country is famous for tea. 我国因茶叶而闻名。
Two teas, please. 请来两杯茶。
2) 抽象名词表示具体的事例时也可数。例如:
four freedoms 四大自由 the four modernizations四个现代化
物质名词和抽象名词可以借助单位词表一定的数量,如a glass of water 一杯水/ a piece of advice 一则建议。
5. 定语名词的复数
名词作定语一般用单数,但也有以下例外。
1) 用复数作定语。例如:
sports meeting 运动会 students reading-room 学生阅览室
   talks table 谈判桌 the foreign languages department 外语系
2) man, woman, gentleman等作定语时,其单复数以所修饰的名词的单复数而定。例如:
   men workers  women teachers  gentlemen officials
3) 有些原有s结尾的名词,作定语时,s保留。例如:
   goods train (货车) arms produce 武器生产
     customs papers 海关文件 clothes brush 衣刷
 4) 数词+名词作定语时,这个名词一般保留单数形式。例如:
two-dozen eggs 两打鸡蛋  a ten-mile walk 十英里路
two-hundred trees 两百棵树 a five-year plan. 一个五年计划
6. 不同国籍人的单复数
国籍 总称(谓语用复数) 单数 复数
中国人 the Chinese a Chinese  two Chinese
瑞士人 the Swiss a Swiss two Swiss
澳大利亚人 the Australians  an Australian two Australians
俄国人 the Russians a Russian two Russians
意大利人 the Italians an Italian two Italians
希腊人 the Greek a Greek two Greeks
法国人 the French a Frenchman two Frenchmen
日本人 the Japanese a Japanese two Japanese
美国人 the Americans an American two Americans
印度人 the Indians an Indian two Indians
加拿大人 the Canadians a Canadian two

Canadians
德国人 the Germans a Germans two Germans
英国人 the English an Englishman two Englishmen
瑞典人 the Swedish a Swede two Swedes
7. 名词的格
  英语中有些名词可以加"'s"来表示所有关系,带这种词尾的名词形式称为该名词的所有格,如:a teacher's book。名词所有格的规则如下:
1) 单数名词词尾加"'s",复数名词词尾没有s,也要加"'s",如the boy's bag 男孩的书包,men's room 男厕所。
2) 若名词已有复数词尾-s ,只加" ' ",如:the workers' struggle 工人的斗争。
3) 凡不能加"'s"的名词,都可以用"名词+of +名词"的结构来表示所有关系,如:the title of the song 歌的名字。
4) 在表示店铺或教堂的名字或某人的家时,名词所有格的后面常常不出现它所修饰的名词,如:the barber's 理发店。
5) 如果两个名词并列,并且分别有's,则表示"分别有";只有一个's,则表示'共有'。例如:
John's and Mary's rooms(两间)  John and Mary's room(一间)
6) 复合名词或短语,'s 加在最后一个词的词尾。例如:a month or two's absence
三.巩固练习
1.He was eager to make some extra money, since during these years he could hardly live on his_______.
a. little wage b. few wage c. wage d. wages
2.Most of the houses in the village were burnt to ______ during the war.
a. an ash b. the ash c. ash d. ashes
3.The students at colleges or universities are making ______ for the coming New Year.
a. many preparations b. much preparation c. preparations d. preparation
4.Paiting in _____ is one of their spare-time activities.
a. oil b. an oil c. oils d. the oil
5.In the view of the foreign experts, there wasn’t ____ oil here.
a. much b. lots of c. a great deal of d. many
6.The large houses are being painted, but ______.
a. of great expense b. at a great expense c. in a lot of expenses d. by high expense
7.The room was small and contained far too ______.
a.much new furniture c. much new furnitures
b.many new furniture d. many new furnitures
8.Jim was late for two classes this morning. He said that he forgot both of the ______.
a. rooms number b. room number c. room’s numbers d. room numbers
9.Computers can do ______ work in a short time, but a man can not do ______ by himself.
a great many…many c. much…a great deal
b.great deal of…much d. many…a great many
10.She didn’t know _____ he had been given.
a. how many information c. how many informations
b. the number of information d. how much information
11.He invited all of his ______ to join his wedding party.
a. comrade-in-arms c. comrades-in-arm
b. comrades-in-arms d. comrade-in-arm
12.All the ______ in the hospital got a rise last month.
a. women doctors c. woman doctors
b. women docto

r d. woman doctor
13.After ten years, all these youngsters became_____.
a. growns-ups c. growns-up
b. grown-up d. grown-ups
14.The police investigated those _____ about the accident.
a. stander-by c. standers-by
b. stander-bys d. standers-bys
15.The Nazi kept those ______ in their concentration camp.
a.prisoner-of-wars c. prisoners-of-war
b.prisoners-of-wars d. prisoner-of-war
16.The manager was greatly appreciate that _____ made by Linda lately.
a. new reel b. news reel c. new-reels d. news reels
17.Mary’s dress is similar in appearance to her ______.
a. elder sister b. elder sister’s c. elder sisters d. elder sisters dress
18.All the people at the conference are ______.
a. mathematic teachers c. mathematics teacher
b.mathematics teachers d. mathematic’s teachers
19.Professor Mackay told us that ______ of lead are its softness and its resistance.
a. some property c. properties
b. some properties d. property
20.Physics _____ with matter and motion.
a. deal b. deals c. dealing d. are
四.答案
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