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英语动词的语态

发布时间:2014-01-20 17:06:43  

动词的语态
一.概念:
动词的语态是动词的一种形式,表示主语和谓语之间语法或语义的关系.英语的语态有两种:主动语态和被动语态.主动语态用于主动句,表示主语是动作的执行者.被动语态用于被动句,表示主语是动作的承受者.主动语态的构成方式与动词时态相同,而被动语态由 助动词be+过去分词 构成,有人称,数,时态的变化.
二. 相关知识点精讲
1. let 的用法
 1)当let后只有一个单音节动词,变被动语态时,可用不带to 的不定式。例如:
They let the strange go.他们放陌生人走了。
---> The strange was let go.
 2)当let 后宾补较长时,let 通常不用被动语态,而用allow或permit 代替。例如:
   The nurse let me go to see my classmate in the hospital. 那护士让我去探望住院的同学。
   ----> I was allowed / permitted to see my classmate in the hospital.
2.短语动词的被动语态
  短语动词是一个整体,不可丢掉后面的介词或副词。例如:
  My sister will be taken care of by Grandma. 我妹妹由奶奶照顾。
  Such a thing has never been heard of before. 这样的事闻所未闻。
3. 表示"据说"或"相信" 的词组,基本上由believe, consider, declare, expect, feel , report, say, see, suppose, think, understand等组成。例如:
  It is said that…   据说  
It is reported that… 据报道   
It is believed that… 大家相信     
It is hoped that… 大家希望
It is well known that… 众所周知  
It is thought that… 大家认为
It is suggested that… 据建议     
It is taken granted that…  被视为当然 
It has been decided that… 大家决定  
It must be remember that… 务必记住的是
4. 不用被动语态的情况
 1) 不及物动词或不及物动词短语,如appear, die disappear, end(vi. 结束), fail, happen, last, lie, remain, sit, spread, stand, break out, come true, fall asleep, keep silence, lose heart, take place等没有无被动语态。例如:
  After the fire, very little remained of my house. 大火过后,我家烧得所剩无几。
  比较:rise, fall, happen是不及物动词;raise, seat是及物动词。
  要想正确地使用被动语态,就须注意哪些动词是及物的,哪些是不及物的。特别是一词多义的动词往往有两种用法。解决这一问题唯有在学习过程中多留意积累。
  2) 不能用于被动语态的及物动词或动词短语,如fit, have, hold, marry, own, wish, cost, notice, watch agree with, arrive at / in, shake hands with, succeed in, suffer from, happen to, take part in, walk into, belong to等。例如:
 This key just fits the lock. 这把钥匙只配这把锁。
  Your story agrees with what had already been heard. 你说的与我们听说的一致。
  3) 系动词

无被动语态,如appear, be become, fall, feel, get, grow, keep, look, remain, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste, turn等。例如:It sounds good. 听上去不错。
  4) 带同源宾语的及物动词如die/death, dream/dream, live/life等,以及反身代词,相互代词,不能用于被动语态。例如:
She dreamed a bad dream last night. 她昨晚做了个恶梦。
  5) 当宾语是不定式时,很少用于被动语态。例如:
   (对) She likes to swim.
   (错) To swim is liked by her.
5. 主动形式表示被动意义
 1)wash, clean, cook, iron, look, cut, sell, read, wear, feel, draw, write, sell等。例如:
   The book sells well.  这本书销路好。
   This knife cuts easily.  这刀子很好用。
 2)blame, let(出租), remain, keep, rent, build等。例如:
   I was to blame for the accident. 事故发生了,我该受指责。
   Much work remains. 还有许多活要干。
 3) 在need, require, want, worth (形容词), deserve后的动名词必须用主动形式。例如:
   The door needs repairing.= The door needs to be repaired. 门该修了。
   This book is worth reading. 这本书值得一读。
4)特殊结构:make sb. heard / understood (使别人能听见/理解自己)等。例如:
Explain it clearly and make yourself understood. 解释清楚些,让别人理解你的话。
6. 被动形式表示主动意义,如 be determined, be pleased, be graduated (from), be prepared (for), be occupied (in), get married等。例如:
  He is graduated from a famous university. 他毕业于一所有名的大学。
  注意:表示同某人结婚,用marry sb. 或get married to sb.均可。例如:
  He married a rich girl. 他与一个富妞结婚了。
  He got married to a rich girl.
7.need/want/require/worth
  当 need, want, require, be worth后面接doing时,表示的是被动意义。例如:
    Your hair wants cutting. 你的头发该理了。
    The floor requires washing. 地板需要冲洗。
三.巩固练习
1. I___________ (teach) here for ten years since I finished school.
2. Would you mind me __________ (use) your bike?
3. The students of Class Two___________ (sweep) their classroom now.
4. The Whites____________ (not listen) to the radio at that time.
5. It's better to give than__________ (receive).
6. How long ______you_______ (live) in this town?
7. You _______ (come) here last year, ______ you?
8. ----When ______ you______ (see) him?
----I______ (see) him last Sunday.
9. She said that the car___________ (use) the next week.
10. I didn't know what __________ (happen) to China in a century.
11. When I got to the station, the train ____ already ______ (leave).
12. The stone bridge______________ (build) in our hometown for ten years.
13. The desk must ______ (clean) once a day.
14. The dog _________

(lie) on the floor when I came in..
15. It _________(rain) heavily when I got home.
16. Her mother____________ (cook) at this time yesterday.
17. The students _____________ (do) their homework. __________ (not make) any noise!
18. ----______ you ever_______ (be) to Beijing? ----Yes. I________ (go) there last week.
19. He'll telephone us as soon as he _________ (arrive) there.
20. Jiefang trucks____________ (make) in Changchun.
21. A pen is used for__________ (write).
22. All that must ________ (do).
23 .My friend can't decide which pair of trousers____________ (choose). So she asked me to go shopping with her.
24. They find it useful__________ (learn) English.
25. The old man often_________ (tell) the children a story in the evening. This evening he ________ (tell) two stories.
26. The radio__________ (use) once in a week in our class. It____________ (not use) yesterday because there was something wrong with it.
27. Would please tell us how___________ (make) the watch ________ (work)?
28. She doesn't know what_________ (do) and where__________ (go).
四.答案

1. have taught
2. using
3. are sweeping
4. weren’t listening
5. to receive
6. have … lived
7. came … didn’t
8. did … see, saw
9. would be used
10. would happen
11. had … left
12. have been built
13. be cleaned
14. was lying
15. was raining
16. was cooking
17. are doing, Don’t make
18. have … beeen, went
19. arrives
20. are made
21. writing
22. be done
23. to choose
24. to learn
25. tells,

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