1、名词(n.)： 表示人、事物、地点或抽象概念的名称。如：boy, morning, bag, ball, class, orange.
2、代词(pron.)： 主要用来代替名词。如：who, she, you, it .
3、形容词(adj.)：表示人或事物的性质或特征。如：good, right, white, orange .
4、数词(num.)： 表示数目或事物的顺序。如：one, two, three, first, second, third, fourth.
5、动词(v.)： 表示动作或状态。如：am, is,are,have,see .
6、 副词(adv.)： 修饰动词、形容词或其他副词,说明时间、地点、程度等。如：now, very, here, often, quietly, slowly.
7、冠词(art.)：用在名词前,帮助说明名词。如：a, an, the.
8、介词(prep.)： 表示它后面的名词或代词与其他句子成分的关系。如in, on, from, above, behind.
9、连词(conj.)： 用来连接词、短语或句子。如and, but, before .
10、感叹词(interj..)表示喜、怒、哀、乐等感情。如：oh, well, hi, hello.
以练促记： 1. ( 2012天津,32) —Why didn’t Sally play the violin at the concert last night?
—She said that her hand hurt, but that was only a(n)_________. I saw her play tennis just now.
A. matter B. excuse C. result D. expression
2. (2012重庆,24) —Bill ,what’s your sister’s favorite__________? —She likes volleyball best.
A. food B. color C. sport D. movie
3. ( 2012黑龙江哈尔滨,21 ) Dear friends ,please read every sentence carefully. Details decide __________ or not. If you take it serious-ly, you’ll achieve your goal！
A. success B. successful C. succeed
4. ( 2012辽宁沈阳,8 ) The__________in that restaurant looks delicious ,but it tastes bad.
A. cook B. table C. food D. tool
5. (2012江苏南京 ,3 ) —Could you tell me how to remember new words quickly?
—Yes, I think a__________ tree can help you a lot.
A. grammar B. equation C. punctuation D. vocabulary
6. ( 2012四川成都,33) —Where did you go yesterday, Rick? —I went to see a__________ because I had a cold.
A. teacher B. doctor C. reporter
7. ( 2012湖北武汉,33)lf by any chance Peter comes to us, please ask him to leave a__________.
A. letter B. sentence C. message D. notice
8. ( 2012浙江温州,5) —Where does your uncle work, Jack?
—In a__________ in Paris. He is a policeman.
A. TV station B. bookstore C. post office D. police station
9. ( 2012江西,27) If you go to visit London, don’t forget your __________ because it rains a lot.
A.passport B.money C.map D.umbrella
10. ( 2012湖北襄阳,26) —What does your father do ,Lily?
—He is __________ . His job is to make sure that drivers obey the traffic rules.
A. an actor B. a policeman C. a waiter D. a reporter
1. The __________ often eat grass on the hill.
A. chicken B. horse C. cow D. sheep
2. “What do we need for the salad?” “We need two apples and three __________.”
A. orange B. tomatoes C. broccoli
3. The population of the world _________ still __________ now.
A. has; grown B. is; growing
C. will; grow D. is; grown
4. The reading room __________ very quiet. I enjoy reading books there.
A. am B. is C. are D. be
5. The news __________ very interesting! Tell me more!
A. is B. are C. were D. was
6. ( 2012广东,28) The students of Grade 7 visited Mike’s farm and saw many__________there.
A. bird B. duck C. sheep D. rabbit
7. (2012陕西,24) I’m going to the supermarket to buy some __________ this afternoon.
A. paper and pencil B. apples and banana .
C. milk and eggs D. bowl and spoons
用于无生命的东西：the legs of the chair, the cover of the book
用于有生命的东西，尤其是有较长定语时：the classrooms of the first-year students
用于名词化的词：the struggle of the oppressed
以练促记： 1. —How far is it from your home to school?
—It?s about twenty __________ walk.
A. minute?s B. minutes? C. minutes
2. My skirt is on the chair.
A. sisters? B. sister C. sisters D. sister?s
3. (2011汪苏无锡,l) The theme park is about__________ ride from the museum. You should start out right now.
A. two hour B. two hour?s C. two hours? D. two-hours
4．—Whose desk is this? Is it the__________?
—Yes. It is _.
A. twins?; Tom and Tony?s B. twin?s ; Tom?s and Tony?s
C. twins?; Tom and Tony D. twins?; Tom?s and Tony
5. __________mothers couldn?t go to the meeting ,because they have gone to Shanghai.
A. Mary and Peter?s B. Mary and Peter
C. Mary?s and Peter D. Mary?s and Peter?s
冠词分为不定冠词（a, an），定冠词（the），和零冠词。 I.不定冠词的用法：
以练促记： 1．(2012天津,31) —What do you think of________ film about Zhan Tianyou?
—It's ________good film.
A. the; the B. a; the C. the; a D. a; a
2.( 2012重庆,21) Lin is________ good basketball player in the NBA.
A．a B-an C．the D./
3.(2012广东,26)—Greens are preparing for the coming Thanksgiving Day.
A./ B．A C．An D．The
4.（2012辽宁沈阳,1）English is________ useful language. We should learn it well.
A．a B．an C．the D./
5.(2012福建福州,31) There is no living thing on________ moon.
A. the B. a C./
6.(2012四川成都,30) —Maria, here is my new house.
—Wow, you have________ beautiful house!
A. a B. the C./
7.（2012浙江温州,1）—Who's that man?
—Jeremy Lin. He's________ American basketball player.
A.a B. an C. the D./
8.（2012陕西,21）Look at ________ eraser on the floor. Whose is it?
A. a B. an C. the D./
9.(2012甘肃兰州,21) —Who is________ man in a black hat?
—It's Jim Brown. We often play________ basketball together in our
A. an; a B. a;/ C. the; a D. the:／
10.（2012内蒙古呼和浩特，1）We will see________ even stronger China in________ near future.
A. a; the B. an; the C. the ;a D. an :a
11.（2012贵州贵阳，31）Victor can play ________piano. He can join the music club.
A. a B. an C. the
12.(2012浙江嘉兴,16) —Whose is________ pen on my desk? —It's Mary's.
A. a B. an C. the D./
13. (2012浙江绍兴,16) —Oh, no. Where is my purse?
—Don't worry .I saw________ black one in the drawer.ls it yours?
A. a B. an C. the D./
14.(2012浙江杭州,17) They want their daughter to go to________ university, but they also want her to get________ summer job.
A./;a B. the; a C. an; a D. a; the
1. one, some与any:
One should learn to think of others.
Have you any bookmarks? No, I don?t have any bookmarks.
I have some questions to ask.
Would you like some bananas?
Could you give me some money?
I have read this article in some magazine.
Please correct the mistakes, if any.
（4） some和数词连用表示“大约”，any可与比较级连用表示程度。 There are some 3,000 students in this school.
Do you feel any better today?
Each student has a pocket dictionary. / Each (of us) has a dictionary. / We each have a dictionary.
Every student has strong and weak points. / Every one of us has strong and weak points.
There is no water in the bottle.
How much water is there in the bottle? None.
None of the students are (is) afraid of difficulties.
（1）other泛指“另外的，别的”常与其他词连用，如：the other day, every other week, some other reason, no other way。
the other特指两者中的另外一个，复数为the others。如： He held a book in one hand and his notes in the other.
Two students in our class failed, but all the others passed the exam.
I don?t like this shirt, please show me another (one).
The trousers are too long, please give me another pair / some others. Some like football, while others like basketball.
5. all和both, neither和either
All of the books are not written in English. / Not all of the books are written in English.
Both of us are not teachers. / Not both of us are teachers. / Either of us is a teacher.
1. — Here is a schoolbag. Whose is it?
— Oh, it?s________. Thank you.
A. my B. mine C. me
2. Mrs.Brown is nice. Every day she tried to cook ________ for me during my stay in Canada.
A. something different B. anything different C. noting different
3. There were only two paintings for sale and he bought _________.
A. all B. any C. both D. some
4. I?ll take __________of the cameras, one is for my brother, the other is for Jim.
A. either B. both C. all
5. ---Sam, who teachers _________Chinese?
---Mrs. White. She has lived in China for years. _________ Chinese is very good.
A. you; Her B. your; Hers C. you; Him D. your; She
6. Would you please lend me __________ English book? __________ isn?t here.
A．your; I B．you; My C．yours; Mine D.your; Mine
7. ——Would you like to have __________ coffee?
——No, thanks. I don?t want __________ drinks now.
A．any; any B．any; some C．some; some D．some; any
8.—Where is my pen?
—Oh, sorry, I have taken__________ by mistake.
A. yours B. mine C. hers D. his
9. With __________ help, we finished our work on time.
A. they B. them C. their
10. The students are helping the old man clean __________ house now.
A. her B. him C. his
11. Han Han is very popular among the teenagers. We all like_________.
B. he C. his D. himself
2) 多个形容词修饰同一个名词的顺序： 限冠形龄色国材
限定词—>数量词—>一般描绘性的—>表示大小形状的—>表示长幼，新旧的—>表示色彩的—>表示国籍，地区，出处的—>表示物质，材料的—>表示用途类别的—>被修饰的名词 3) 复合形容词的构成：
II. 副词 副词的分类：
1. 同级比较时常常用 as…as…以及not so(as)…as…如：I am not so good a player as you are.
2. 可以修饰比较级的词有：much, many, a lot, even, far, a bit, a little, still, yet, by far, any, a great deal。
3. 表示一方随另一方变化时用“the more…the more…”句型。如：The harder you work, the more progress you will make.
4. 用比较级来表达最高级的意思。如：I have never spent a more worrying day.
Our school is three times larger than yours./Our school is four times as large as yours./Our school is four times the size of yours.
6. 表示“最高程度“的形容词没有最高级和比较级。如：favourite, excellent, extreme, perfect。
1. (2012天津,33) All the students are talking and laughing in the classroom and it's________.
A. noisy B. lonely C. quiet D. strict
2. ( 2012上海,36) Pudong International Airport is one of________ airports in the world.
A. big B. bigger C. biggest D. the biggest
3. ( 2012重庆， 28) The flower smells________ and I like it very much.
A. well B. good C. bad D. badly
4. (2012安徽,32) We lost the match because they had________ players. They had eleven and we had only nine !
A. stronger B. younger C. fewer D. more
5. ( 2012厂东,40) Eighteen kids died in the school bus accident in Cansu Province. It's________ one that I have ever heard of.
A. a very serious B. a more serious
C. the most serious D. the least serious
6. ( 2012辽宁沈阳,7 ) —Do you think computers are more expensive than they were five years ago?
—No, they are ________.
A. cheap B. cheaper C. cheapest D. the cheapest
7. ( 2012福建,36 ) Shu-How Lin is now one of________ basket-ball players in the NBA.
A.popular B.more popular C.the most popular
8．(2012四川成都,43) This T-shirt is not large enough. Please show me a________ one.
A. large B. larger C. largest
9.(2012湖北黄冈，39) —The mountain in our hometown isn't very —I agree with you. Few________ like to go sightseeing there.
A. touristy ; tourists B. touristy ; tour
C. tourists ; touristy D. tourist ; tourists
10. ( 2012湖北武汉,38) The________ smell of success around her shows that she is a Dancing Queen on the stage.
A. sweet B. tasty C. final D. great
11. (2012浙江温州,3) My sister is________. She likes making friends with others.
A. shy B. quiet C. athletic D. outgoing
12. ( 2012陕西,28) This place is not big enough for Lucy's birthday party. We should find a________ one.
A. big B. small C. bigger D. smaller
13. (2012甘肃兰州,34) —Why are you so tired these days?
—Well, I have________ work to do.
A. too much B. too many C. much too D. many too
14. ( 2012甘肃兰州,40 ) —If there are ________people driving, there will be ________air pollution.
—Yes, the air will be fresher and cleaner.
A.less ; less B.less ; fewer C. fewer ; fewer D. fewer ; less
15. ( 2012江西,28) My dog is very ________. It is safe to touch him if you want to.
A. smart B. brave C. happy D. friendly
16. ( 2012江西,33 ) You should practice more to improve your English ,then you'll be________ at it.
A. good B. better C. best D. the best
1. ( 2012北京 ,23 ) —Is your father home?
—No, he's working late ______ the office.
A. on B. at C. of D. to
2. (2012天津,34) —Would you please show me the way ________the bank?
—Yes, go straight ahead. It's opposite a school.
A. in B. for C. with D. to
3. (2012上海,31 ) Could I have an early morning call _______ six o'clock tomorrow?
A. on B. to C. at D. in
4. ( 2012重庆, 23 ) My friend, Henry was born_____ June 10th ,1997.
A. in B. on C. at D. for
5. ( 2012安徽,36) Welcome to our hotel! I hope you'll have a good time ________ your stay here.
A. after B. during C. with D. since
6. ( 2012广东,32 ) —Why are you standing, Alice?
—I can't see the blackboard clearly. Two tall boys are sitting _____ me.
A. behind B. next to C. between D. in front of
7. ( 2012黑龙江哈尔滨,28 ) After the final exam, Changchang, _______ her mother ,is going to travel to Canada instead of staying at home all the time.
A．and B．with C．as well
8. ( 2012辽宁沈阳 ,11 ) The exhibition shows ______ 200 paintings of young, exciting artists from France.
A. at B. with C. about D. in
9. ( 2012褐建福州,33 ) Bill has made great progress ________ the help of his teachers.
A. for B. with C. under
10. ( 2012江苏南京,10) My father has a habit of jogging ________ the Jinchuan River for an hour in the morning.
A. between B. along C. over D. through
11. ( 2012四川成都,31 ) Tom usually goes fishing _______ Sunday morning.
A. at B. on C. for
12. ( 2012湖南,43)—Do you believe that paper is made________ wood ? —Yes ,I do. And you can see that books are made _paper.
A. from ; from B. from ; of C. of; from D. of; of
13. ( 2012湖北武汉,26) —When was David born?
—He was born________ June 12,1989.
A. at B. in C. on D. for
14. ( 2012陕西,22) —Who did you go to the movies_________? —Nobody. I went alone.
A. with B. about C. for D. from
15. ( 2012甘肃兰州,23 ) —All______ Mr. White. Why?
—Because he was on duty.
A. except B. besides C. except for D. beside
(3) hundred、 thousand、 million作数词时,不用复数,前面可以加上one, two, ?等其它数词。用作名词时复数表示“成?上?”,后面必须要有of,前面可以加上some,many,several等词。如：five hundred(五百), hundreds of(成百上千的), ten thousand(一万), thousands of(成千上万的), millions of(成百万的)
序数词如下：1000th→one thousandth, 1000000th →one millionth., 第703→the seven hundred and third, 第5480→the five thousand four hundred and eightieth.
(3) 使用序数词时一般加定冠词the. 如：I?m in the third grade.
(4) 序数词作“几分之几”讲时,有复数形式。如：1/5→one fifth ; 2/3
→ two thirds ; 4/7→ four sevenths ; 1/2→ a half ; 1/4→a quarter ; 3/4→ three quarters ; 50%→ fifty hundredths ( fifty per cent).
(1)表示年份：2002: twenty thousand and two ; 1976 : nineteen seventy-six.
(2)表示日期：12月1日: Dec.1st或the first of December；2002年11月8日: Nov. 8th, 2002.
(3)表示时刻： 5：15→ five fifteen或a quarter past five ; 8：30→ eight thirty或half past eight ; 10：45→ ten forty-five或a quarter to eleven.
(4)表示编号：Room 105→Room one 0 five; Bus No.13→Bus Number Thirteen; P.5→Page Five; Tel.No.7658659→Telephone Number seven-six-five-eight-six-five-nine
(5)小数的读法：5.7→ five point seven, 0.16 →zero point one six.
(6)“半”的表达： 1/2→half, 半小时→half an hour, 1.5小时→one and a half hours或one hour and a half.
(7)序数词前面加the时,表示顺序,加a/an时表示“再一、又一”。如：The third lesson is rather difficult.(第三课相当难)/ Shall we read the text a third time?(我们把课文读第三遍,好吗？)
1. ( 2012广东,29 ) —How was your weekend ?
—Great! It was my grandfather's ________ birthday. We enjoyed ourselves.
A. seventy B. seventieth C. the seventieth D. seventeenth
2. (2012黑龙江哈尔滨,26 ) It is said that __________ young people may lose their abilities to hear after five years if they listen to MP4 players which are too loud for more than five hours a week.
A. thousand of B. six thousands C. thousands of
3. ( 2012辽宁沈阳 , 15) It is reported that people throw ________ plastic bags along this street every day.
A. hundred B. hundreds C. hundred of D. hundreds of
4.( 2012四川成都,41 ) Some scientists think that it will take _________ of years to make robots do most work for humans.
A. hundreds B. hundred C. thousand
5.(2012山东,22) Did you know that the Earth is home to ________ animals？
A. million B. millions C. million of D. millions of
6. (2011重庆,29) The government of Chongqing is building __________ cheap and good houses for the people.
A. thousand B. thousands C. thousand of D. thousands of
7. ( 2011新疆乌鲁木齐,33 ) The teacher said that __________ of the boys would take part in the talent show.
A. three five B. three rives C. thirds fifths D. three fifths
8.（2011广东,29 ) After the Asian Games, __________ people came to Cuangzhou for a visit during holidays.
A. thousand B. thousands of
C. five thousands D. five thousand of
9. ( 2011内蒙古呼和浩特,4 ) Nowadays __________ of business letters are written in English.
A. two third B. two thirds C. two three D. second three
10. ( 2011四川自贡,28 ) Tom will sell __________ stamps to help the poor children in the west of China.
A. thousand of B. two thousand of C. two thousand
11. ( 2010重庆,30 ) I got a beautiful bike on __________ birthday. I like it very much.
A. fifteenth B. fifteen C. my fifteen D. my fifteenth
12. ( 2010广东,30 ) This is Mr. White's __________ visit to Beijing. He has been there twice before.
A. two B. second C. three D. third
13. ( 2010安徽芜湖, 38 ) Now, everybody, please turn to Page __________ and look at the __________ picture.
A. Fifth ; five B. Five ; fifth C. Fifth ; fifth D. Five ; five
14. (2010江苏苏州,9) __________ of the land in that district covered with trees and grass.
A. Two fifths ; is B. Two fifth ; are
C. Two fifth; is D. Two fifths ; are
15. ( 2010新疆乌鲁木齐,24 ) __________ people went to the concert
which was held in People's Square __________ the night of May Day.
A. Thousands of; in B. Thousand ; on
C. Many thousand; in D. Thousands of; on
16. ( 2010廿肃兰州,27 ) I think __________ of the materials I listened to at the beginning of the exam __________ easy.
A. three fourths ;is B. third four; are
C. three fourths; are D. three fourth ; are
17. ( 2009湖北黄冈,33)—Have you seen the CCTV news on TV?
—Yes, __________ children had a good festival on the Children's Day.
A. millions of; sixty B. ten million ; sixty
C. millions of; sixtieth D. ten millions; sixtieth
18. ( 2009黑龙江哈尔滨, 22 ) —Good news ! Bill won __________ medal in the long jump just now.
—Really? That's his __________ one at our sports meeting.
A. a; four B. an; fourth C. a; fourth
19. ( 2008陕西,23) —Peter, how old is your father this year?
—__________.And we just had a party for his __________ birthday last weekend.
A. Fortieth ; forty B. Forty ; forty
C. Forty ; fortieth D. Fortieth ; fortieth