—the Subjunctive Mood
英语动词有三种语气: 陈述语气，祈使语气和虚拟语气 陈述语气：用来表示所说的话是 事实或提出疑问，广泛用语陈述 句，疑问句和感叹句。
一种假设、猜测、怀疑等(在条件 从句中或让步状语从句中)； 一种表示说话人的愿望、要求、命 令、建议等 (在宾语从句、表语从 句、同位语从句)。
Eg : We met in this room .
Do come to the meeting next Friday .
祈使语气 If I were you , I would study hard .
真实条件句所表的假设是可能发生或实现的,是与 事实相符的。 非真实条件句所表的假设则是不可能或不大可能 发生或实现的， 与事实相反的情况。
If it is fine tomorrow, I will go to visit my grandma. If I were a bird, I would fly to America.
If it is fine , we will go to the park.
If it were fine , I would go out to play. If it weren’t raining, I would go out to play.
If it doesn’t rain, we will go to the park. 真实条件句
1、 真实条件句：用于陈述语气， 假设的情况可能发生，其中 if 是 如果的意思。 时态关系：主将从现 主情从现 主祈从现 If he comes, he will bring his violin. If he wants to go to university, he must study hard. If it rains tomorrow, please don’t come .
与过去 事实相 反的假 设 与现在 相反的 假设
一、虚拟语气在非真实条件句中 主句 虚拟条件句 would If+主语+had +
should have+过去分词 could might
If+主语+过去式（be用were) If+主语+were to+ 动词原形 If+主语+should +动词原形
与将来 相反的 假设
? 1. If I had time, I would go for a walk. (事实上 我现在没有时间，不能去散步．） ? 2. If I were invited, I would go to the dinner. （事 实上没有人邀请我，我也不能去参加宴会．） ? 3.If I had a million dollars, I would put it in the bank. ? （事实上我没有一百万美圆，也不可能存在银 行．）
If I won the lottery,
I would buy an expensive car. I would buy a villa.
I would travel around the world.
1. If I had enough money, I would travel around the world.
2. If I were you, I would give AIDS patients a hug.
3 If they were here, they would help you.
had had If I _
___________time last night, have gone to see the film with you I would _____________
If he________ had driven more carefully, he would not have had _____________ the car accident yesterday.
1. If he had been there, it wouldn’t have happened.
2 If she had seen you yesterday ,she would have asked you about it .
3 If you had taken my advice，you wouldn't (couldn’t) have failed in the exam.
Were to get a full mark next ____________ would hold time, I ________ a party for you . should get ____________
C 与 将来事实相反
1 If it were Sunday tomorrow, I should /(would) go to see my grandmother.
如果明天是星期天，我就 (可能)去看望我奶 奶。
2 If it were to snow this evening, they would not go out. 如果今晚下雪，他们将不出去了。 3 If you succeeded, everything would be all right.
要是你早来几分钟的话，你就能见到他了。 If you had come a few minutes earlier, you would have met him.
明天要是天气好的话，我来看你。 与将来事实可能相反 If it were sunny tomorrow, I would come to see you.
If I were you, I would go at once.
? 1) 假如我有一百万,我会把钱捐献给医学研究. _______________________________________________ _______ ? 2) 如果我是你,我会穿衬衣打领带. ? _______________________________________________ ______ ? 3) 假如我是你,我就会迟一点去. ? _______________________________________________ ______ ? 4) 假如我是你,我就会带一个小礼物. ? _______________________________________________ ______ ? 5) 如果我是你，我会在睡觉前好好的散步。 ? _______________________________________________ _______
6) 如果我是你,我就会和看上去很友好的人交谈. _____________________________________________ _________ 7）如果我是你，我会更加努力学习英语。 _____________________________________________ ________________________. 8）如果昨晚你在这儿，就什么事都不会发生 了。 _____________________________________________ ________________________. 9） 如果我早到一点的话，我就会赶上那辆公共汽 车了。 _____________________________________________ ________________________. 10）明天要是周日的话，我们就不参加考试了。 _____________________________________________ ________________________.
A．用所给动词的适当形式填空 1. If I _________(find) a purse, I __________(give) it to the police. 2. If I ______(be) a bird, I ___________(fly) in the blue sky. 3. If you _______(have) something important, you _________( can go
) now. 4. If I ________(be) you, I _____________(choose) this one
.用虚拟语气完成下列句子。 1. 如果我是一只小鸟，我会飞到月球上去。 If I a bird, I to the moon. 2. 如果她和我们在一起，我们会更早完成任务。 If she us, we the task earlier. 3. 如果有人给我钱的话，我明天就去买辆车。 If someone me money, I a car tomorrow. 4. I’ll travel around the world if I have a lot of money （改为虚拟语气的句子） I around the world if I a lot of money.
PRACTICE 1: Fill in the blanks.
would take(take) were (be) here,they __________ a. If they ______ your advice.
b. If the world-war ___________ (break) out broke would happen (happen) to our again,what ________________ people on earth? were not c. If the policeman _____________ (be not) in that could be room now, it ________________ (be) very dangerous. were (be) in your position,I d. If I _______ _____________(ask) for teacher’s help. would ask
PRACTICE 2: Fill in the blanks e. If Tom had been __ (be) more careful in the have passed exam, he would _________ __ (pass) it already. f. If you had got (get) up earlier, you would have _______ __ (catch) the first train. caught met g. If I had ____ (meet) you yesterday, we
would have_______ gone ________ (go) to the concert together.
二、虚拟语气用于宾语从句中 过去时（were） 现在： 1.Wish 过去完成时 过去： 的宾语
未来： would/could/might+V. 1.I wish I were a bird 从句
2.I wish I hadn’t made such a mistake
3.We wish our parents wouldn’t punish us.
were I wish I ____(be)as tall as you.
I wish every day were ____(be)my birthday.
I wish I _________ (eat) so much watermelon. hadn’t eaten
I wish 从句结构 Example
I wish it were autumn now.
He wishes(wished) he had not lost the chance.
I wish you would come soon.
I wish I were as tall as you.
I wish I became as famous as Yao Ming. I wish I were a bird.
I wish I could fly like a bird. I wish every day were my birthday.
He wish he hadn’t
eaten so much watermelon. I wish the lunch time would come soon.
I wish it would rain tomorrow.
were (be). 1 He is not a pilot, but he wishes he______
2.I wish I ___________(meet) him yesterday. had met would be 3.I wish it __________(be) fine tomorrow. 4.A: You have made some mistakes. B: I wish I ____mistakes every day. A. don’t make B. haven’t made C. wouldn’t make D. didn’t make
5.I wish they ___ in this ball game .
A would be succeeded B would be successful
C had been success
D had been successful
6. He wished he ___ more about the subject , so he could talk about it . A had known B knew C would know D knows
7. How I wish I ___ a doctor , and ___ the dying girl .
A am , can save B was , saved
C were , could save D will be , will save
1. 判断是否虚拟 2. 判断虚拟类
型 3. 判断虚拟时间