haihongyuan.com
海量文库 文档专家
全站搜索:
您现在的位置:首页 > 初中教育 > 初中英语初中英语

状 语 从 句

发布时间:2014-01-25 10:58:00  

状 语 从 句

位置:状语从句的位置比较灵活,有时可以放于句 首,有时可以置于句末。状语从句位于句首时, 其后常用逗号与后面的句子隔开。 种类:状语从句可以根据其用途分为:

? 时间状语从句、地点状语从句、原因状语从句、 结果状语从句、目的状语从句、条件状语从句、 让步状语从句、比较状语从句、方式状语从句。

1. 时间状语从句 ? 引导时间状语从句的关联词常有:
when, while, as, whenever, before, after, since, till, until, as soon as, once,the moment, immediately, no sooner…than, hardly…when, by the time, every time, last time…等。

(1)when, as, while (从属连词) when从句中的谓语动词既可是延续性 动词,又可是瞬间动词。while,as 从句中的 谓语动词往往是延续性动词。 e.g When the film ended, the people left. e.g When I lived there, I used to go to the theatre. e.g Please don’t talk while others are working.

when可以表示主句的动作和从句的动作同时发生, 或从句的动作发生在主句动作之前。如: e.g When the lesson was over, we began our writing. (从句动作在前) e.g When I was a boy, I used to go to the seashore on Sundays.(同时) as侧重主句和从句的动作同时发生。所以主从句 常时态保持一致。中文为“一边…一边;随着”。 e.g He sang as he walked. while也强调主句和从句动作的同时发生,往往 侧重主句和从句动作的对比。且while从句中常用 进行时。中文为“在某一时间里”,“在… 期 间”。 e.g Be quiet while I am talking to you.

when引导的时间状语从句,主句谓语部 分常是以下结构: be doing…when… be just going to do…when… be just about to do…when… be on the point of doing…when… had hardly/scarcely done…when…

★When 的其他含义:
Why do you walk when you have a car? 在...的情况下 How can we explain it to you when you won’t listen? 既然,考虑到 Why are you here when you should be in school? 本该...而

(2)till和until “直到”,可互换。但till不放句首,不用于强调句。 ①如果主句谓语动词是持续动词,通常用肯定式的 主句,表示“直到…为止”。如: e.g I worked till (until) he came back. ② 如果主句谓语动词是瞬间动词,则用否定式的主 句表示“直到…才”。 如:I didn’t go to bed until (till) he came back. 注意:not until放句首,until从句不到装,主句要部 分倒装。

(3)since

since作介词时,后跟时间点;作连词是 引导时间状语从句(主句谓语动词常是完 成时,从句谓语为一般过去或现在时)。 e.g They have never been to see me since I was ill./I have been ill. 注意:it is/has been 时间段 since…(从从句动 作完成或状态结束算起) e.g It is/has been 2 years since he was

in the army.

(4)before “在…之前”。 e.g Mary had finished her work before her mother returned. 其它含义: e.g They worked day and night about 3 days before everything returned to normal.(过了多久之后…才…) e.g Before I spoke, he had left.(还没来得及…就…) e.g I had hardly sat down before the bell rang.(一…就…) e.g Before you forget it, write it down.(趁还没…赶紧做…) it will be +一段时间 before......多久之后才... it won’t be +一段时间 before......不久就.... e.g It will be 20 years before we meet again.

(5)名词短语the time, the moment, the first time, each/every time, next time…引导 e.g I want to see her the moment she arrives. (6)副词转化过来的连词及短语immediately, directly, instantly,as soon as, no sooner… than, hardly/scarcely…when… e.g Directly you feel any pains,you must go to see the doctor. 注意:no sooner,hardly, scarcely放句首时,主句谓语 部分倒装。主句谓语动词用had done, 从句用 did。 e.g Hardly had they finished the work when the electricity was cut off.

2. 地点状语从句
地点状语从句由 where, wherever 等引导。例如: e.g He went to where his father worked five years ago. e.g You can take a walk wherever you like to.
注意:与定语从句区别(定语从句前有表地点的先 行词) e.g Go back the place where you live.

3. 原因状语从句 通常由because, as, for, since, now that等词引导。 because语气强,用以回答why问句,可用于强调结构。 since语气较弱,常表对方已知的事实,相当于汉语 的“既然;考虑到”。(相当于if)只放句首,不 用why问句,不能强调。 as语气较弱,较口语化,所表示的原因较明显。可 放句首和句末,不用why问句,不能强调。 now that 常放句首,不用why问句,不能强调。 for语气很弱,只放句中,逗号隔开。 此外in that(句中); seeing that; considering that(句中, 句首)也引导原因状语从句。

4. 结果状语从句 结果状语从句常用so…that, such…that so, that, so that等关联词引导 e.g He is so young that he can’t go to work. e.g It’s such a good chance that we mustn’t miss it. 结构: adj./adv. … so adj. a(an) +n.单数… that… many/few +n.复数… much/little +不可数n. … a(an) adj.+ n.单数… such adj.+n.复数… that… adj.+不可数n. …

e.g He got so little money that his family had to live on welfare. e.g She is such a good teacher that everyone likes her. 注意:为强调可把so, such部分提前到句首, 主句要倒装。 e.g So excited was he that he couldn’t fall asleep.

5. 目的状语从句
常由so, that, so that, in order that,in case,for fear that 等词引导,目的状语从句常用助动词may (might), shall(should), will(would), can (could)。目的状语从句常放于主句之后,主从句 间无逗号。

e.g Speak clearly so that they m

ay understand you. e.g He spoke slowly in order that everyone should understand.

6. 条件状语从句 条件状语从句表示条件,关联词常用if或unless, if , once, as/so long as,as far as,unless,on condition that,in case 等。 e.g You can go out, as long as (so long as ) you promise to be back before eleven. e.g Unless you work hard, you will fail. e.g In case I forget, please remind me about that.

e.g As far as I can tell , the whole thing should cost about $500. 注意:条件状语从句中的谓语动词的时态不可用将 来时,只能用现在时态或过去时态表示将来时。 此外providing/provided,suppose/supposing (假如,倘若)也引导条件状语从句。

7.让步状语从句 (1)though, although, even if/though, while引导 e.g Although/Though he works hard, (yet) she makes no progress. e.g Even if the learning is slow, the result is good. 注意: ①though和although可以互换,只是although 比较正式。 ②though不可以与连词but连用,但可以与yet, still连用。 (2) no matter wh-/how,however/wh-ever引导 e.g Keep calm, no matter what happens. 注意:however/no matter how后紧跟adj./adv.

(3) as引导让步状语从句时从句部分语序要部 分倒装。把动词原形,表语或状语放置句 首。 e.g Young as he is, he can read and write in several foreign language. (表语提前) e.g Child as he was, he had to support the family. (表语名词提前并常省去冠词) e.g Try as she might, Sue couldn’t get the door open.(动词提前)

8. 比较状语从句 比较状语从句常用than或as…as,the more… the more等引导。than表示两者的比较,as…as表示程 度相同的比较;The 比较级…the 比较级…表示” 越…越…”。例: e.g That book is more interesting than this one. e.g He runs as fast as I (do). e.g The more I see him , the less I like him.

9. 方式状语从句 as, as if, as though引导。 e.g You can do it as what I just did. e.g I couldn’t moved my legs. It was as if they were stuck to the floor. ? 注意: as if和as though意义和用法大致一样, 引导的从句多用虚拟语气,但也可用陈述语气。 e.g He treats me as if I were his own son. e.g He walked as if he were drunk.

补充: 1.状语从句的省略 e.g Come here if (it’s) possible. 2. Save that(除非),saving(除了), assuming that(倘若), admitting(即使),granted(即使), Given(就…而言),on the ground that(由 于),to the end that(为了)等也引导状语从句。


网站首页网站地图 站长统计
All rights reserved Powered by 海文库
copyright ©right 2010-2011。
文档资料库内容来自网络,如有侵犯请联系客服。zhit326@126.com