haihongyuan.com
海量文库 文档专家
全站搜索:
您现在的位置:首页 > 初中教育 > 初中英语初中英语

时态和语态2

发布时间:2014-01-25 13:58:04  

模块〈Ⅰ〉
1.The discovery of gold in Australia led thousands to believe that a fortune ________. A.is made C.was to be made B.would make D.had made

解析:句意:在澳大利亚发现了金子,这使数以千计的人们认为在 那里可以发财。考查时态和语态。从语境中动作的先后看可知, “在那里发财”这一动作发生在“发现了金子”这一动作之后 且还未发生,因此 make a fortune(发财)用过去将来时的被动语 态。A 项的一般现在时、B 项的主动语态、D 项的过去完成时都 不正确。用 was to be made 表示将来的可能性。

2.Linda, make sure the tables ________ before the guests arrive. A.be set B.set C.are set D.are setting

解析:句意:琳达,确保在客人来之前把餐桌摆好。考查被动语态。 关键词 make sure 表明从句用一般现在时,the tables 与摆放之间为 被动关系,故答案选 C 项。答案:C

3.In the spoken English of some areas in the US, the “r” sounds at the end of the words ________. A.are dropped C.are being dropped B.drop D.have dropped

解析:句意:在美国一些地方的口语中,单词结尾的字母 r 的发音 通常被略掉。考查动词的时态和语态。通过题干可以判断出 sounds 和 drop 为被动关系,故排除 B 项和 D 项;另外,题中所提为普遍现 象,应为一般现在时,故选择 A 项。

5.—I’m sorry, but I don’t quite follow you. Did you say youwanted to return on September 20? —Sorry, I ________ myself clear. We want to return on October 20. A.hadn’t made C.don’t make B.wouldn’t make D.haven’t made

解析:句意:——抱歉,我不太明白你的意思。你刚才是说你们要在 9 月 20 日返 回吗?——对不起,是我没有表述清楚。我们要在 10 月 20 日返回。考查动词的时 态。根据句意可以看出“没有表述清楚”是当前的一种情况,是说话人做过的事情 对现在的一种影响,D 项是现在完成时,表明现在的情况和影响,符合题意。A 项 为过去完成时;B 项表示过去常常,与语境不符;C 项为一般现在时,表示通常情 况下都如此,也不符合语境。 答案:D

6. You’ve failed to do what you ________ to and I’m afraid the teacher will blame you. A.will expect C.expected B.will be expected D.were expected

解析:句意:你没有按照预期的要求去做,恐怕老师会责怪你。考查动词的 时态和语态。由句意可知 you 和 expect 之间是被动关系,故 A、C 两项被排 除;结合句子前后的两个时态可知设空处使用将来时不合适,B 也被排除。 答案:D

7.—Were you surprised by the ending of the film? —No. I ________ the book, so I already knew the story. A.was reading C.am reading B.had read D.have read

解析:句意:——你对电影的结局感到惊奇吗?

——不,我曾经读过那本 书,因此对故事的内容已了如指掌。考查时态。根据句意可知说话者说的 是过去的事情,故用过去时,排除 C、D 两项;A 项为进行时,表示“未 完性”,和后句中的内容相悖,故也被排除。由句意可知 read 应该发生 在 were surprised 之前,属于“过去的过去”,故答案为 B。 答案:B

8.—Why, Jack, you look so tired! —Well, I ________ the house and I must finish the work tomorrow. A.was painting C.have painted B.will be painting D.have been painting

解析:句意:——杰克,你为什么看起来如此疲备?——噢,我一直都在 粉刷房子,并且我明天必须完成。考查动词时态。根据句意可知应采用现在 完成进行时态,强调动作一直在延续。A 项为过去进行时态,表示过去某时 间或过去某阶段内动作正在进行;B 项为将来进行时态,表示将来某时刻动 作正在进行;C 项为现在完成时,强调过去的动作对现在的影响。 答案:D

9.This coastal area ________ a national wildlife reserve last year. A.was named C.is named B.named D.names

解析:句意:去年,这块沿海地区被命名为国家野生动物保护区。考 查动词的时态和语态。根据句意可知此处应用被动语态。由句中时间 状语 last year 可知,谓语动词应该为过去时态,故答案为 A。 答案:A

10.Every year a flood of farmers arrive in Shenzhen for the moneymaking jobs they ________ before leaving their hometowns. A.promised C.have promised B.were promised D.have been promised

解析:句意:每年有相当多的农民工到深圳寻求可以挣到很多钱的工作。在 离家之前,往往已经有人承诺他们会得到这样的工作。考查时态及语态。说 话者说的是目前的一种现象,故用现在时,排除 A、B 两项;又因 they 与 promise 之间为被动关系,故应该用被动语态,排除 C 项。 答案:D

11.—Guess what, we’ve got our visas for a short-term visit to the UK this summer. —How nice! You ________ a different culture then. A.will be experiencing C.have been experiencing B.have experienced D.will have experienced

解析:句意:——你猜怎么着,我们获得了今年夏季去英国进行短期访问的签证。 ——太棒了!到时候,你将会体验到不同的文化。本题中讲的是将来的某个时间 点,故用将来进行时。 答案:A

12.The book has been translated into thirty languages since it ________ on the market in 1973. A.had come B.has come

C.came
用过去时。

D.comes

解析:考查时态,主句用的是现在完成时,since引导的状语从句

答案:C
13.The palace caught fires three times in the last century, and little of the original building ________ now. A.remains C.is remaining B.is remained D.has been remained


析:句意:该宫殿在上世纪曾三次失火,现在原始的建筑物所剩 无几。考查动词时态和语态。remain是不及物动词,没有被动式或 进行时,故排除B、C和D,而选择A。 答案:A

14.For many years, people ________ electric cars. However,
making them has been more difficult than predicted. A.had dreamed of C.dreamed of B.have dreamed of D.dream of

解析:句意:多年以来,人们都梦想着电力汽车的出现。但是,制造 电力汽车比预想的要更加复杂。考查动词时态。根据时间状语 for many years可知句子为完成时,故排除C、D;句子并没有过去的 时间或过去的动作,因此不存在“过去的过去”,排除A。故 选B项。 答案:B

15.Up to now, the program ________ thousands of children who would otherwise have died. A.would save C.had saved B.saves D.has saved

解析:句意:迄今为止,这个项目己经救了好几千名孩子。
如果没有这个项目,这些孩子早就死了。up to now相当于 by now,要与现成完成时连用。 答案:D

第二部分: 1.His sister left home in 1998,and ________ since. A.had not been heard of C.had not heard of B.has not been heard of D.has not heard of

解析:考查动词的时态和语态。语意为:他姐姐在1998年 离开了家,此后人们再也没有听到她的消息。根据句意可

知应用被动语态,句中的since暗示应用现在完成时,因此
答案为B。 答案:B

2.Progress ________ so far very good and we are sure that the work will be finished on time. A.was B.had been C.has been D.will be

解析:考查动词的时态。so far“到目前为止”,常用于现在 完成时态。语意:迄今为止,进展非常顺利,我们相信这项 工作能够按时完成。 答案:C

3.Scientists have many theories about how the universe ________ into being. A.came B.was coming

C.had come

D.would come

解析:考查动词的时态。主句的时态是一般现在时,由此可知

是在现在叙述过去发生的事情,所以用一般过去时。Come
into being表示“形成;开始存在”,无被动形式。

答案:A

4.—Why don’t we choose that road to save time? —The bridge to it ________. A.has repaired B.is repaired

C.is being repaired

D.will be repaired

解析:考查动词的时态和语态。语意:——为什么我们不选择那条

路节约时间?——去那儿的桥正在维修。这里用现在进行时的被
动语态表示桥正在被修。 答案:C

5.My parents ________ in Hong Kong. They were born there and have never lived anywhere else. A.live B.lived C.were living D.will live

解析:考查动词的时态。由第二句“我的父母生于香港,且迄今 为止从未在他处居住过”可知,他们一直居住在香港,现在仍 然是,指的是现实情况,故用一般现在时。

答案:A

6.Daniel’s family ________ their holiday in Huang shan this

time next week.
A.are enjoying C.will enjoy B.are to enjoy D.will be enjoying

解析:考查动词的时态。根据句中的时间状语this time next week 可知,这里表示将来某一时刻正在进行的动作,所以要用将来进

行时。
答案:D

7.Over the past decades,sea ice ________ in the Arctic as a result of global warming. A.had decreased C.has been decreasing B.decreased D.is decreasing

解析:考查动词的时态。由从句中的over the past decades可知,此 处应该用现在完成进行时,表示动作从过去一直持续到现在并将 持续下去。

答案:C

8.According to the literary review,Shakespeare ________
his characters live through their language in his plays. A.will make C.was making B.had made D.makes

解析:考查动词时态。题干是陈述一个客观真理,用一般现在时, 选 D。 答案:D

9.She stared at the painting,wondering where she ________ it. A.saw B.has seen C.sees D.had seen

解析:考查动词的时态。根据句意可知,see这一动作发生在 谓语动词stared表示的动作之前,而stared是一般过去时,所 以这里要用过去完成时,表示“过去的过去”。 答案:D

10.—Ann is in hospital. —Oh,really?I ________ know.I ________ go and visit her. A.didn’t;am going to C.don’t;will B.don’t;would D.didn’t;will

解析:考查动词的时态。从对话内容可知,说话人在说话前 不知道Ann 在住院,因此第一空应该使用一般过去时。去医

院看她是临时做出的决定或安排,因此,第二空使用will。
be going to则表示在说话前已经安排好要做某事,这与对话 矛盾,故选项A错误。 答案:D

模块〈Ⅱ〉
时态的基本用法 1.一般现在时 (do/does)

考点锁定——知识网

①表示经常性或习惯性的动作。sometimes, usually, never, always, often; every day / week / month / year / ... ; on Sunday (s) / Monday (s) /... ; at seven forty; in the morning / afternoon / evening; now; today We always care for each other and help each other.

②表示现在存在的状态。
The Yangtze River rises in Qinghai.

③表示自然规律、科学事实、客观存在、谚语格言等。
Light travels faster than sound. Actions speak louder than words.

2.现在进行时 (am/is/are doing) 表示说话时正在进行的动作或现阶段一直在进行的动作。 He’s showing a foreign guest round the city. We’re practising spoken English this week. 3.一般将来时 (will/shall do)

表示将要发生的动作或情况。
When will you be able to give us an answer? 4.一般过去时 (did) ①表示过去已发生的但与现在没关系的事情,动作或情况(包括 习惯性动作)。 He worked in the factory for 3 years. ②表示过去经常发生的或习惯性动作



She often came to help us.
③常用一般过去时具体谈论事情发生的时间、地点、方式、原因等情况。 When did the accident happen?

5.现在完成时 (have/has done) ①表示过去开始发生一直持续到现在的动作,强调对现在的影响。 We have lived separately since last year. ②某些表示时间的词汇或短语常与现在完成时连用。如:lately,so far,in/over/for the past/last few years/up to now/until now 等 I haven’t had enough sleep lately. The scientist is doing experiments no one has so far attempted. 6.过去进行时 (was/ were doing) ①表示过去某时刻正在进行的动作。 What were you doing at nine last night? ②常用过去进行时来描述故事发生的背景。

One day,we were walking along a road....Suddenly....

7.过去完成时 (had done) ①表示过去某时间之前已完成的动作(即“过去的过去”)。

By the end of June we had treated 30,000 patients.
②在主从复合句中,如果一个动作发生在另一个过去动作之前, 这一动作要用过去完成时。

When I woke up,it had already stopped raining.
8.过去将来时 (would/should do) ①表示从过去某时看将来要发生的事情。 The time was not far off when he would regret this decision.

9.现在完成进行时 (have/has been doing)
①表示一直持续到现在,还可能进行下去的动作。 How long has it been raining?

②表示某动作持续时间太长,有令人疲劳或厌倦等含义。
I have been sitting here all afternoon. 10.过去完成进行时 (had been doing)

表示过去某时间之前一直进行的动作。
It had been raining for two days. The fields were all under water. 11.将来进行时 (will/ shall be doing)

表示将来某时刻正在进行的动作。
I won’t be free on Friday morning. I’ll be seeing a friend off. 12.将来完成时(shall/ will have done)

表示将来某时已完成的动作。
By this time next year we’ll have turned all the land into rice fields.

时态的特殊用法 时态的特殊用法
当主句为将来时,定语从句用一般现在时表将来,eg. ① I’ll give you anything you ask for. ② He’ll give anyone $5,000 who help him with his Russian

1.一般现在时

①表示按计划、规定、安排要发生的动作,主要指由时刻表、日程 表规定循环进行的动作。 When does the train stop at Jinan? ②在时间、条件、让步、方式状语从句中要用一般现在时表示将来。 I’ll write to her when I have time. I’ll have a good time whether I win or lose. ③make sure,take care,mind,it doesn’t matter,I don’t care 后跟that从句时,从句中通常用一般现在时表示将来。 We must take care that no one sees us. It doesn’t matter where we go on holiday.

用于“the+比较级…,the+比较级…”中,前一个用一般现在 时表将来,后一个用一般现在时表将来或一般将来

时,e.g. The more you eat, the fatter you (will) become.

3.一般将来时 ①表示倾向性动作。 Oil will float on water. Crops will die without water.

This machine won’t work.
机器不能运转了。

What’s the matter with the pen?The ink won’t come out.
钢笔怎么啦?墨水不出了。 ②表示临时的决定、即刻的打算。 “I hear Wang Ling is ill in hospital.”“Then I’ll go to see her.”

4.一般过去时
①I didn’t know,I didn’t mean,I thought等表示“原来不知 道”“本没想”“原以为”。 Sorry,but I didn’t mean to hurt you. ②用于虚拟语气中。( it’s time…,I wish…, I would rather…,if only…, as if…, as though…) It is time that we went to bed. I wish I knew his name. I’d rather you lived with us. If only I could see her once. 试比较 (假设,事实) He walks as if he were drunk . He is walking this way and that as if he is drunk .

5. 现在进行时

现在进行时与always/forever/constantly /continuously等连用,表示满
意、称赞、惊讶、厌恶等感情色彩, e.g. ①She’s always helping others. ②She’s constantly changing her mind.

3.动词be的现在进行时,表示一时的表现或暂时的状态,e.g.
①She is foolish.(生性如此) ②She is being foolish.(一时的表现)

能这样用的形容词多为angry, careful, clever, stupid, kind, brave,
friendly, rude, polite等动态形容词。

固定句式或结构中的动词时态
1.This/It is the first/second time+that从句。that从句中用现在完成时。 如把is改为was,则从句中用过去完成时。 This is the first time I have come here. It was the third time(that)he had made the same mistake. 2.It is/has been+一段时间+since 从句。since从句中用一般过去时。

如 把is改为was,则从句中用过去完成时。
It has been two years since I graduated from university. It was ten years since we had had such a wonderful time. 3.was/were about to do...when... 意为“将要做……(这时)突然……”。

I was about to go out when the telephone rang.

时态的区别
1.一般过去时与现在完成时 ①一般过去时表示过去某时间发生的动作或情况,与现在没有什么

联系,常与表示过去的时间状语连用。现在完成时则表示从过去
开始持续到现在的动作或情况,强调对现在造成的影响或结果, 常与for或since短语连用。

I didn’t see her last week.我上周没有见到她。
I haven’t seen her since last week. 自上周以来我一直未见过她。

②人们在谈论一个话题时,常常用现在完成时提出该话题,然后用
一般过去时具体谈论事情发生的时间、地点、原因、方式等。 “I have got a headache.”“No wonder. You worked in front of that computer too long.” “Have you shown him around the museum yet?”“Yes. We had a great time there.”

③一般过去时、现在完成时

都可以与表示一段时间的状语连用。区别
是:一般过去时表示某动作曾持续一段时间,但在过去某个时间就已 终止;现在完成时则表示某动作一直持续到现在,还没有终止。 I have lived in London for many years,and I’ve got used to the life there. I lived in London for many years,but I’ve never regretted my final

decision to move back to China.

2.一般过去时与过去完成时 ①一般过去时多与last year,yesterday, 3 years ago等表示过去的时

间状语连用;过去完成时多与by the end of last year,the
day before,3 years before等时间状语连用。 A cold wind started yesterday evening. A cold wind was blowing from the north. It had started the evening before. ②过去完成时一般不单独使用,上下文中通常要有另一个过去的动 作相比较。即:当一个动作发生在另一个过去动作之前时,该动作 才能用过去完成时。 John planned to spend 3,000 for his wedding. John spent 3,000 more than he had planned for his wedding. The girl next to me on the plane was nervous. She hadn’t flown before. 比较: The girl next to me on the plane is nervous. She hasn’t flown before.

3.现在完成进行时与现在完成时的区别:
1]现在完成时可以表示一个已经完成的动作,而现在完成进行时表示一 个正在进行的动作,e.g. ①I have read the book. ②I have been reading the book. 2]现在完成时只陈述一个事实,但现在完成进行时可表示感情色彩,e.g. ①I have waited three hours. ②I have been waiting three hours.(等得好辛苦) 3]现在完成进行时常用来谈论较短暂的动作或情况,而现在完成时谈论 延续较长的动作或情况,甚至永久情况,e.g. ① He has lived in Paris. ② He has been living in Paris.

谓语动词的语态
1.被动语态的构成

一般现在时:am/is/are done
一般过去时:was/were done 一般将来时:shall/will be done

现在进行时:am/is/are being done
过去进行时:was/were being done 过去将来时:should/would be done

现在完成时:has/have been done
过去完成时:had been done 2.“get+过去分词”构成的被动语态

His car got damaged in a road accident.
In the end this story got translated into English.

3.主动语态表示被动意义 ①系动词look,sound,feel,smell,taste,prove,appear+形容词

/名词构成的系表结构。
The steel feels cold. His plan proved(to be)practical. ②某些动词,如:read,write,sell,wash,wear,lock,dry等可 用主动语态表示被动意义,通常表明主语的某种属性或特征,一

般带有一个副词作修饰语。
This coat dries easily.这种外衣容易干。 Your pen writes smoothly.你的笔好写。 This knife cuts well.这把刀子很快。

第一人称就是“我”和“我们”。 第二人称是“你”和“你们”。 第三人称单数是“他”、“她

”和“它”,复数则是“他 们”。

英语第三人称:he, she, it 在第三人称单数后不能使用动词的原形,而要在相应的动词 后加s或es。 第三人称复数也就是常说的“他们”或者“她们”,英语中 就是they.
句子举例: 第三人称单数: He talks to me. 第三人称复数: They talk to me.

1. 句子中有“介词+表示过去时间的名词”构成的短语,如in 1949,on March fifth等时。 例如: Tom was born in 1990. 汤姆出生于1990年。 2. 句 子 中 有 表 示 时 间 的 副 词 yesterday, 或 由 yesterday 构 成 的 短 语 , 如 yesterday morning/ afternoon/ evening, the day before yesterday等时。 He went to Beijing with his parents yesterday. 他昨天和他的父母一起去北京了。 3. 句子中有“时间段+ago”构成的短语,如five days ago,two years ago等时。 My father came to the school three years ago. 我父亲三年前来到了这所学校。 4. 句子中有“last +表示时间的名词”构成的短语,如last year, last month等时。 We visited the Great Wall last Sunday. 上个星期天我们参观了长城。 5. 句子中有其它表示过去的词语或短语,如once(曾经),then(那时),just now(刚 才)等时。例如: Your friend once telephoned to say goodbye to you. 你的朋友曾打电话向你告别。 I went to your home just now. 我刚去过你家。

be going to / be about to…when/ be+v-ing/ be due to will/shall +动原 1〕表示某个意图没有经过事先考虑,而是在说话的时候才决定 做某事用will e.g. ①--You forget to close the door. --oh, I will close it at once. 2〕be going to (1)强调主观想法或意图: I’m going to wash the car if I have time. (注意:此时不 能用 be+v-ing, be+v-ing表示将来,主要强调已经作出的 安排 e.g. I’m picking you up at 6:00,don’t forget. ) (2)强调某个意图是事先考虑好的: --Ann is in hospital. --Yes, I know. I’m going to visit her tomorrow. (3)表示迹象表明要发生某事 Look at the dark clouds. It’s going to rain. How pale that girl is! I think she will/ is going to faint.

3〕be about to表示动作之快的将来, 一般与when连用。 ① Autumn is about to start. ② I was just about to fall into a doze when he started up. 4〕be due to与时间表,旅行计划等有关, e.g. ① The train is due to leave at 7:00. ② He is due to leave very soon. 5] (go, come, leave, start, arrive, reach, get to) 用be+ doing 表 将来, 表安排的或按计划要做的事情。 Nancy isn’t coming to the party. Notes: The train leaves at 7. 火车七点开。


网站首页网站地图 站长统计
All rights reserved Powered by 海文库
copyright ©right 2010-2011。
文档资料库内容来自网络,如有侵犯请联系客服。zhit326@126.com