haihongyuan.com
海量文库 文档专家
全站搜索:
您现在的位置:首页 > 初中教育 > 初中英语初中英语

历年河北中考英语试题及考点分析总结

发布时间:2014-01-25 14:56:14  

河北中考英语专题总结

专题一 名词

名词时表示人、事物、地点、或抽象概念的名称的词,它是中考考察的高频词汇之一,通常占考试题的百分之时左右。考察名词的题型有很多,有单项填空、完成句子、句型转换、用所给的单词的适当形式填空等。中考试题对名词的考察涉及名词数的变化,特别是名词复数的不规则变化;对可数名词和不可数名词的区分,专有名词的做法以及近义词辨析等。词意理解、不可数名词的数量表示法、名词所有格、名词作定语也是考察的热点。 一、名词的分类

(1)可数名词有单、复数两种形式,而不可数名词只有单数形式。

pen→pens钢笔 bread面包

(2)不定冠词、基数词可直接修饰可数名词,表示数量;而不可数名词在表示数量时则用“不定冠词/基数词+单位名词+of+不可数名词”。

an apple ,two pictures, a piece of bread , four glasses of water (3) 可数名词复数前可用many , few, a few ,several 等修饰;不可数名词前可用much ,little ,a little 等修饰。Some和any 既可以修饰可数名词,也可以修饰不可数名词。

三、名词的复数形式 (1)可数名词的规则变化 1)一般加s

2)s; sh; ch; x 结尾加 es 读 [iz] 3) ce; se; ze; (d)ge 结尾加 s

eg. box [b ks blous

4)f (fe) 结尾则变f(fe)为v加es---读[vz]

eg. kniv]

5) ―辅+y‖结尾变y为i加es 清就清[s]

浊就浊[z]

eg. book[buk pen[pen] babi]

(2)可数名词的不规则变化

man—men ; woman—women ;child—children

policeman—policemen

Englishman—Englishmen

Frenchman—Frenchmen

foot—feet ; tooth—teeth mouse(鼠)—mice

但注意以下几点:

① potato—potatoes ; tomato—tomatoes

② 单复同形: fish ; sheep ; deer ; Chinese ; Japanese

③ 由man , woman在词首构成的复合名词应将两部分都变成复数

man doctor — men doctors

④ reef—reefs

⑤ “某国人”的复数:中日不变英法变,其余s加后面. eg. German—Germans

⑥ people , police 常用单数形式表示复数概念 The police are looking for the missing boy.

3、名词所有格:名词’s (意思是 ―??的‖)

A.有生命的名词所有格,一般在后加“’s”但注意:

1)表两者共有则在后者加“’s”

Lucy and Lily’s father 露西和莉莉的父亲

Lucy’s and Lily’s fathers露西的父亲和莉莉的父亲.

2)以s结尾的词只加“ ’ ”

eg. 1) the boys’ books 2) James’ father

3)无生命的名词所有格用of来引导

eg. the leg the desk

4)双重所有格:a friend of my father’s

a friend of mine ( √ ) a friend of my( × )

1. ( 2007 河北 29)__room is big and bright. They like it very much.

A. Tom and Sam B. Tom's and Sam

C. Tom and Sam's D. Tom's and Sam's

2. ( 2006 河北 27)-Would you like some drinks ,boys?

--Yes,_________, please.

A. some oranges B. two boxes of chocolates

C. some cakes D. two bottles of orange

3. ( 2005 河北 36)"It's over ________from Shijiazhuang to Beijing.

A. three hours' drive B. three hour's drive

C. three hours' drives D. three hours drive

4. (2004 河北 37 ) This is _______ bedroom. The twin sisters like it very much.

A. Anne and Jane B. Anne's and Jane's

C. Anne's and Jane D. Anne and Jane's

5. (2003 河北) The doctor worked for __after twelve o'clock.

A. two more hours B. two another hour

C. more two hours D. another two hour

6.(2008河北 24). Can you imagine what life will be like in ____ time?

A. 20 years’ B. 20 year’s C. 20-years’ D. 20-years

A. Class Third B. Class three C. third Class D. Class Three

C. IA Ming, babies D. Li Ming's, babies'

7.(2010 河北 28)I don’t think looking after children is just ____work.

A woman B woman’s C women D women’s

8. (2011 河北 30 ) 30. Cici enjoys dancing. It’s one of herA. prize B. prizes C. hobby D. hobbies

9 (2009 河北83) Computer is one of the greatest ___________________ (发明). I can’t imagine life without it.

10 (2011 河北 82)(science) to give them a speech on space. 11 (2010 河北 82)We need eleven _______(play) for our soccer team.

专题二代词

代词是代替名词的词,种类多,用途广,中考试题中出现的频率很高,涉及各个题型,约占中考试题的10%左右,出现较多的不定代词的用法及代词作主语时和谓语动词一致的用法、人称代词主格与宾格的用法区别、形容词性物主代词与名词性物主代词的用法区别等。

(一)指示代词:this , that , these , those. this , that一般与可数名词的单数连用,而不与不可数名词连用(但that可单独指代不可数名词)。

that apple ( √ ) that meat ( × )

The weather in Sichuan is not so hot as ______ in Guangzhou. [that]

①this(复数形式是these),是指时间或空间上离说话的人较近的人或物。That(复数形式是those),是指时间或空间上离说话的人较远的人或物。

②that/those 有时用来代替前面说过的名词,以避免重复。

(二)人称代词、物主代词和反身代词

① 主格人称在句子中的用法

I like music.

② 宾格人称代词在句子中作动词的宾语或介词的宾语。

We often go to see her on Saturdays.

③ 人称代词作表语时一般用宾格,但在比较正式的场合用主格。

---Who is it?

---It’s me.(非正式)

一变(my—mine); 二留(his—his its—its)

三加s(your—yours ; our—ours ; her—hers ; their—theirs)

物主代词的用法:

(1) 形容词性物主代词具有形容词的特征,在句子中作定语,后面接名词。

(2) 名词性物主代词具有名词的特征,在句子中可以做主语、表语或宾语。 eg. This is _____(我的)book. This book is ______(我的). [ my ; mine]

反身代词的用法:

(1) 做及物动词或介词的宾语

Did they enjoy themselves last Sunday?

(2)作主语或宾语的同位语

在做同位语时,反身代词可多翻译为“本人”或“本身”。但有时为了加强语气,常译为“自己”或“亲自”。起强调作用时,反身代词可以放在被强调词之后,也可以放在句末。 He learned by himself.

(3)反身代词的常见搭配:

enjoy oneself 玩得高兴;过得愉快

hurt oneself 伤着自己

teach oneself = learn… by oneself 自学

(all) by oneself (完全)独立地

help oneself to 请自便;随便吃?

look after oneself 自理;照顾自己

leave one by oneself 把?单独留下

lose oneself in 陶醉于?;沉浸于?

(五)不定代词

不明确指代个人或事物、某些人或事物的代词叫不定代词。不定代词主要有all ,each ,every ,both ,neither ,one ,little ,few ,many ,much ,other ,another ,some ,any ,no ,还有由some ,any ,no 和 every构成的复合代词。

不定式在句中可以作主语、宾语、表语、定语、同位语等。

1)some与any

一般情况下,some用于肯定句,any用于否定句、疑问句(但表邀请、建议的问句中可用some—此类句型常以could , would开头)

2)

many + 可数 = a lot of : 许多

much + 不可数

(但a lot of不能用于否定句)

3) few , a few ; little , a little

①.The story is easy to read. There are ____new words in it. [few] ②.Hurry up! There is_____ time left. [little]

4) everyone / anyone 不加of

( )____ of us wants to read the book. [B]

A. Everyone B. Every one

C. Nobody D. No one

①.We study _____ subjects besides Chinese.

②.May I have ___________ apple ?

③.These cups are clean. ________ are dirty.

④.I have two pens. One is red , ________ is blue. [ other ; another ; others ; the others] one another (三者以上的)相互

each other (两者的)相互

We should learn from each other(说明we指两个人)

They help one another (说明they指三个人以上)

①.

neither none

②.both , all 不但作主语为复数,且被修饰的词也为复数;neither , none作主语为单数,但none of + 复名,neither of + 复名

( )1.____ of my parents is a teacher. [B]

A. None B. Neither C. Both D. All

( )2.There are many trees on ____ side of the river. [C]

A. both B. any C. either D. all

7) each: (二者以上的)

every: (三者以上的)每个——只作定语)

①.____ student in the class likes English.

②.___ of the students studied hard.

[Every ; Each]

1.(2008河北). I tried several jackets on, but ____ of them looked good.

A. both B. either C. none D. neither

2. (2008河北) Look at the photo. The girl beside_____ is Nancy.

A. I B. my C. me D. mine

3.. (2007 河北, 28) My aunt has two children. But ______ of them lives with her.

A. each B, neither C. either D. both

4, ( 2006 河北, 29 ) On _____ sides of the street are a lot of colourful flowers.

A. each B. both C, either D. all

5. (2005 河北, 40) We've got two TV sets, but ______works well.

A. any B. both C. either D. neither

6. (2004 河北, 40 )--Do you prefer milk or orange juice?

--I don't like ______. I usually drink coffee.

A. other B. another C. neither D. either

7. (2003 河北, 20)--Oh! I came in a hurry and forgot to bring food.

--Never mind. You can have _______.

A. us B. ours C. you D. yours

8.(2003 河北, 17) --Which sweater do you prefer, the yellow one or the pink one?

--________. I like a light blue one.

A. Either B. Both C. Any D. Neither

9(2009 河北 28). Is there any difference between your idea and _____?

A. he B. his C. she D. her

10 (2009 河北31)Sam looks like his Dad. They are _____ tall.

A. either B. any C. all D. both

11 (2010 河北 32)Emma ,can you introduce _____to Alice ? I want to meet her.

A him B his C me D my

12 (2011 河北 27) George reads the newspaper every morning. That’s

A. he B. him C. his D. himself

13 (2011 河北81)

专题三 数词

数词分为基数词和序数词。英语中数词分为基数词和序数词,基数词在句子中可做定语、表语、宾语、主语以及同位语,序数词主要作定语。数词在中考中约占5%,考察的题型主要有单项填空、完形填空、阅读理解、句型转换等,听力测试也占较大的比例。在中考对数词的考察主要集中 在数次的用法、基数词与序数词之间的转化、分数表达法、不确切数量词之间的关系以及在句子中与名词的搭配等方面。

1.基数词

用于表示事物数目的词称为基数词。

(1000以内的基数词的读法)

365—three hundred and sixty-five

505—five hundred and five

2.基数词变序数词的方法:

基变序,有规律;词尾要加th。

一二三,特殊记;词尾分别tdd。

八去t ,九去e ;ve则以f替。

ty 则变作 ti ; 后面还有一个e。

要是遇到几十几;只将个位变成序。

eg. one—first two—second three—third

eight—eighth nine—ninth twelve—twelfth

twenty—twentieth

twenty-one –-twenty-first

3.数词的应用:

A、时刻表达法:

a. 整点:基数词 + o’clock

eg. It’s eight o’clock now.

b. 几点几分:

1.直接表达法:先小时后分

eg. 3:25 three twenty-five

2.间接表达法:先分后小时

1)(<30分钟)用past :分钟past 小时

eg. 3:25 twenty-five (minutes) past three

2) (>30分钟)用to:(60-分钟数) to (小时数+1)

eg. 3:35 twenty-five (minutes) to four

3) 30分钟 = half 15分钟 = a quarter

eg. 3:30 three thirty = half past three

3:15 three fifteen = a quarter past three.

3:45 three forty-five = a quarter to four

B、日期表达法:月日,年(或日月年)

1949年10月1日 :

October1st , nineteen forty-nine

= first of October, nineteen forty-nine

2000年: the year two thousand

=twenty hundred

2001年: twenty o one

3月1日: March the first = C、表编号:

第207房间:Room 207

第五课: Lesson 5 = the fifth lesson

D、序数词:表示事物顺序的词称为序数词

序数词与不定冠词(a; an)连用表“又一;再一”

eg. You’ve done it three times. Why not try a fourth time?

E、分数的表达:分子(基数)、分母(序数)

eg. one third 三分之一 two thirds 三分之二

注意:1.分子超过1时,分母加s

2.含分数的短语作主语由分数后的词决定谓语

eg.1)One third of the students girls.

2)One third of the milk mine.

3.分数的特殊形式

1)one third = a third

2)one fourth = a quarter

three fourths = three quarters

3)one second = a half

F、数词的复数形式

(1)表示年龄,意思是“几十岁”。如“三十多岁”为thirties ,表示从30岁到39岁;“十几岁”是teens 。

(2)表示年代,如“20世纪80年代”写成1980s ,读作“nineteen eighties”

(3)表示约数、不确定的数目。

hundreds of ; thousands of ; millions of

(4)用于表分数。当分数的分子大于1时 ,分母的序数词 用复数 。

(5)当基数词用作名词 或在一些固定词组中时,也用复数。

1. (2005年 河北, 46) This is a big class, and ____ of the students are girls.

A. two third B. second three C. two-third D. two three

2. (2004 河北, 36) Nine _____ pounds a week? That’s very good.

A. hundred of B. hundreds of C. hundreds D. hundred

3. (2003 河北) The doctor worked for ____ after twelve o’clock.

A. two more hours B. two another hour C. more two hours D. another two hour

4.Please write down the new words in the text of _______.

A. Lesson Eleven B. the Lesson Eleven C. Lesson Eleventh

5 (2009 河北81)This is our _____________________ (三) time to plant trees.

6 (2009 河北85)Mr. Smith gave us _____________________ (一条) advice on how to keep healthy

7 (2010 河北81)It’s a good habbit to brush teeth t_____ a day.

专题四 介词

介词是英语中最常用的词性之一。介词除了本身具有一定的含义之外,他们还常常和名词搭配在一起,表示许多不同的意思。介词是中考热点,约占7%,几乎在各种题型中都会体现,考察的主要是常用介词的用法、由介词构成的短语词组及其用法等。

1.in; on; at用在时间词前,表“在”

1)at + 具体时刻

2)on + 具体某天(具体某天的上、下午等;星期词;以及上、下午词前有修饰词时)

3)in + 年、月、季节及一天中的某部分

但注意:at night= in the night at noon

at this / that time at Christmas

eg. 1.___ the morning 2.___ Monday morning

3. ___ a rainy evening 4. ___3:50 5.__ 2002

6.___ the morning of April 10 7.___ spring

8.___ night 9.___ this time 10. ___ March

另外注意:在时间词(morning , afternoon , evening ; Sunday…)前有不再用介词. tomorrow, tonight前也不用介词。 ______________

2. in , on , at 表地点:

at一般指小地方;in一般指大地方或某个范围之内;on往往表示“在某个物体的表面”。例如:

eg. 1)He arrived ___Shanghai yesterday.

2)They arrived ___a small village before dark.

3)There is a big hole ____ the wall.

4)The teacher put up a picture ____ the wall.

3.in , on , to表方位

in(范围内);on(范围外且接壤);to(范围外但不接壤)。可表示为下图的位置关系

eg.1)Taiwan is in the southeast of China.

2)Hubei is on the north of Hunan.

3)Japan is to the east of China.

cross: 动词“跨过,越过”=go across

4. across: (表面)跨过

through: (内部)穿过,贯穿 介词

eg. 1)Can you swim _____ the river?

2)The road runs __________ the forest.

3) _____ the bridge, you’ll find a cinema.

in + 时间段:与将来时连用

after + 时间段:与过去时连用

但after + 时间点:可与将来时连用。

1) I’ll leave _______ three o’clock.. That is, I’ll leave ________ about ten minutes.

2)They left _______ two weeks. 外加在树上的事物) on the tree(树上自身具有的花、果、叶等in the wall(镶嵌在墙内部的事物墙表面的事物)

1) There is a map ___ the wall

2) There are four windows ___ the wall.

8.by bike / bus / car / ship (单数且无冠词)

但当这些交通工具名词前有其它修饰词时,则应使用相应的介词。

eg. by bike = on a(the; his) bike

by car = in a(the ; her) car

on: 在?(表面)上——接触

over: 在?的正上方

above: 未接触

1) The moon rose ______ the hill.

2) There is a bridge _____ the river.

3) There is a book ______ the desk.

在(两者)之间

among :在(三者以上)之间

1)A big crowd of people were waiting for Li Lida on the beach. ________ them were his parents.

2)Tom sits ________Lucy and Lily.

11.on与about : 关于

on用于较正式的演讲、学术、书籍等

about用于非正式的谈话或随便提及

eg. He gave a talk ____ the history of the Party

在?前面/方(范围外)= before

in / at the front of:

1)There is a big tree _______ of the classroom.

2)A driver drives _________ of the bus.

类似区别:at the back of与behind

13.with和in: 表示“用“

with: 指“用工具、手、口等”

in: 1) Please write the letter ____ a pen.

2) Please speak ____ a loud voice.

14. on a farm ; in a factory ; the girl in the hat ; leave for: 动身前往某地

15.表示“除了??以外‖的besides ,but ,except 和except for

(1) beside 作“除了??以外,还有??” 讲,强调部分包括在整体之内。

(2)but 作“除了??以外”讲,相当于except ,but 常与否定代词nothing ,nobody 及部分形容词的最高级连用,后接名词、代词和不定式。

注:but 后接不定式时,何时带to 要依据前面的动词是否有do而定,即:有do不带to,无do要带to 。

(3)except作“除了??以外”讲,强调从整体中排除一部分,对主语的内容起到修正作

用。

16.一些固定搭配:

(1)介词与动词的搭配

listen to , laugh at, get to, look for;

wait for, hear from, turn on, turn off, worry about, think of, look after, spend…on…, 等。

(2)介词与名词的搭配

on time, in time, by bus, on foot,

with pleasure, on one’s way to, in trouble,

at breakfast, at the end of, in the end等。

(3)介词与形容词的搭配

be late for, be afraid of, be good at,

be interested in, be angry with,

be full of, be sorry for等。

1.(2007 河北, 27 ) Can you find New York ______ this map of America?

A. in B. at C. of D. on

2. ( 2006 河北, 28 ) Yao Ming is a great basketball player. We are proud ____ him.

A. of B. to C. for D. at

3. (2005 河北, 38 ) It's not always necessary to look up the words_____ the dictionary while reading. Sometimes we need to guess.

A. on B. in C. at D. from

4. (2004 河北, 44 ) Congratulations, John! I'm really happy __ you.

A. in B. on C. for D. to

5. (2003 , 河北, 21 ) --How are you going to the train station to meet your aunt?

--I'm going there ______ my car.

A. by B. in C. to D. on

6.I’ll go to America _______Friday moring.

A. in B. on C. at D.for

7(2008河北23).You must ride your bike ____ the right side of the road?

A. at B. on C. in D. for

8 (2009 河北27)Let’s play table tennis _____ Tuesday morning, shall we?

A. on B. in C. to D. at

9 (2010 河北27)Sally is very happy .There is a big smile ____ her face.

A on B to C in D at

10 (2011 河北 A. off B. from C. of D. for

专题五 连词

连词主要分成两类:并列连词和从属连词。连词主要用来连接单词和单词、短语与短语以及句子和句子。中考中涉及连词较多,尤其是状语从句中的从属连词成为近几年中考的热点和重点。连词在中考题中占8%,主要考查的有单项填空、句型转换以及完形填空等。考察的内容主要是连词的用法。

从属连词和并列连词

(一)从属连词:用于连接各种从句的连词

(1)引导名词性从句的连词

That (没有词义,只是引导作用);if/whether 是否;wh-特殊疑问句。

(2)引导状语从句的连词:

When “当??的时候”;while “当??时 ”;as“当??时,由于,尽管,像??那样”;since “自从??以来,由于”;before “在??以前”;after “在??以后”;once “一旦”,as soon as ?“一??就??”until “直到”;because“因为”;although/though“虽然”;if“如果”;unless“除非”;whether?or?“无论??还是??”;so that “以便,为了”;in order that “以便,为了”;so?that?“如此??以至于”;as if“好像”;than“比??

(二)并列连词:

并列连词用来连接具有并列关系的词,短语或句子。常见的并列连词有:

1.表并列关系的and, both…and, not only…but also, neither…nor等。

2. 表选择关系的or, either…or等。

3. 表转折关系的but, while(然而)等。

4. 表因果关系的for, so等。

5. “和”在肯定句中表并列or: “和”在否定句中表并列

另外:1)or “或者”用于选择疑问句

2)or “否则”

eg. ①.Which do you like better, tea or milk?

②.Hurry up, or you’ll be late for school.

6.but “但是”表转折

eg. I listened, but I heard nothing.

注意:1)though(虽然), but(但是)不能连用

2)not … but 不是?而是

eg. This book isn’t mine but yours.

既?又(连接主语为复数)

neither…nor: 既不?也不 连接两主

7. either…or: 或者?或者 语后者决

not only … but also: 定单、复

eg.1)Both he and I are students.

2)Neither he nor I am a student.

1. (2007 河北, 30)I didn't know he came back_____ I met him in the street.

A. since B. whenC. until D. after

2. (2006 河北,30) He missed the train this morning __ he got up late.

A. or B. if C. but D. because

3. (2005河北, 48)I tried to call you I heard from him, but you were not in.

A. since B. while

C. until D. as soon as

4. (2004河北, 38 )We'll go to visit Tian'anmen Square it doesn't rain tomorrow.

A. ff B. as soon as

C. when D. since

5. (2003河北, 7) Mr. Brown knows little Japanese, ____ he can't understand the instructions on the bottle of the pills.

A. so B. or C. but D. for

6.(2008河北 30).Susan will not arrive at the airport on time ___ she hurries up.

A. once B. if C. when D. unless

7(2009 河北43)_____ they may not succeed, they will try their best.

A. Though B. When C. Because D. Unless 8 (2010 河北 30)Jenny , put on your coat ______you will catch a cold.

A but B and C or D so

9 (2011 河北 33)he is active in class.

A. so B. and C. but D. or

10 (2011 河北 41)They will lose the game they try their best .

A. unless B. once C. since D. after

11 (2010 河北 42)Peter likes reading a newspaper ______ he is having breakfast.

A until B while C because D though

专题六 形容词

形容词是用来修饰名词或代词,说明事物或人的性质或特征的词。近几年中考中加强了对形容词的考察。形容词在中考中常出现以下题型:用所给单词的适当形式填空、单项选择、句型转换、完成句子和完形填空等。考查内容的形式主要有形容词的比较级和最高级、形容词修饰不定代词的位置、形容词作系动词的表语的用法等。

1 形容词在句子中的作用

形容词在句子中可以作表语、定语或宾语补足语等。

(1)形容词在句中作定语,位于名词的前面。

(2)形容词在句中作表语,放在系动词之后。

(3)形容词在句子中作宾语补足语,放在宾语的后面。

(4)两个形容词用and连起来放在句末可以作状语或补语。

性形容词有:beautiful ,cold ,bad ,great等。“大长高”是表示大小、长短、高低等的一些词;表示形状的词有:round ,square 等;“国籍”是指一个国家或地区的词;表示“材料”的次有:wooden ,woolen ,stone ,silk 等;表示“作用类别”的词有:medical,college等。

1 (2008河北) 1..The air in the countryside is ___. So many people from the city go there on weekends.

A. soft B. pretty C. fresh D. delicious

2 (2009 河北 82) I’m not really _____________________ (饥饿). I’ll just have an ice cream. 3 (2010 河北 83)What a ______(sun) day it is today ! Let’ go to the park .

专题七 副词

副词是用来修饰动词、形容词、其他副词或整个句子,作状语,表示时间、场所、状态、程度。它也是英语中的重要词汇之一,它与形容词关系密切,不少副词是由形容词转化派生出来的。副词在中考中也是热点词汇之一。考察副词的主要题型有:单项填空、句型转换、用所给词的适当形式填空等。考察的内容主要有副词的用法、频度副词、副词的比较级和最高级以及部分特殊的副词句型等。

一、副词的分类

副词按词汇意义可分为:

方式副词:well,fast,slowly,carefully,quickly程度副词:very,much,enough,almost,rather,quite

地点副词:here,there,out,somewhere,abroad,home时间副词:today,early,soon,now,then,recently,still

频度副词:always,often,usually,sometimes,seldom,never否定副词:no,not,neither,nor

疑问副词:where,how,why 其他:also,too,only

二、副词的基本用法:

1).副词是用来修饰形容词、其他副词,一般放在被修饰词之前.He plays the piano very well .

2). 副词是用来修饰动词,常放在动词之后.He got up quickly

3).enough 修饰adj /adv 时,放在其后.He is old enough to go to school .

三、常见副词用法辨析

1.already与yet的区别already用于肯定句句中,表示“已经”;yet用于否定句句末,表示“还”,用于疑问句句末,表示“已经”He had_____left when I called. Have you found your ruler______?

2 very,much和very much.的区别

very用于修饰形容词或副词的原级;much用于修饰形容词或副词的比较级;修饰动词要用very much.

John is ____ honest. This garden is_____ bigger than that one. Thank you

_____.

3.so与such的区别

⑴so修饰形容词或副词;such 修饰名词,My brotherruns so fast that I can’t follow him. He is such a boy.

⑵so+形容词+a/an+可数名词单数such+a/an+形容词+可数名词单数 such+形容词+可数名词复数/不可数名词

He is ___ clever a boy.=He is ____ a clever boy. It is____cold weather. They are _____good students.

⑶名词前有many ,much, few ,little (少量的) 用so 不用such .(多多少少仍用so)但little 表示 ―小的‖ 用such.

There are ___ little sheep on the hill .

4.also,too,as well与either 的区别

also,as well,too,用于肯定句,also常用于be动词,情态动词,助动词之后,行为动词之前;as well,too用于句末;either用于否定句中,置于句末。

例如,My father is a teacher. My mother is ____a teacher. =My father is a teacher. My mother is a teacher ______.

=My father is a teacher. My mother is a teacher,_____. I can’t speak French?? Jenny can’t speak French,_____.

5.sometime,sometimes,some time与some times的区别

sometime:表示将来的或过去的某一个不确定的时间。sometimes:有时,不时的= at times some time:一段时间some times:几次,几倍

We’ll have a test ______next month._____ we are busy and sometimes we are not.

He stayed in Beijing for _____ last year.I have been to Beijing ______.

6.ago与before的区别

ago表示以现在为起点的“以前”,常与一般过去时连用,不可以单独使用。

before指过去或将来的某时刻“以前”,也可泛指以前,常和完成时连用,可以单独使用。 I saw him ten minutes _______. He told me that he had seen the film______.

7.now,just与just now的区别

now:与一般现在时、现在进行时、现在完成时连用,意为“现在”

just:与现在完成时连用,表示“刚??”just now:和过去时连用,表示“刚才” Where does he live______? We have _______ seen the film. He was here______.

8.lonely / alone 的区别

1).alone 独自一人/没有同伴, 既可作adj 也可作adv.

2).lonely 表示孤独,寂寞, 也可修饰地点,表示荒凉,偏僻的,常与feel 连用。

3).alone 只作表语 (以a开头的形容词一般只作表语,不作定语)而lonely 既可作表语,也可作定语)

He lives _____ on a _____ island . He is _____ ,but he doesn’t feel ______.

9.fast /quickly /soon 的区别.

fast 表示速度之快 quickly表示动作之快 soon表示时间之快

I’m leaving home this afternoon . Really ? Why so ______? A.fast B.soon C.quickly

D.early

1. (2007河北,36) --Peter, _____do you visit your grandparents? --Twice a month.

A. how long B. how soon C. how far D. how often

2. (2005河北,37 ) Write ______ and try not to make any mistakes.

A. as careful as possible B. as carefully as you can C. most careful D. more careful

3. (2004河北,48) Bob never does his homework _____ Mary. He makes lots of mistakes.

A. so careful as B. as carefully as

C. carefully as D. as careful as

4. (2004河北,46) --____ will it take us to get there by bus?

--About two hours.

A. How soon B. How often C. How long D. How quick

5.(2008河北 31). David jumped ____ in the long jump. He won the game!

A. longest B. farthest C. fastest D. highest

6(2009 河北 32)—_____ can you be ready, Andy?

—In ten minutes.

A. How much

A. more careful B. How often B. careful C. How long C. more carefully D. How soon D. carefully 7 (2009 河北 35). She always does her homework _____ than her brother. 8 (2010 河北29)The Internet is very useful for us .We can _____find information.

A easy B easily C hard D hardly

9 (2011 河北83)(care) as we could.

专题 八 冠词

冠词是一种虚词,放在名词的前面,帮助说明名词的含义,它分为不定冠词(a ,an )和定冠词(the)两种。冠词是英语中使用频率极高的一种词,历年来中考单项填空或完型都涉及冠词的用法,考察内容主要集中在:1不定冠词a 和an de 用法;2定冠词the 的用法以及不定冠词的场合,3 习惯用语中冠词的位置和使用。

冠词的考查重点包括不定冠词a和an的用法,定冠词the的用法和零冠词的用法等。

一.a和an的区别

不定冠词有a和an两种形式,a用于辅音(不是辅音字母)开头的词前,an用于元音(不是元音字母)开头的词前。

例如:a boy, a university, a European country; an hour, an honor, an island, an elephant, an umbrella, an honest man ,a useful book 不看字母看读音,不见原因(元音)别施恩(n)

二.不定冠词的用法

1.泛指某一类人、事或物;相当于any,这是不定冠词a/an的基本用法。 A horst is an animal

2.泛指某人或某物,但不具体说明何人或何物。 A girl is waiting for you.

3.表示数量,有“一”的意思,但数的概念没有one强烈。I have a computer.

4.表示“每一”,相当于every. I go to school five days a week.我一周上五天课。

5.用在序数词前,表示“又一”,“再一”。 I have three books. I want to buy a fourth one.

6.用在某些固定词组中:a lot(of), after a while ,a few ,a little ,at a time ,have a swim ,have a cold ,in a hurry ,for a long time,have a good time ,have a look

三.定冠词的用法

1.特指某(些)人或某(些)物,这是定冠词的基本用法。The book on the desk is mine

2.指谈话双方都知道的人或事物。Open the window, please. 3.指上文已经提到的人或事物。I have a car. The car is red.

4.指世界上独一无二的事物。Which is bigger, the sun or the earth?

5.用在序数词,形容词最高级前。The first lesson is the easiest one in this book.

6.用在由普通名词构成的专有名词前。the Great Wall 长城,the United States 美国

7.用在某些形容词前,表示某一类人。the poor穷人, the blind盲人

8用在姓氏复数形式前,表示“全家人”或“夫妻俩”。the Greens 格林一家或格林夫妻俩

9.用在方位词前。on the left在左边,in the middle of在中间 10.用在乐器名称前。She plays the piano every day.

11.用在表示海洋,河流,山脉,群岛及国家和党派等名词前。the Black Sea黑海,the Yangzi River长江

12.用在某些固定词组中:all the same仍然;all the time一直;at the moment此刻;at the same time同时;by the way顺便说;do the shopping/washing买东西/洗衣服;in the morning/afternoon/evening 在上午/下午/晚上;in the open air四.零冠词的用法

1.棋类,球类,一日三餐名词前不用任何冠词Play chess play football have supper

特例:当football,basketball指具体的某个球时,其前可以用冠词:I can see a football.我可以看到一只足球。Where’s the football?那只足球在哪儿?(指足球,并非“球类运动”)

2.季节,月份,星期,节假日名词前不用任何冠词.In July in summer on Monday on Teachers’ Day

3.人名,地名,国家名前不加冠词Beijing is the capital of China

4.学科,语言,称呼,语职务名词前不用冠词Math is hard to learn

5.复数名词表示类别时不加冠词They are workers I like eating apples

6.名词前已有物主代词(my,your,his,her等)、指示代词(this/these,that/those)、不定代词(some,any等)及所有格限制时,不用冠词my book(正);my the book(误)

7.在表特定的公园,街道,车站,桥,学校等之前。No.25 Middle School

五.用与不用冠词的差异

in hospital住院 /in the hospital在医院里 in front of在?(外部的)前面 /in the front of在?(内部的)前面

at table进餐 /at the table在桌子旁 by sea乘船 /by the sea在海边 go to school(church?)上学(做礼拜?) /go to the school(church?)到学校(教堂?)去 two of us我们当中的两人/the two of us我们两人(共计两人) next year明年 /the next year 第二年 a teacher and writer一位教师兼作家(一个人)

/a teacher and a writer一位教师和一位作家(两个人)

1. (2007 河北, 26) ____ woman in a purple skirt is Betty’s mother.

A. The B. A C. An D. /

2. (2006 河北课改, 26) There is ____ apple tree in my garden. It’s over 10 years old.

A. the B. a C. an D. /

3.My father is _____engineer.He works very hard.

4.He gave my sister _____useful book yesterday.

5.Last week Lily’s father bought her______MP4 as_____birtherday present.

6.I enjoy listening to____music ,but I don’t like _____music we heard just now.

7.Mary used to be____honest girl,but now she often tells lies.

8.Tian’anmen square and____Great Wall are very famous in____China.

9.In the United States ,Father’s Day comes on____third Sunday in___June.

10(2008河北) My father is____ engineer. He works very hard.

A. a B. an C. the D. /

11 (2009 河北 26)I really like _____ book you lent me yesterday.

A. a B. an C. the D. 不填

12 (2010 河北 26)Cindy is ______amazing singer .She has lots of fans.

A a B an C the D. 不填

13 (2011 河北 26) She learned to play piano all by herself.

A. a B. an C. the D. 不填

专题九 动词分类和时态

初中英语所涉及的时态有8种,即一般现在时、现在进行时、一般将来时、现在完成时、一般过去式、现在完成时、一般过去时、过去进行时、过去将来时和过去完成时。动词的时态是中考考察的重点之一,考查题型有用所给单词的适当形式填空、单项选择、句型转换、完成句子和完形填空等。考察的主要内容是各种时态的用法及结构。

一、一般现在时:

1.概念:经常、反复发生的动作或行为及现在的某种状况。也可表客观规律以及在时间,条件状语从句中表将来时

2.时间状语: always, usually, often, sometimes, every week (day, year, month…), once a week, on Sundays,

3.基本结构:①be动词;am/is/are ②行为动词 :动词原形、第三人称单数。

4.否定形式:①am/is/are+not;② don’t /doesn’t +动词原形+……

5.一般疑问句:①把be动词放于句首;② Do/Does +…+动词原形+…?

二、一般过去时:

1.概念:过去某个时间里发生的动作或状态;过去习惯性、经常性的动作、行为。

2.时间状语:ago, yesterday, the day before yesterday, last week(year, night, month?), in 1989, just now, at the age of 5, one day, long long ago, once upon a time, this morning

3.基本结构:①be动词;was/were …②行为动词 :动词的过去式4.否定形式:①was/were+not;② didn’t +动词原形

5.一般疑问句:①was或were放于句首;② Did +…+动词原形……?

三、现在进行时:

1.概念:表示现阶段或说话时正在进行的动作及行为。

2.时间状语:now, at this time, these days, look,listen ,can you see? Can’t you see ?之类的暗示语。

3.基本结构: am/is/are+doing 4.否定形式: am/is/are+not+doing. 5.一般疑问句: Is /Are …+doing sth ?

四、过去进行时:

1.概念:表示过去某段时间或某一时刻正在发生或进行的行为或动作。

2.时间状语:at this/that time yesterday, at that time ,at sixyesterday evening , last night 或以when/while引导的时间状语(过去进行时+when+一般过去时/ 一般过去时+while +过去进行时/过去进行时+while +过去进行时)3.基本结构: was/were+doing 4.否定形式:was/were + not + doing.5.一般疑问句:把was或were放于句首。

五、现在完成时:

1.概念:过去发生或已经完成的动作对现在造成的影响或结果,或从过去已经开始,持续到现在的动作或状态。

2.时间状语:recently, lately, since?for?,in the past few years, already ,yet ,never ,ever, just, before, so far ,once, twice etc.

3.基本结构: have/has + done 4.否定形式: have/has + not +done.

5.一般疑问句: 把have或has放于句首。6.反义疑问句: 直接用has /have 进行反问

7.注意:

1).have been to /have gone to /have been in 的区别

have been to +地点 表示曾经去过某地,现人已返回。(once ,twice ….)

have gone to +地点 表示人已去了某地,人还未返回。(where is sb ?)

have been in +地点 表示在某地呆多长时间。(for…../ since …..)

2).与时间段连用时,短暂性动词应改为相应的延续性动词。

Come/go to ------ be at /in leave ----be away from buy ----have borrow /lend -----keep open ---be open close---be closed die---dead start/begin ----be on join—--be in /be a member of /be a soldier become –be make friend ---be friend get up ---be up fall asleep ---be asleep catch a cold – have a cold reach/get/arrive---stay/be

3).现在完成时的四种句型:

A).主语+短暂性动词的过去式+ 时间+ago B).主语+have/has +延续性动词的过去分词+for…./since …. ago .

C).It’s +时间段+since +短暂性动词的过去式D).时间段+has passed +since +短暂性动词的过去式

His grandfather died two years ago . His grandfather has ____ ____ for two years.

_____two years _____ his grandfather ____. Two years ____ ____ ____ his grandfather _____.

4).现在完成时与一般过去时的区别 现在完成时与现在有关的时态,他侧重于过去的动作对现在造成的影响。而一般过去时侧重于表示过去的动作与现在无关,若询问该动作发生的具体的时间时,只能用一般现在时。

Has he returned the library book ? Yes, he has. When ____ he _____(return) it ?He ____ (return)it yesterday afternoon .

六、过去完成时:

1.概念:以过去某个时间为标准,在此以前发生的动作或行为,或在过去某动作之前完成的行为,即“过去的过去”。

2.时间状语:1).before+过去时间,by+ 过去时间, by the end of last year(term, month?) 2).by the time +从句(一般过去时),主句(过去完成时) 3).用于由when ,after , before 引导的时间状语从句中,前后两动作都发生在过去。

过去完成时+when/before +一般过去时 一般过去时+after +过去完成时 4).用于宾语从句中。

3.基本结构:had + done. 4.否定形式:had + not + done. 5.一般疑问句:把had放于句首。

七、一般将来时:

1.概念:表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态及打算、计划或准备做某事。

2.时间状语:tomorrow, next day(week, month, year ) ,soon, in+一段时间, by?,the day after tomorrow, this evening ,tonight

3.基本结构:1).am/is/are/going to + do;2).will/shall + do. 3).用现在进行时表示将来,动词come, go ,start,leave ,fly,move ,begin ,get …. 4).当主句为一般将来时,由if ,as soon as ,until, when ,before, after, unless 引导的状语从句中用一般现在时代替一般将来时。

4.否定形式:①was/were + not; ②在行为动词前加didn't,同时还原行为动词。

5.一般疑问句:①be放于句首;②will/shall提到句首。

八、过去将来时:

1.概念:立足于过去某一时刻,从过去看将来,常用于宾语从句中。

2.时间状语:the next day(morning, year?),the following month(week?), by then ,

3.基本结构:①was/were/going to + do;②would/should + do.

4.否定形式:①was/were/not + going to + do;②would/should + not + do.

5.一般疑问句:①was或were放于句首;②would/should 提到句首。

I. (2007河北,33 ) I'll do it better if the teacher ______ me another chance.

A. Five B. Fives C. gave D. will give

2. (2007河北,37 )Henry speaks Chinese very well. He ___in China since 2002.

A. stays B. stayed

C. is staying D. has stayed

3. (2007河北, 38 )How much does the ticket _____ from Shanghai to Beijing?

A. cost B. take C. spend D. pay

4. (2007河北,35 )When I went to say goodbye to Anna, she _____ the piano.

A. is playing B. playsC. was playing D. played

5. ( 2007河北, 44 ) He ____ a piece of waste paper, and put it into the rubbish bag.

A. picked up B. threw away C. looked for D. handed in

6. (20(/6河北,39 )He has failed several times, but he won't ______.

A. go on B. come onC. get up D. give up

7. (2006河北,323 Hangzhou is a nice city. My Dad ____ me there when I was about ten years old.

A. pulled B. caught C. took D. brought

8. (2006河北,35) My father ______ on business for two weeks. He’ll return in 3 days.

A. left B.has leftC.has gone D. has been away

9. ( 2005河北, 39 ) Oh, Danny. It's raining outside. You'd better ____your raincoat.

A. put on B. put upC. dress D. to wear

10. (2004河北,49)I_____ this book for two weeks. I have to return it now.

A. borrow B. have borrowed

C. kept D. have kept

11. (2003河北,16)--Who cleaned the blackboard yesterday, Dick?

--John ______.

A. cleaned B. doe C. did D. is

12. (2003河北,23) When she was 22 years old, her dream to be a teacher _______.

A. came true B. come true

C. came real D. come real

13. (2003河北,24)--Lucy, ____ you _____ your ticket? --Not yet.

A. did, find B. have, found

C. has, found D. do, find

14(2008河北). The children ___ a P.E.class on the playground when it suddenly began to rain.

A. have B. are having C. had D. were having

15(2008河北32).Nick ____ a new camera. He has taken lots of pictures with it.

A. buys B. is buying C. bought D. will buy

16(2008河北33).---Please bring your homework to school tomorrow, Steven. ---OK. I _______. A. will B. won’t C. do D. do

17.(2008河北38). How’s Annie? I ____ her for a long time. B. A. don’t see B. won’t see C. didn’t see D. haven’t seen n’t 18 (2009 河北 33) My friend _____ me. I have to leave now.

A. waits for A. will arrive A. write A. write

B. waited for B. was arriving B. wrote B. wrote

C. is waiting for C. arrives C. am writing C. am writing

D. was waiting for D. arrived D. will write D. will write

19 (2009 河北 38)Be sure to let Tom know the notice as soon as he _____. 20 (2009河北 42)I _____ the wrong thing. Can I use your eraser? 21(2009 河北 44)I _____ the wrong thing. Can I use your eraser?

22 (2010 河北 35)Mike _____ his computer and checked his e-mail.

A turned on B turned off C turned up D turned down 24 (2010 河北39)I _____ a mistake .Please don’t be angry with me.

A make B made C will make D had made 25 (2010 河北 41)My brother left school in 2005,and since then he ______in Beijing. A lives B lived C will live D had lived 26 (2010 河北44)I ______my clothes ,and the phone rang.

A wash B washed C am washing D was washing 27(2011 河北 32)A. speak B. to speak C. spoke D. speaks 28 (2011 河北38)My sister wants a new dress. She A. wears B. has worn C. wore D. is going to wear 29 (2011 河北40)I didn’t hear you because I A. listen to B. am listening to C. listened to D. was listening to 30 (2011 河北42)I

A. don’t finish A. celebrates

B. didn’t finish B. is celebrated

C. haven’t finish C. celebrated

D. won’t finish D. was celebrated

31 (2011 河北 44)The Spring Festival in January or February.

专题十 动词的被动语态

动词的被动语态,它分为一般现在时的被动语态,一般过去时的被动语态,一般将来时的被动语态,现在进行时的被动语态,情态动词的被动语态,现在完成时的被动语态 六种。动词的被动语态历年来中考单项填空或完型都涉及冠词的用法,考察内容主要集中在:一.被动语态的时态,二,特殊情况的被动语态,

一.被动语态的时态:

1.一般现在时的被动语态:am /is/ are +动词的过去分词2.一般过去时的被动语态:was /were +动词的过去分词

3.一般将来时的被动语态:will be +动词的过去分词4.现在进行时的被动语态:am /is /are +being +动词的过去分词 5.现在完成时的被动语态:have /has +been +动词的过去分词6.情态动词的被动语态:情态动

词 + be +动词的过去分二.主动语态变被动语态的变法:口诀:宾变主,主变宾,谓变be done ,时不变,数格必须随被变。

注:1.主动、被动的时态要一致。2.主动、被动的句式要一致。3.变成的被动语态的主语与谓语在单复数上保持一致。

三.特殊情况的被动语态:

1.带双宾语的被动语态:动词+ sb(间宾) +sth(直宾) 口诀:如遇双宾语,一般变间宾,若把直宾变,to /for 间宾连。

1).give/pass /show 与介词to 搭配。 give sb sth —— sb +be given sth 或 sth +be given +to sb .

2).buy/make/cook 与介词for 搭配。 buy sb sth —— sb +be bought + sth 或 sth +be bought +for sb

2.带省to 的不定式作宾补的被动语态:动词+ sb + do sth .

口诀:感使动词真叫怪,to来to去记心怀,主动语态to离去,被动语态to回来。

动词:make / let /have /see /hear /feel /watch make sb do sth ----sb + be +made +to do sth

The boss made the workers work all day The workers ____ ____ ____ work all day by the boss.

3.在see /hear /notice /keep +sb +doing sth 句型中变被动语态时,doing 不变。

I heard Tom singing just now Tom _____ _____ _____ by me just now .

4.以动词短语作谓语的主动语态变被动语态时,不可丢掉后面的介词或副词。

We should take care of the old . The old should ______ _____ _____ _____ .

四.注意事项:

1.有些及物动词或动词短语不能用于被动语态: last ,have ,own …..belong to ,suit…fine ,

2.不及物动词是没有被动语态: happen ,take place ,appear , hold (容纳)

3.系动词是没有被动语态: Look, feel ,sound ,smell ,taste …. The dish tastes good .

4.有些词组没有被动语态: sell well , write well ,ride well ,drive well This kind of skirt sells well.

5.need表示需要时,后面常接doing 形式表示被动意义,相当于to be done .

All the computers need repairing . = All the computers need _____ _____ _____ .

6.在too…to…及enough to …结构中有时表示被动意义。 The problem is too difficult to solve.

1. (2007河北,42 ) We _______ to close the windows before we left the lab.

A. tell B. told C. are told D. were told

2. (2006河北,37) The children_____ to swim last month and they can swim very well now.

A. are taught B. were taught

C. have taught D. taught

3. (2004河北,39)This painting ____ to a museum in New York in 1977.

A. sells B. sold C. was soldD. is sold

4. (2004河北,45 ) Oh, the milk_____ strange. Do you think it’s OK to drink?

A. was tasted B. tasted

C. is tasting D. tastes ~

5(2008河北35).Last year, Li Hua, a college student, ____ to work for the Olympic Games. is choosing B. is chosen C. was choosing D. was chosen.

6.-There is a lot of wind in North China.

-Well ,more trees ____every year to stop the wind.

A. must be planted B.can plant C.must plant D.should be plant

7.The sports meeting ______next week.

A.will hold B.will be held C.holds D.is held.

8(2009 河北 34)Don’t put off today’s work for tomorrow. I mean, today’s work _____ today.

A. may do B. must do C. may be done D. must be done

专题十一 非谓语动词

英语中的非谓语动词包括动词不定式、v-ing形式和过去分词。它们在句子中可以作主语、宾语、定语、状语、表语和宾语补足语等。非谓语动词一直是历年中考考察的重点,中考对非谓语动词的考察主要集中在以下几方面:

1 考察动词不定式做主语、宾语、宾补、目的状语和定语的用法。

2 考察“疑问句+动词不定式(短语)”结构的用法

3 考察不带to 的动词不定式(短语)的用法。

4 考察v-ing形式作宾语、宾补和定语的用法。

5 考察动词后接动词不定式(短语)和v-ing形式(短语)的不同含义。

6 考察过去分词(短语)作宾补的用法。

一、动词不定式

1.动词不定式作宾语。1)在动词want ,hope,would like,decide,wish,

choose,try ,need等后常用动词不定式作宾语。 I hope ______(hear)from you soon .

2)think/find /feel /make it + adj + to do sth He found it difficult _______(get) to sleep.

3).stop to do sth / stop doing sth stop to do sth 停下来去做某事 stop doing sth 停止正在做的事。

After working for a long time , He has to stop _______(have ) a rest . He was very tired , so he had to stop ______(work).

2.动词不定式作宾语补。 1).带to的不定式作宾补的动词有:ask / like /would like /teach /tell /want /help +sb +to do sth

Please ask him _________(come) quickly.

2).省掉to的不定式作宾补的动词有:let /make / hear /see /notice /have/watch+sb +do sth 注:省掉to的不定式的句子变被动语态时,需要还原to .

He made the baby _______(stop) crying . The baby was made ______ _____ crying.

3.动词不定式作主语 1).动词不定式常可用作句子的主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。

2).常用it作形式主语,而将不定式放在句子后面。 To do sth +谓语动词+adj /n = It +谓语动词+adj / n + to do sth

To get an injection is a little painful . _____ a little painful ____ ____ an injection

4.动词不定式作定语 动词不定式作定语放在被修饰词之后 名词或代词+to do(介词) 注:若构成的不定式的动词为不及物动词时,其后加上相应的介词。

I want a pen to write ______. I want a piece of paper to write ______.

5.动词不定式与疑问词连用 疑问词+ to do sth 注:在宾语从句中,若主从句的主语一致时,宾语从句可简化为“疑问词+to do sth‖. Can you tell me how I can get to the hospital ? Can you tell me _____ ____ ____ the hospital.

6.动词不定式可作状语

1).动词不定式可作目的状语 在come / go / leave 后面接动词不定式作目的状语。 He came

here ______(get)his book.

2).动词不定式可作原因状语 表语形容词(sorry/sad/happy/ glad /afraid/ pleased)后与动词不定式连用作原因状语

3).动词不定式可作结果状语在too…to …, not …enough to …句型中的动词不定式作结果状语。

7.动词不定式作表语be + to do sth 注:动词不定式作表语可以和主语的位置互换,且常表将来。

8.动词不定式的否定形式在动词不定式的前面加not . He told me _______(not stay) here .

9.动词不定式符号的省略和保留情况。

1).动词不定式符号的省略情况

若两个或两个以上的不定式并列时,第一个不定式符号不能省略,其余的省掉to .但两者有对比关系时,to都不能省略。Edison’s mother taught him to write and read . I haven’t decided to go home or to go to the cinema.

2)省掉不定式而保留动词不定式符号to的情况。Will you take a walk with me ? I’m glad to .

Would you like to join my birthday party ? I would love to .

二、动名词

1.动名词相当于一个名词,作主语时,谓语动词用单数。Reading in bed ______(be) bad for your eyes.

2.有些动词或动词短语后面,只能接动名词作宾语。

三、现在分词

1.现在分词常放在see, hear ,watch ,notice 等之后作宾补。I saw the boy____(play)in the street just now .

2.现在分词作定语常放在被修饰词之前,现在分词短语要放在被修饰词的后面,相当于一个定语从句。

.Did you know the man talking to Mr Li?=Did you know the man who was talking to Mr Li?

3.现在分词表伴随情况He came into the classroom ,carrying a book.

四、过去分词

1.作宾补 have /get +sth +done 表示请别人干某事 I had my TV repaired last night .

2.作定语单一的过去分词作定语,要放在被修饰词的前面,过去分词短语作定语要放在被修饰词的后面,相当于一个定语从句Have you ever read any books written by Luxun?Have you ever read any books _____ _____ written by Luxun?

3.作表语 过去分词作表语已经形容词化My cup is broken .

1. (2007河北,43 )The menu has so many good things! I can't decide______.

A. what to eat B. how to eat

C. where to eat D. when to eat

2. (2006河北,)Jane likes singing. We often hear her __ after class.

A. sing B. to sing C. sings D. sang

3. (2005河北,40)We have worked for three hours. Now let's stop_____ a rest.

A. had B. have C. to have D. having

4. (2004河北,41 )Would you show me ____ an e-mail, please?

A. how to make B. how to send

C. which to make D. when to send

5. (2003河北,9)Look! How heavy the rain is! You'd better ______.

A. don't go now B. stay here when it rains

C. not leave until it stopD. not to leave at once

6(2008河北39). We are going for a picnic tomorrow. I’ll call Wendy to make sure ____ .

A. why to start B. when to start C. what to start D. which to start.

7 (2010 河北 33). I’d like you ________ for a picnic with us.

A. go B. to go C. going D. went

专题十二 情态动词

英语中的情态动词包括can 、must、may、could、need、had better、should、have to情态。动词一直是历年中考考察的重点,中考对情态动词的考察主要集中在以下几方面:一.情态动词的用法,二.情态动词的同义转换,三.情态动词后跟完成式和进行式的用法

一.情态动词的用法

1. can 用法1)表示能力,与be able to同义,但can只用于现在时和过去时,be able to可用于各种时态。

Two eyes can see more than one. 注:Can you … ? Yes, I can / No,I can’t.

2).表示允许、请求用could比can 语气更加委婉客气,常用于could I /you …..?句型中,若表示同意时,用can回答而不用could . Could I borrow the book ? No, you can’t .

3)。表示推测 “可能”常用于否定句或疑问句中。(can’t表示一定不是)It can’t be true . Can it be true ?

2. may 用法

1)表允许,请求= can表示许可或征求对方的许可,常于第一人称连用。注:May I? Yes ,you may No, you can’t / mustn’t .

在回答以may引起的问句时,多避免用这个词,而用其它方式,如Yes, please. / Certainly.

2)表推测,可能、也许。常用于肯定句中。Maybe he knows the news .= He _____ _____ the news.

3. must

1)表示义务。意为“必须”(主观意志)。We must do everything step by step. 注:Must I ….? Yes, you must / No,you needn’t(don’t have to ). Must we hand in our exercise—books now? --No, you needn’t. / No, you don’t have to.

2)mustn’t 表禁止、不允许。 You mustn’t talk to her like that.

3)表示揣测。意为“想必、准是、一定”等,只用于肯定句。否定、疑问句中must改为can .

He must be ill. He looks so pale. She’s wearing a diamond necklace. She must have a lot of money.

注:must表推测时,其反义疑问句与must后面的动词一致。 There must be something wrong ,____ ____?

4.need的用法need既可用作情态动词,也可用作实义动词。用作情态动词时,主要否定句或疑问句中。用作实义动词时,可用于各种句式。

1).用作情态动词,用于否定句和疑问句中。

a).Need I ….? Yes , you must / No, you needn’t

Need we finish the work today ?Yes you __? A.need B.can C. may D.must

b).need + do sth . 变否定句:needn’t do sth 变疑问句:Need sb do sth ?

2).用作实义动词

a).need + to do sth . We need _______(buy) some school things .

变否定句:don’t /doesn’t /didn’t +need to do sth .

变疑问句:Do / Does /Did sb + need to sth ?

Yes , … do/ does / did No, sb don’t / doesn’t /didn’t . You don’t need to do it yourself.

b).当主语是物时。Sth + need + doing sth = Sth +need to be done .

The table needs painting . =The table needs _____ _____ _____ .

5.had better 的用法

1). had better + 动词原形 = It’s best to do sth .You had better ______ (stay )at home . = _____ ______ ______ stay at home . 2). Had better not +动词原形 We had better ________(not play ) the computer games .

6.must 与have to

1).一般情况下,两者可互换。 must = have to

2).must “必须,应该”表示说话人的主观看法,即说话人认为必须干某事。(内在原因) have to ―必须,不得不”强调客观需要,即外界因素迫使某人不得不干某事。(外界原因) I can’t stop playing the computer games . For your health ,I’m afraid you ______.

A.can B.may C.must D.had to

二.情态动词后跟完成式和进行式的用法

1.情态动词后跟完成式,表“原本应该干某事,而实际上没干”

I should have finished the work earlier. He isn’t here. He must have missed the train.

2. 情态动词后跟进行式,表示“想必正在??”,“可能正在??”,“应当正在”等意。 It’s twelve o’clock. They must be having lunch. They may be discussing this problem. He can’t be telling the truth. She shouldn’t be working like that. She’s still so weak.

三.情态动词的同义转换.

1.can = be able to 2.must = have to 3.needn’t = don’t have to 4.need do sth = need to do sth

1. (2007河北,32)--Must I finish the work today, Mom?

--No, you ______. You can finish it tomorrow.

A. mustn't B. can't C. shouldn't D. needn't

2. ( 2006河北,44 )--Listen! Is that Kate playing the piano in the room?

-- No. It ____ be Kate. She has gone to London.

A. may not B.-needn't

C, mustn't D. can't

3. (2004 河北, 43)Excuse me. Read the text louder, please. I ______ hear you.

A. can't B. wouldn't

C. needn't D. may not

4. (2003河北,19)--Who is the man over there? Is it Mr. Li?

--No, it ______be him. Mr. Li is much taller.

A. mustn't B. may notC. can't D. needn't

5.(2008河北 34).Thomas, please be quiet. The others ____ hear very well.

A. can’t B. mustn’t C. shouldn’t D. needn’t

6(2009 河北34)Don’t put off today’s work for tomorrow. I mean, today’s work _____ today.

A. may do B. must do C. may be done

7 (2010 河北 31)

—Do we have to finish our homework this afternoon?

—Yes, you ________.

A. must B. can C. may D. need

8 (2011河北36)You eat the soup if you don’t like it. D. must be done

A. shouldn’t B. mustn’t C. needn’t D. can’t

专题十三 主谓一致和倒装句

在历年考题中,主谓一致和倒装句都是必考内容,它以多种形式出现,考查题型有用所给单词的适当形式填空、单项选择、句型转换、完成句子和完形填空等。主谓一致、倒装句和时态经常一起考察,考点几乎能覆盖主谓一致的各个方面。

主谓一致

一.就近原则1. 由并列结构或连词(either?or, neither?nor,not?but, not only?but also, or等)连接的并列主语,谓语动词与较近的那个名词或代词保持一致。Neither his parents nor Tom_____(be) at home.

2. 在倒装句和there be句型中,谓语动词与后面的第一个主语保持一致。

There _____(be) a book and some pens on the desk. There ______(come) the bus.

3. 在定语从句中,关系代词作主语,其谓语动词应与它所指代的先行词保持一致。 I know the man who_____(be) talking to my father.

4. 在强调句中,连接代词又在句中作主语,这时它应与被强调的主语保持一致。 It is Mary’s brother who_____(be) injured in the car accident yesterday.

二.意义一致原则

1. 当主语与谓语动词之间插入along with,with,as well as,together with, besides,except, but, including等短语时 ,谓语动词与第一个主语保持一致。I along with my sister_____(be) going to Shanghai next month.

2. 由“what”引导的名词性从句作主语时,谓语动词通常用单数形式。What I want to say _____(be) just “ Take care!”.

3. “?+ (of) +名词”作主语时,若“of”后的名词为单数(不可数名词),则谓语动词用单数,如果名词为复数,则谓语动词用复数。Most of the water here ______(be) clean. Half of the apples ______(be) red.

6. 词组“a number of”作主语时,谓语动词应用复数;“the number of‖作主语时,谓语动词用单数。

A number of ancient buildings _____ (be) destroyed in the war. The number of the visitors _____ (have) decreased this year.

7. 英语的集体名词(family, public, group, team, class等词),指代“整体”时为单数;指代“其中的各成员”则为复数。My family ____(be) very poor when I was a little girl. My family ______(be) all looking forward for your coming.

三.整体原则

1. 从句、不定式、动名词等作主语时谓语动词用单数。

When to leave _____(be) not been decided. Watching TV too much _____(be) bad for your eyes.

注:如果主语是两个(或两个以上)的名词性从句,谓语动词常用复数。

What he said and what he did _____(be) always different last night .

2. 如果两个以上的名词组成一个整体概念作主语时,谓语动词须用单数。

The novelist and poet _____(be) going to Europe next year. The novelist and the poet_____(be)

going to Europe next year.

3. 表示时间、距离、金额、度量等词语作主语时,通常被视作整体,谓语动词用单数。10

minutes is enough.

4.加减乘除等数学运算谓语动词通常用单数。2 and 3 ______5.

5.“the +姓氏名词的复数”表示“一家人 夫妇”,作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式。The Blacks

______(enjoy) working

四.个体原则

1. every +….and every +…..或each+…and each +…作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。

Every man and every woman _____(be) busy at working.

2. 英语句中的each, either, neither等词,作代词充当主语,修饰名词作主语时,谓语动

词用单数。

Neither of us _____(have) been abroad. Neither answer _____(be) wrong .

3. 由some, any every, no构成的复合词(somebody,nobody,everything,anything等)作主

语时,谓语动词用单数。

Somebody ______(be)waiting for you at the school gate.

4. 成双成对出现的复数名词(glasses,shoes,trousers,pants,gloves等)作主语时,通常

谓语动词用复数,但前面有a /the pair of;a /the suit of等词语时,则谓语动词要与量词(pair,

suit, piece )在单复数上保持一致。

A pair of scissors_______(be) useful tool for a dressmaker. Two pieces of paper

______(be ) on the desk .

5. 以复数形式出现,却表示单数意义(maths, physics, news …)谓语用单数。Maths_____(be)

my favorite subject.

6.“the +形容词(old /young /rich /poor )”表示“一类人”,作主语时,谓语用复数。

The young ______(like) listening to popular songs . 7.“the +姓氏的复数” 表示“某某

夫妇,某某一家人”,作主语时,谓语用复数。The Greens _______(be)having lunch now.

倒装句

1. 当句首为副词here ,there 且主语为名词时,应用完全倒装。Here comes the bus !. There

goes the bell. !

2. only 修饰时间、地点、方式等状语时,应用部分倒装。 Only in this way can we solve the

problem. Only when you told me did I know her name. 注意:如果 only 修饰的不是状语,

则句子不倒装。Only Uncle Li knows how it happened.

3. 表示对前者的陈述也适用后者时,肯定倒装用“ so + 助动词/情态动词 + 后者”,前句

事否定,而后面的人也不怎么样时用“ neither / nor + 助动词 / 情态动词 + sb”。He can speak

English,so can I.

If she doesn’t go there tomorrow,neither / nor will I.

注意1)“ so + 助动词 / 情态动词 + 主语” 表示前者的主语和后者的主语的情况一样,

所谈到的是两个人,意为“??也是这样”;2)“ so + 主语 + 助动词 / 情态动词”表示前

者和后者所指同一人时,说话者表示同意前者的观点,意为“的确如此”。— Li Lei likes sports. — So he does and so do I.

4. 由 not only ?? but also ?? 引起的并列句,若将 not only 置于句首时,该分句应部

分倒装, but also 引导的分句不倒装。 Not only did he give me some advice,but also he lent me some money.

5.“ no matter +疑问词+从句” 或 ―疑问词+ever+从句‖

注:从句应用陈述句语序,时态用一般现在时。 However hard the problem is,I must work it out.

1. (2007 河北, 40) There ____ a talk show on CCTV-d4 at nine this evening.

A. will have B. is going to be C. is going to have D. is having

2. (2006 河北, 课改, 33) Physics ____ more interesting than maths, I think.

A. are B. is C. was D. were

3. (2008河北26)There ____ a lot of rain in this area in August every year.

A. is B. was C. are D. were

4 (2009 河北 37)The news _____ very interesting! Tell me more!

A. is B. are C. were D. was

5 (2009 河北 43)_____ they may not succeed, they will try their best.

A. Though B. When C. Because D. Unless

专题十四 陈述句、疑问句、祈使句和感叹句

初中英语要掌握陈述句、疑问句、祈使句和感叹句的含义,及其用法。并能区分各种不同句型,这几种句型在各种题型中都会涉及,主要考察陈述句的肯定与否定形式、四种疑问句、感叹句、祈使句之间的转换,其中反义疑问句和感叹句中的what和how的使用尤为重点。 陈述句

陈述句是用来陈述事实或观点的句子,陈述句读时一般用降调,句尾用句号。

(1)陈述句分为肯定和否定两种形式。

肯定句:主语+be+表语

否定句:主语+be+not+表语

(2) 含有实义动词的肯定陈述句和否定陈述句:

肯定句:主语+谓语+其他成分

否定句:主语+助动词或情态动词+not+谓语+其他成分

疑问句

一、结构:陈述句 + 附加疑问句?It’s hot today ,isn’t it ?

二、原则:1.前肯后否,前否后肯2.前名后代3.时态一致

三、变法:一疑、二否、三连、四省、五转换(名变代)。

四、特殊的附加疑问句:

1.I’m …… , aren’t I ? I’m right , ______ ______ ?

2.There be …… , ______ there ? There will be fewer buses in the future ,____ ______?

3.句中有反义词的句子的反意疑问句,仍把它作为肯定形式。 He is unhappy , _____ ______ ?

4.Let’s 的反意疑问句为 shall we ? Let’s go to the movie together ,_____ _____ ?

5.祈使句的反意疑问句为 will you ? Don’t miss it ,_____ _____ ?

6.若陈述句部分含有never , few , little , hardly ,no ,seldom ,nobody ,nothing …否定词、半否定词时,附加疑问句用肯定形式。 He can hardly understand it , _____ ______ ?

7.陈述句的主语为不定代词时:

1).主语为指人的不定代词时,附加疑问句的主语用he / they . No one was hurt , ______ _______ ?

2).主语为指物的不定代词时,附加疑问句的主语用 it. Nothing is serious , _______ _______ ?

8.表推测的情态动词的附加疑问句,其附加疑问句与情态动词后的动词一致。 He must be at school , ______ ______ ?

9.陈述句的主语是this , that , these , those 时,附加疑问句的主语分别为 it , they .

This is a new computer , ______ ______ ? Those aren’t banana tees , ______ _______ ?

10.当陈述句是主从复合句时, 其附加疑问句应与主句保持一致。若主句为I think / believe /suppose /imagine /expect 时,其附加疑问句应与从句保持一致。 He said that he would leave here tomorrow , _______ _______ ?

I don’t think you can do these exercises alone , _______ _______ ?

11.陈述句中有has / have / had 时,一定要注意。

1).若句中是 has to / have to / had to ,表 ―不得不‖ 附加疑问句的谓语用doesn’t / don’t / didn’t 进行反问.

They had to leave early , ______ ______ ?

2).若句中是has / have / had 表“有 ”, 其附加疑问句的谓语用do/ does / did 进行反问。 He has few friends in the new school , ______ ______?

3).若句中是has/ have / had +过去分词时,其反义疑问句的谓语用has/have/had进行反问。 He has never been to Beijing , _____ _____?She had studied a few English songs by the end of last month. ,______ ______?

五、反义疑问句的回答:反义疑问句的回答要根据事实作答,若事实是肯定的,就用yes , +肯定形式。若事实是否定的,就用No, +否定形式。 注意:在前否后肯的句子中,yes表示“不”而No表示“是的”。

祈使句

用来表示说话人喜怒哀乐等强烈情感的句子叫做感叹句。感叹句的最大特点是句尾一般用感叹号。感叹号的最大特点是句尾一般用感叹号,读时用降调,一般由what 和how来引导。 感叹句

一、结构:What/ How +被感叹的部分+ 主语+ 谓语! What beautiful flowers they are !

二、变法: 一断, 二加 ,三调位。 一断表示在谓语动词的后面断开,二加表示在断开的两部分中间加what 或how ,三调位表示前后两部分对调位置。 They had a good time yesterday .

一断:They had / a good time yesterday . 二加:They had(what)a good time yesterday . 三调位:What a good time they had yesterday.

三、what引导的感叹句:

1.what + a / an +adj + 单数名词 (+主语+ 谓语)!_______ a clever boy he is !

2.what + adj + 复数名词 (+主语+ 谓语)!_______ heavy boxes they are !

3.what + adj + 不可数名词(+主语+ 谓语)!_______ bad weather !

四、how引导的感叹句:

1.How + adj / adv + 主语+ 谓语!_________ hard they are working !

2.How + adj + a / an + 单数名词(+主语+ 谓语)!How tall a boy he is !

3.How + adj / adv + the + 名词+ 谓语!________ heavily the rain is falling!

五、what 与how引导的感叹句之间的转换:

1.What a beautiful girl she is != ______ beautiful the girl is ! 2.How delicious the food is !=

______ delicious food it is !

六、几个常见的感叹句:

1.______ great fun it is ! 2.______ important information !

3.______ good news !

4.______ good advice / music ! 5.______ a heavy rain ! 6.______a

strong wind !

七、感叹句中常见的不可数名词:food , work , weather , fun , music , information , news ,

advice ,

She didn’t come to school yesterday, did she ? _________, though she was not

feeling well.

A.No, she didn

1.(2008河北)____ wonderful movie! We like it very much.

A. What B. What a C. How D. How a

2. (2007河北,34)___pretty your dress is! Where did you get it?

A. How B. How a C. What D. What a

3. (2007河北,39)You bought a new computer last week, _____you?

A. aren't B. don't C. didn't D. haven't

4. (2006河北,38 )--_____ lovely day! Let's go for a picnic, shall we?

-- Good idea!

A. What B. How C. What a D. How a

5. (2006河北,41 ) He's flown to Qingdao for summer holidays, ____ he?

A. isn't B. wasn't C. hasn't D. doesn't

6. (2005河北,10)I told you not to be late again, John, _____ I? .

A. do B. did C. don't D. didn't

7. (2004河北,46)- ______ will it take us to get there by bus?

--About two hours.

A. How soon B. How often

C. How long D. How quick

8. (2003河北, 15 )--Where can we get a football?

--Let's _______.

A. lend Jim one B. lend one to Jim

C. borrow one from Jim D. borrow one of Jim

9. ( 2003河北,22 ) --Linda had nothing for breakfast this morning, _____?

--No, she got up too late.

A. had she B. hadn't she

C. did she D. didn't she

10. (2003河北, 11) ---Excuse me, to the nearest bookshop, please?

--Go straight and take the second turning on the left.

A. where the way is B. which the way is

C. where is the way D. which is the way

11..Mrs. Smiths hardly had any time for shopping at that time,_____?

A. didn’t she B.did she C.wasn’t she D.was she

12.My little brother’s made few mistakes in the exam,____?

A. has he B. did he C. hasn’t he D.didn’t he

13.You have to finish all the cleaning by yourself,____?

A. haven’t you B.can’t you C.have you D.don’t you

14.These radios need repairing ,______?

A. don’t they B.needn’t them C.mustn’t you D.need they

15 (2009 河北 32)—_____ can you be ready, Andy?

—In ten minutes.

A. How much

A. How B. How often B. What C. How long C. How a D. How soon D. What a 16 (2011 河北 39)17 (2009 河北 30). Mary got good grades in school. _____ excited she is!

A. What B. What a C. How D. How a

专题十五 并列句和复合句

英语句子按其语法结构,可以分为三种类型:简单句、并列句和复合句。并列句中的but或though引导的转折并列句,either….or…,neither….nor….引导的选择并列句是历届中考的考点中的重点。复合句是由一个主句和一个或一个以上的从句构成的句子。复合句是中考的重点之一,占总分值的18%左右。

并列句

并列句是由并列连词可以表示出并列句中各分句之间的不同关系。

(1) 并列关系

常用的并列连词有and ,nor 等

(2) 转折关系

常用的转折连词有but ,yet 等

(3) 选择关系

常用的连词有or ,either …or 等

(4) 因果关系

常用的连词有for ,so 等。

复合句

状语从句

一、引导词的选择:

1.时间状语从句

1).由when 、 while、as(当??时候)引导的时间状语从句。When jack got home , his mother was cooking .

2).由after/ before (在?.之后/ 前)引导的时间状语从句。The football match played after school was over .

3).由as soon as (一?..就??)引导的时间状语从句。I’ll ring you as soon as I reach Beijing .

4).由not?.until(直到?..才?..)引导的时间状语从句。They didn’t stop until they finished the work .

2.原因状语从句 由because 、since 、as(因为、既然、由于)引导的原因状语从句。Since

you have known about that , please tell us what to do .

3.地点状语从句 由wherever(无论在哪儿) 引导的地点状语从句。 Wherever he goes , he always brings his pet dog .

4.目的状语从句 由so that (以便、为的是)引导目的状语从句。He got up very early so that he could catch the early bus .

5.条件状语从句 由if或unless 引导条件状语从句。 I won’t go to his party unless I am invited .

6.比较状语从句 由than、 as?as、not as??as 引导比较状语从句。 There are more students in our class than in theirs .

7.让步状语从句由though 、even though/ if 、although引导让步状语从句。

Although he didn’t pass the exam ,his father didn’t get angry with him .

8.方式状语从句 由as if (好像)引导方式状语从句。He talked about that as if he knew everything .

9.结果状语从句 由so?that?、such?.that?(如此?..以致于?)引导结果状语从句。 It was raining so hard that we couldn’t see the road .

二、状语从句与主句的时态问题

1.时间状语从句、条件状语从句与主句的时态不一致。(主句用将来时,而时间、条件状语从句用一般现在时)

If it ________(not rain) tomorrow ,we______(go) to climb the hill .

He ________ (become) a sodier when he ______(grow) up .

2.since引导的时间状语从句。 It is + 时间+ since + 一般过去时

It_____(be) ten years since we ________(leave) that city .

3.由when、while引导的时间状语从句的时态:

主句(过去进行时)+when +从句(一般过去时) 主句(一般过去时)+when +从句(过去进行时)

主句(一般过去时)+while +从句(过去进行时) 主句(过去进行时)+while +从句(过去进行时)

注意:看动词为短暂性动词用一般过去时,动词为延续性动词则用过去进行时。 Mother _______(cook)supper when I ______(get)home yesterday.

Last Sunday I_______(meet)Lin Hong when I _______(walk)in the street .

While Han Meimei _______(sweep)the floor , Lucy _______(carry) water.

When the students ________(have)a meeting, the teacher _______(come) in .

4.由when、after、before、by the time引导的时间状语从句的时态:

主、从句的谓语动作都以完成,则先发生的动作用过去完成时,后发生的动作用一般过去时。 When they _______(get) to the cinema last light , the film ________(start) .

I _________(go) out with my friends after I _______(finish) all the homework last night . 宾语从句

一、直接引语变间接引语

1.人称的变化:一随主,二随宾,第三人称不更新。

1). “一随主”指若直接引语中的主语为第一人称时,变间接引语时应与主句的主语人称一致. She said ―I like playing basketball‖. She said that _____ _____ playing basketball .

2). “二随宾”指若直接宾语中的主语为第二人称时,变间接宾语时应与主句的宾语人称一致. She asked Tom ―Can I have a look at your picture‖. She asked Tom if ______ could have a look at ______ picture .

3). “第三人称不更新”指若直接宾语中的主语为第三人称时,变间接宾语时人称保持不变. She said to me ―They want to help me‖. She told me that _____ _____ to help me .

2.指示代词,时间、地点状语的变化

直接引语 间接引语

指示代词 this that

that those

时间状语 now then

today that day

this morning that morning

three days ago three days before

Last week the week before

tomorrow the next /

following day

next year the next year

地点

状语 here there

动词 come go

二. 宾语从句的考查

宾语从句在句中作及物动词的宾语,或介词的宾语,或形容词的宾语。根据引导宾语从句的不同连词,宾语从句可分为三类。

1.考查宾语从句的语序:宾语从句的语序用陈述句语序。即 “主语+谓语+??

Do you know when __________?

A.does the next train leave B.the next train leaves C.will the next train leave D.the next train will leave

注:若从句时疑问句,但语序不变的有:

1).who在从句中作主语。 Can you tell me _________?(谁将来这儿)

2).what’s wrong / the matter ? He asked what was the matter with me .

3).what happened I don’t know what happened yesterday .

4).which is the way to ….? Can you tell me which is the way to the park ?

2.考查宾语从句的引导词

1).若宾语从句时陈述句时,引导词用that 且that 可省掉。

She said ―I’m gald to see you‖ = She said _____ _____ ______ gald to see me .

2).宾语从句时一般疑问句时,引导词用if 或whether . 一般情况下if /whether 可互换,但后有or not / or 、动词不定式或介词的后面时,只能用whether .

He saked me ―Are you going to Wuhan ?‖ = He asked me ______ _____ _____ going to Wuhan. I’m thinking about ______ to go there . A.if B.whether C.that

3).宾语从句时特殊疑问句时,引导词用特殊疑问词。

Do you know _? I’m not sure ,Maybe he is a businessman . A.who he is B.who is he C.what he does D.what does he do

4).若宾语从句时肯定祈使句时,就改为ask /tell sb to do sth .若为否定祈使句,就改为ask /tell sb not to sth .

“Don’t open the door‖ The teacher said . = The teacher told me _____ ____ ___ the door .

3.宾语从句的时态

1. 如果主句的时态是一般现在时,宾语从句该用什麽时态就用什麽时态。

Can you tell me _________? He is a doctor .A.what is he B.what he was C.what he is

D.what was he

2. 如果主句的时态是一般过去时,宾语从句只能用相应的过去时态(一般过去时, 过去进行时, 过去将来时,过去完成时)。

He asked ____________.A.what time it is B.what time is it C.what time it was D.what time was it

He told me that he ____ for the sports meet.A.is preparing B.was preparing C.will prepare D.has prepared

注:1) 如果宾语从句所陈述的是客观真理,其时态常用一般现在时。

Our teacher said that January_____(be) the first month of the year. Our teacher said that the earth ___(go) around the sun.

2).若主句为could you ?..?表示请求客气的语气,从句的时态仍然不变。

Could you tell me _______?A.what he was doing B.what was he doing C.what he is doing

D.what is he doing

4.if /when 引导状语从句和宾语从句这两种从句。从句的时态的确定。

if When if/when从句的时态

条件/时间状语从句 如果、假如 当?的时候 一般现在时

宾语从句 是否 什么时候 一般将来时

Can you guess if they___ to play football with us ? I think they will come if they ____free.

A. come , are B. will come , will be C. will come , are D. come , will be

Can you tell me when he____here tomorrow ? When he _____ here , please call me .

A. comes , comes B. will come , will come C. will come ,comes D. comes, will come

5.宾语从句的简化:

1).宾语从句是陈述句时,且主、从句的主语一致,可简化为“动词+ to do sth”.

I hope I can meet you again . I hope _____ _____ you again .

2).宾语从句是疑问句时,且主、从句的主语一致,或从句的主语与主句的宾语一致。可简化为“疑问词+ to do sth”.

I don’t know what I should do next . I don’t know ____ ____ _____ next .Could you tell me how I can get there ?

Could you tell me ____ ____ _____ there ?John didn’t decide which shirt he would buy .

3).hear / see / find + that + 从句 ,可改为“hear / see / find + sb (要用宾格) + doing sth”. I heard that they were singing in the next room.=I heard _____ _____ in the next room .

We found that she was playing with the cat under the tree . We found _____ _____ with the cat under the tree.

定语从句

一、定语从句(一):

1.定语从句的概念: 在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。

2.先行词:被定语从句修饰的名词或代词叫先行词。

3.关系词: 引导定语从句的连词叫关系词。如that、which、who、whom、whose、where、when等。

4.由that、which、who、whom、whose引导的定语从句。

关系词 指代 在定语从句中的作用

that 既指人也指物 作主语、宾语

which 指物 作主语、宾语

who 指人 作主语

whom 指人 作宾语

whose 既指人也指物 作定语

二、定语从句(二)

1.先行词是物时,一般情况既可用that也可用which.但下列情况下,只能用that不用which。

1).当先行词为指物的不定代词,如all、everything、something、anything、nothing、none、the one等时,只能用that。

There is nothing ______ I can do for you .

2).当先行词被the only、the very 、the last、all、no、little等词修饰时,只能用that。 This is the very book ______ I’m looking for .

3).先行词被序数词修饰时,只能用that 。This is the first nextbook ______ I studied in the middle school .

4).先行词为最高级或被最高级修饰时,只能用that。

This is the most beautiful mountain ______ I have ever seen .=I have _____ seen _____ a beautiful mountian .

5).先行词既有人也有物时,只能that 。He told us many interesting things and persons _______ we had .

2.先行词是物时,一般情况既可用that也可用which.但下列情况下,只能用which不用that。

1).关系代词前有介词时,关系词只能用which 。This is the building in ______ he lives .

2).先行词本身是that时,关系词只能用which 。The clock is that _____ tells the time .

3).引导非限定性的定语从句(先行词是物且先行词与关系词用逗号隔开),关系词用which。 His book , ______ was lost last week , has been found now.

3.先行词是人时,一般情况下既可用who 也可用that 。但以下情况下,只能用who。

1).当先行词为those、one、ones、anyone且作主语时,一般用who 。Those ______ are singing are all my classmates .

2).在there be 句型中,先行词指人时,只能用who。指物时用that。There is a girl ______ expects to see you .

3).当先行词是I、you、he、they等时,只能用who 。He ______ plays with fire gets burned .

三、定语从句(三)。

由关系副词when、where、why引导的定语从句。where = in / at +which when = in / on / at +which why = for + which

1.由where引导的定语从句。

1).先行词是表示地点的名词 2).在定语从句中作地点状语

Is this the house ______ you lived ?= Is this the house _____ _____ you lived ?= Is this the house _____ you lived in ?

2.由when引导的定语从句。

1).先行词是表示时间的名词 2).在定语从句中作时间状语I will never forget the days ______ I met him .= I will never forget the days ____ ____ I met him.

注:先行词是the last time 时,when 可省略。 When was the last time you saw the parrot ?

3.由why引导的定语从句。

先行词为reason 时,一般用why 。 why在句中作原因状语。We don’t know the reason ______ they didn’t come .

四、注意事项:

1.关系词在定语从句中作宾语时,常可省略。

The story _____ he told was very popular .A.who B.whom C.whose D. /

2.that、who、which在定语从句中作主语时,定语从句的谓语动词应与先行词保持一致。 I loves singers who _______(write) their own songs .She is one of the girls who ______(study) hard .

3.在定语从句中不能出现代替先行词的人称代词。 Will you please show me the book ______ yesterday?

A. which you bought B. that you bought it C. you bought D. you bought it

4.定语从句中whose 的确定:无论先行词是人或物,在定语从句中做定语用whose。

判断:看定语从句的主语前有无限定词(my、your、Jim’s等),若没有,则用whose 。 The girl _____ parents work in Beijing is Kate .A. who B. whose C. which D. that I know the boy . His handwriting is very good .= I know the boy ____ handwriting is very good.

五、定语从句的简化 把定语从句简化为形容词短语、过去分词短语、介词短语、现在分词短语。

1.She reveived a box which was full of presents . She reveived a box _____ _____ presents .

2.He likes reading books that was written by Luxun. He likes reading booking _____ ____ Luxun .

3.I like Chinese tea which has nothing in it I like Chinese tea ______ _____ in it .

4.Do you know the girl who is wearing a red dress . Do you know the girl ______ a red dress .

1. (2007河北,41 )Do you know the man_____ is sitting behind Nancy?

A. what B. which C. who D. whom

2. (2007河北,45 ) I didn't understand ________, so I raised my hand to ask.

A. what my teacher says B. what does my teacher say

C. what my teacher said D. what did my teacher say

3. (2006河北,34) I __ on the computer when Jim came to see me yesterday evening.

A. draw B. drew

C. was drawing D. am drawing

4. (2006河北,36 )-- Could you please tell Peter that I want to talk to him?

-- Sure. I will let him know as soon as he _____ back.

A.comes Bcame C.has come D. will come

5. (2006河北,42 )The book _____ he bought yesterday is very interesting.

A. / B. why C. when D. what

6. (2005河北,7)Oh, this is really a big shop. Do you know when it _____?

A. built B. was built

C. has built D. has been built

7. (2005河北, 15 )--Could you tell me _____ tomorrow morning?

--Well, it will start at 9:00 o'clock.

A. when the meeting will start B. where will the meeting start

C. where the meeting starts D. when the meeting would start

8. (2004河北, 50 )Would you please tell me next, Mr. Wang?

A. what should we do B. we should do what

C. what we should do D. should we do what

9. ( 2003河北,9 ) Look ! How heavy the rain is! You'd better _______.

A. don't go now B. stay here when it rains

C. not leave until it stop D. not to leave at once

10. (2003河北, 10)You may go fishing if your work ______.

A. is done B. will be done

C. has done D. have done

1(2008河北36). This is the dictionary ____ Mum gave me for my birthday.

A. which B. what C. whose D. whom

12.(2008河北40). You are growing so fast. Can you tell me ____ now?

A. how fast are you B. how fast you are C. how will are you D. how tall you are

13 (2009 河北 41) Sorry, we don’t have the coat _____ you need.

A. what B. who C. whom D. which

14 (2009 河北 45)The new-designed car is on show now. I wonder _____.

A. how much it cost B. how much did it cost

C. how much it costs D. how much does it cost

15 (2010 河北43)There are lots of things ________ I need to prepare before the trip.

A. who B. that C. whom D. whose

16 (2010 河北 45)Your T-shirt is so cool. Could you tell me ________?

A. where you buy it B. where do you buy it

C. where you bought it D. where did you buy it

17 (2011 河北43)A. who B. whom C. whose D. which

18 (2011 河北45)Jenny is on holiday now. I wonder ________.

A. when she will come back B. when she came back

C. when will she come back

D. when did she came back

网站首页网站地图 站长统计
All rights reserved Powered by 海文库
copyright ©right 2010-2011。
文档资料库内容来自网络,如有侵犯请联系客服。zhit326@126.com