haihongyuan.com
海量文库 文档专家
全站搜索:
您现在的位置:首页 > 初中教育 > 初中英语初中英语

中考英语阅读专题12

发布时间:2014-01-26 09:47:37  

阅读理解解题技巧

阅读理解
是英语能力培养的重点项目,是考试 的一个重要题型,分值高、题量大。阅读 理解考查的根本是检验学生对有关信息的 加工能力。 阅读理解能力的重要标志是阅读速度 和理解力的正确率。 因此,阅读理解的功夫应下在平时。 多分析题型,多了解考点,真正做到有的 放矢,提高命中率。

? 广东2007年考题要求考生能读懂书﹑ 报﹑杂志中关于一般性的简短文段以 及公告﹑说明﹑广告等,并能从中获取 相关的信息。 ? 1 ﹑理解主旨和要义 ? 2 ﹑理解文中的具体位置 ? 3 ﹑根据上下文推断生词的词义 ? 4 ﹑作出判断和推理 ? 5 ﹑理解文章的基本结构 ? 6 ﹑理解作者的意图﹑观点和态度

因此有关阅读理解题目主要 有以下几种:

命 题 类

主 旨 大 意 型 事 实 细 节 型

词 义 猜 测 型 推 理 判 断 型

Step Two: How to Dealing with the
Problems on Reading Comprehension

一、主旨大意题
1. 干扰项

(做题要领) 可能属文中某个具体事实或细节。

2. 干扰项 可能属从文中某些 (不完全的) 事 实或细节片面推出的错误结论。
3. 干扰项 可能属非文章事实的主观臆断。

(正确答案) 是根据文章意思全面 理解而归纳概括出来的;但不能太笼统、 言过其实或以偏概全。

主旨大意题的常见的提问形式:
1)What does the writer mainly tell us? 2)Which of the following can summarize the main idea of this text? 3)Which of the following best expresses the main idea? 4)Which is the subject discussed in the text? 6)What’s the best title for this passage?

阅读理解基础训练

Basic Training
---主旨大意题

Passage 1
In spite of the fact that cars from Germany and Japan are flooding the American market, Ford, General Motors and Chrysler are employing more workers than ever before. The flood of cheaper foreign cars has not cast American autoworkers their jobs as some experts predicted. Ford operates as far as Asia, and General Motors is considered Australian’s biggest employer. Yet General Motors has its huge American work force and employs hundreds of people every day to meet the needs of an insatiable(不能满足的)society. 练习题 细节题 解释

Question: Which of the following statements best expresses the main idea of the paragraph A. GM is one of the largest car producers.

B. Ford operates not only in the U.S.A., but also in Asia. C. The foreign cars have not taken away the jobs of American autoworkers.
D. The flood of the cheaper foreign cars is terrible for American autoworkers.
解释

【解析】答案为C。take sth. away
of sb.和 cast sb. sth. 的意思相似。

本段落以一、二句引出要表达的 主题,在主题句出现后,再举例子陈 述细节或继续论证。 寻找主题句往往是做好此类题的 关键。每段的主题句(常在首句

、尾 句、首尾句、段落中和归纳分析)一 般都用来表示一个段落的主旨大意。
文章

事 实 细 节 型

全篇的逻辑关系,决不能主观臆断。

解题原则:忠实于原文上下文及

文章中心是论点,事实细节是论 据或主要理由;有关细节的问题常对 文中某个词语、某句子、某段落等细 节及事实进行提问,所提问题一般可 直接或间接在文章中找到答案。 提问的特殊疑问词常有:what, who, which, where, how, why 等。

在阅读理解中,要求查找主要事实和特 定细节问题常有以下几种命题方式:
1)Which of the following statement is true? 2)Which of the following is not mentioned in the text? 3)The author ( or the passage) states that___. 4)According to the passage, when ( where, why, how, who, what, which, etc.)___?

阅读理解基础训练

Basic Training
---事实细节型

Q1) ____ calories are required to raise the temperature of 5kg of water from 35℃to 90℃.
Q2) Which statement is TRUE according to the chart above?
文章 解释

A. 55

B. 175

C. 325

D. 275

A. A child aged 8 requires more than 3 times the amount of calories that a baby does. B. A boy aged 16 requires nearly twice the amount of calories that a boy aged 8 does. C. An office worker requires the same amount of calories per day as a woman feeding a baby does. D. A farmer requires nearly 1.5 times the amount of calories that an office worker does.

Passage2
The human body is a living machine, and like all machines, it needs fuel to supply it with energy. That is the food we eat. But how much do we need to stay healthy? The energy value of food is usually measured in calories. A calorie is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1kg of water by 1℃. The number of calories people need per day is 第三节 练习题 解释 different, as the chart shows……
CALORIES NEEDED PER DAY Baby 750 Office worker 2,700

Child aged 8
Man over 70

2,100
2,100

Woman feeding baby 2,700
Boy aged 16

【解析】答案为 D 。

文章

根据文章细节内容,计算公式 为: (90-35)×5×1=275

【解析】答案为 C 。

根据文章图表,依次验证A、B、 C、D 四个答案的内容是否正确。 很易找出 C 符合图表内容。

词 义 猜 测 型

同义法 常在词或短语之间有并列

连词and或or,它们连接的两项内容在含 义上是接近的或递进的,由此可以推测。

反义法 如 hot and cold, give and
receive等,或前句为肯定,后句为否定。

总之,词与词间都起着互为线索的作用。

释义法 对文章中的生词用定语
(从句)、表语甚至于用逗号、破折号 等标点符号引出并加以解释说明。

情景推断法、代词替代法等

做题要领
1)文中找线索或信息词;

2) 根据熟悉的词及词义 判断新单词之意; 3)根据上下文判断新词 汇在特定句中确切意思。

阅读理解基础

训练

Basic Training
---词义猜测型

Q: Which of the following is closest in meaning to the underlined word “illiterate” A. repeat B. reiterated C. uneducated D. sick 解 释

Passage3: Most women in Ghana ——

the educated and illiterate, the urban and rural, the young and old work to earn an income in addition to maintaining their roles as housewi- ves and mothers. Their reputation for economic independence, 第四节 self-reliance, and hard work is well known and well deserved(应得的,值得的).

解 释 本题答案选C

这段文字中讲到加纳这个国家中 的大多数妇女,受过教育的 (educated)和没有受过教育的 (illiterate);住在城市的 (urban)和住在农村的(rural), 年轻的(young)和年长的(old) 正好是一对对反义词。因此选 C 项。

推 理 判 断 型

推理判断题:高考重头戏,20 个题中常有6-8个,着重考查学生 归纳概括、逻辑推理等综合能力。
透过现象看本质,领悟作者思 想倾向、观点、立场、语气及态 度等。 以原文内容为前提,据作者的 观点理论(非考生观点),客观地对文 中未明显说明的现象或事例给予合 理的逻辑推断,做出一定解释。

推理判断题(做题要领)

既要求学生透过文章表面 文字信息推测文章隐含意思, 又要求学生对作者的态度、 意图及文章细节的发展作正 确的推理判断,力求从作者 的角度去考虑,不要固守自 己的看法或观点。

推理判断型

常见的命题方式有:

1. The passage implies (暗示) that_______. 2. We can conclude (得出结论) from the passage that_____.
3. Which of the following can be inferred (推论)?

4. What is the tone (语气) of the author ? 5. What is the purpose (目的) of this passage? 6. The passage is intended to _____. 7. Where would this passage most probably appear?

阅读理解基础训练 Basic Training

---推理判断型

Passage4
The concept (n. 观念 ) of personal choice in relation to health behaviors is an important one. About 90 percent of all illnesses might be preventable if individual (n. 个人 ) made sound ( adj. 健康的 ) personal health choices based upon present (adj.现在的) medical knowledge. We all enjoy our freedom of choice and do not like to see it limited when it is within the legal (adj. 法律的 ) and moral boundaries ( n.界限 ) of society. The structure of American society allows us to make almost all our own personal decisions that may affect our health. If we do desire, we can smoke , drink much, refuse to wear seat belts, eat whatever food we want, and live a completely sedentary (adj. 久坐的,劳心的 ) lifestyle without any exercise. P5 练习题 解释

Q: The concept of personal choice
A. personal health choices help cure most illnesses. 文章 B. it helps raise the level of our medical knowledge. C. it is basic to personal freedom in American society. D. wron

g decisions could lead to poor health.

about health is important because____.

解析:据前两句可以得知,
不良的选择会导致健康状 况变坏,因此答案选 D 。 选出的答案一定要在原文 中找到依据或理由,不能 只凭常识或自己主观胡乱 推测。
文章

Passage5

练习题

解释

总结

A teacher who continually draws attention to rewards or who hands out high grades for ordinary achievement (n.成绩 ) ends up with uninspired students. Eisenberger holds (vi.认为). As an example of the latter (adj. 近来的 ) point ( n.观点 ), he notes ( vi.特别指出 ) growing efforts at major universities to tighten ( v.使变得更紧 ) grading standards (及格标准 ) and restore ( vt.恢复使用 ) failing grades (不及格分数或标准 ).

Q:

It can be inferred from the passage that 文章 major universities are trying to tighten their grading standards because they believe_____.

A. rewarding poor performance ( n.成绩 ) may kill the creativity of students . B. punishment is more effective than rewarding. C. failing (v. 给…不及格 ) uninspired students helps improve their overall (adj.全面的 ) academic (adj.学 校的 ) standards. D. Discouraging ( vt.使…失去信心 ) the students’ anticipation ( n.预期之事物 ) for easy rewards is a matter of urgency ( n.紧急 ).

解析: 问题是文中 Eisenberger 举的一
个例子,通过例证题目的考点分析, 我们知 道一般例子前后总结性的话(论点)是解决 问题的关键,这样我们就可以判断出该例要 说明的问题……(答案:A)

The topic sentence: A teacher ends up
with uninspired (without creativity) students.
文章

译: 假设老师总让学生关注奖励,或对表现 一般的学生也给高分,那么学生们最终都会 不求进取,没有灵感及想象力。

summary
研究近几年高考阅读理解试题, 我们不难发现命题者越来越注重 考查学生把握全文及中心思想的 能力及推理判断能力,因此有关 阅读理解题目更为重要的是:

主旨大意型 推理判断型

主旨大意题

干扰项 可能是文中某个具体事实或细节。 干扰项 可能是从文中某些 (不完全的) 事 实或细节片面推出的错误结论。 干扰项 可能属非文章事实的主观臆断。

(正确答案) : 据文章全面理解

而归纳概括出来的;不能太笼 统、言过其实或以偏概全。

推 理 判 断 型

推理判断题:高考重头戏,20 个题中常有6-8个,着重考查学生 归纳概括、逻辑推理等综合能力。 透过现象看本质,领悟作者思 想倾向、观点、立场、语气及态 度等。 以原文内容为前提,据作者的 观点理论(非考生观点),客观地对文 中未明显说明的现象或事例给予合 理的逻辑推断,做出一定解释。

Conclusion:

Pay attention to the usage of the Cleft Sentence and Non-Predicate Verbs. Learn to apply these skills to finis

h exercises on Reading Comprehension.

* *

Homework
I. Review the exercises II. Learn the methods by heart III. Learn to apply them skillfully

Thank You
Your Advice is welcome

Success’s ahead!


网站首页网站地图 站长统计
All rights reserved Powered by 海文库
copyright ©right 2010-2011。
文档资料库内容来自网络,如有侵犯请联系客服。zhit326@126.com