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宾语从句讲解及练习

发布时间:2013-09-23 15:57:31  

宾语从句

复习目标:

1、掌握引导宾语从句的各种连词

2、掌握宾语从句的语序——主句+连接词+主语+谓语

3、掌握宾语从句,主句与从句在时态上的呼应。

重点:语序和时态呼应

难点:语序和时态呼应;与疑问词+不定式的转化;与状语从句的辨析

一、宾语从句的连接词:

1、连词that,只起连接作用,在从句中不作句子成分,也无词汇意义,在口语中常被省略。

eg. He knew (that) he should work hard.

2、连词if 、whether,它们起连接作用,在从句中不作句子成分,作“是否”解,在口语中多用if。

eg. Tom don’t know if/whether his grandpa liked the present.

He asked me whether or not I was coming.

一般情况下,if 和whether可以互换,但以下3种情况只能用whether: ①在不定式前:Whether to go there or not hasn’t been decided.

②在介词前:It depends on(依靠) whether it is going to rain.

③与or not连用:They are talking about whether to go there or not.

3、连接代词who, whom, whose, what, which,连接副词when, where, why, how, 它们起连接作用,作句子成分,各有自己的意义。

eg. The teacher asked the new students which class he was in.

I wonder where he got so much money.

【注意】1、由连接代词、副词引导的宾语从句可以和“疑问词+不定式”结构转化。 eg. I don’t know how I should do with the presents.

——I don’t know how to do with the presents.

2、要注意区分判断由if、when引导的从句类型.

二、宾语从句的语序:

宾语从句的语序是陈述语序,即“连接词+主语+谓语+其它成分”。特别强调:它的主语和谓语的语序是陈述语序,而不是疑问句的倒装结构。

Can you tell me who(m) do we have to see?(╳)

Can you tell me who(m) we have to see?( √)

The teacher asked the students what they were doing.(思考: what在从句中的成分) 陈述句变为宾语从句时,要注意人称和时态的变化,语序不变。

eg. She said, “I will leave a message on the desk.”

——She said she would leave a message on the desk.

一般疑问句和特殊疑问句变为宾语从句时,也要注意人称和时态的变化,后面接陈述语序。

Eg. “Where are the tickets?” I asked him.

-------- I asked him where the tickets are.

三、宾语从句的时态呼应:

宾语从句中谓语动词的时态,常常受到主句谓语时态的制约,此为时态呼应。如果主句谓语是一般现在时或将来时,从句谓语的时态不受限制;如果主句谓语的时态是一般过去时,从句一般要随着改为相应的过去时态(一般过去时、过去进行时、过去将来时、过去完成时)。 eg. I thought (that) you are free today. (╳)

I thought (that) you would be free today. ( √)

【注意】当宾语从句叙述的是客观真理时,不管主句谓语的时态如何,从句都用一般现在时。 eg. The teacher told us (that) the earth moves around the sun.

四、其他需要说明的问题:

1、标点由主句决定,如主句是陈述句、祈使句,则用句号;是疑问句则用问号。 eg. I heard she had been to the Great Wall. Can you tell me which bus I should take?

2、要注意个别句子中主从句人称的一致。

▲五、 宾语从句和状语从句的区分:

eg. 1) I will go out tomorrow if it is fine tomorrow.

2) I don’t know if the train has arrived.

句1中if引导的是状语从句。这个从句表示“条件”,修饰主句。整个句子的意思是如果明天天气好,我就出去。句2中if引导的是宾语从句,充当谓语动词don’t know的宾语。整个句子的意思是我不知道火车是否已到达。

判断方法:

1、可以从整个句式看。状语从句一般可以放在主句的前面或后面(个别除外),宾语从句只能放在主句谓语动词之后。

2、从引导词看。if充当宾语从句的连接词时,相当于whether, 词义为“是否”,充当状语从句的连接词时,词义为“如果”。when充当宾语从句的连接词时,意为“什么时候”, 充当状语从句的连接词时,意为“当……的时候”

3.从时态看。if和when作连接词时,引导宾语从句要注意:从句的谓语动词的时态应根据主句的时态作相应的变化。if和when充当从属连词时,引导条件和时间状语从句,若主句的谓语动词用一般将来时,则从句的时态应用一般现在时表示将来。

e.g. I think (that) differences are not important in a friendship.

An old lady said (that) she found a job as a foreign language teacher.

They don’t know if (是否)we are going hiking next weekend

Could you tell me when (什么时候)the train arrives ?

We’ll go to the Great Wall if (如果) it doesn’t rain tomorrow.

=If doesn’t rain tomorrow, we’ll go to the Great Wall.

They knew each other when(当……时候)they were children.

=When they were children

练习题

I.从下列A、B、C、D中选择一个正确选项填空。

1. I don't know _________ he will come tomorrow. _________ he comes, I'll tell you.

A. if; Whether B. whether; Whether C. if; That D. if; If

2. I don't know _________ the day after tomorrow.

A. when does he come B. how will he come

C. if he comes D. whether he'll come

3. Could you tell me _________ the nearest hospital is?

A. what B. how C. whether D. where

4. Could you tell me _________ the radio without any help?

A. how did he mend B. what did he mend

C. how he mended D. what he mended

5. I want to know _________.

A. whom is she looking after B. whom she is looking

C. whom is she looking D. whom she is looking after

6. Do you know where _________ now?

A. he lives B. does he live C. he lived D. did he live

7. Do you know what time _________?

A. the train leave B. does the train leave

C. will the train leave D. the train leaves

8. I don't know _________. Can you tell me, please?

A. how the two players are old B. how old are the two players

C. the two players are how old D. how old the two players are

9. The small children don't know _________.

A. what is their stockings in B. what is in their stockings

C. where is their stockings in D. what in their stockings

10. I can't understand _________.

A. what does Christmas mean B. what Christmas does mean

C. what mean Christmas does D. what Christmas means

1 The girls asked if they ____ some food and drink with them.

A. took B. take C. takes D. will take

2 Catherine said that she ___ to Guangzhou.

A. has never gone B. had never gone C. has never been D. had never been

3 The students want to know whether they___ dictionary today.

A. had B. has C. will have D. are

4 She asked Linda if___ go and get some.

A. could she B. she could C. she can D. she may

5 Linda said the moon___ round the earth.

A. travelled B. has travelled C. travells D. had travelled

习题(二)

1 Can you tell me___ you were born, Betty?

A. who B. what C. when D. that

2 I don't know ___ they have passed the exam.

A. what B. if C. when D. where

3 I hardly understand. ___ he has told me.

A. that B. what C. which D. who

4 She didn't know___ back soon.

A. whether he would be B. if would he be C. he will be

5. I don't know _____ he still lives here after so many years.

A. whether B where C. what D. when

6. Do you know _____ they listened to yesterday evening?

A. what B when C why D how

7. He asked me _____told me the accident.

A whom B which C who D whose

习题(三)

1. They don't know ______their parents are.

A that B what C why D which

2. Please tell me ______what last year.

A. where does your sister work B where did your sister work

C where your sister works D where your sister worked

3. She asked me if I knew ______.

A. whose pen is it B. whose pen it was C. whose pen it is D. whose pen was it

4. You must remember ________.

A. what your mother said B. what did your mother say

C. your mother said what D. what has your mother said

5 Did you know ____?

A. who he was looking after B. who was he looking for

C. who he is looking for D. who he is looking after

6 Could you tell me ___?

A. when will they leave Beijing B. when would they leave Beijing

C. when they will leave Beijing D. when did they leave Beijing

习题(四)

1. In the bookshop, a reader asked the shop keeper _____ Who Moved My Cheese was an interesting book. (北京市东城区)

A. that B. how C. what D. if

2. —I don't know _____ Mr. Green will come to see us.

—He will help us with our English. (杭州市)

A. why B. when C. how D. where

3. —We never know _____ the old man is.

—They say he is a teacher. (鄂州市)

A. what B. who C. which D. where

4. I was told _____ Bill Gates was thirteen he began to play with computers. (重庆市)

A. that how B. how that C. when that D. that when

5. —Do you know _____ ? I'm going to see him.

—Sorry, I don't know. (北京市海淀区)

A. where does Mr. Li live B. where did Mr. Li live

C. where Mr. Li lives D. where Mr. Li lived

6. —W here do you think _____ he _____ the computer?

—Sorry, I have no idea. (南京市)

A. /; bought B. has; bought C. did; buy D. does; buy

7. I don't feel very well. Mum asked me _____ this morning. (重庆市)

A. what the matter is B. what is wrong

C. what the matter was D. what wrong was

8. —Where is Jack?

—He is away to spend his holiday. He's gone either to Hangzhou or to Wuhan, but I'm not sure _____ . (南昌市)

A. that B. which C. where D. there

宾语从句专项训练参考答案:

I. 1—5DDDCD 6—10ADDBD

答案:1-5 A D C B C

答案:1-7 C B B A A A C答案:1-6 B D B A A C

答案:1—4 D A A D 5—8 C A C C

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