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宾语从句.过去将来时

发布时间:2014-01-26 12:57:16  

宾语从句(The Object Clause)

学习宾语从句要抓住三要素:连接词、语序和时态。

一. 宾语从句的定义

宾语从句在复合句中起宾语的作用,可以作动词的宾语,也可以做介词的宾语

作动词的宾语:

I heard that he would come here later on.

主语 谓语动词 一个句子作宾语

作介词的宾语:

He said nothing about who broke the window last night.

主语 谓语动词 代词作动词的宾语 介词 一个句子作介词的宾语

二.宾语从句中引导词(连接词)的用法

在复合句中作主句的宾语,引导词有:

连词:that (that 常可省略),whether, if

代词:who, whose, what ,which

副词:when ,where, how, why 等。

① 连词: 他告诉我他明年上大学.

I don’t know if there will be a bus any more. 我不知道是否还会有公交车.

Nobody knew whether he could pass the exam. 没有人知道他是否会通过考试.

that引导的宾语从句(在非正式场合that可以省略)

可跟that从句做宾语的动词有:

say, think, insist, wish, hope, demand, imagine, wonder, know, suppose, see, believe, agree, admit, deny, expect, explain, order, command, feel, dream, suggest, hear, mean, notice, prefer, request, require, propose, declare, report等。

The boy believes that he will travel through space to other planets.

Attention:宾语从句的否定转移

当主句谓语动词是 think, believe, suppose, expect 等词,而宾语从句的意思是否定时,常把否定转移至主句表示。I don’t think it is right for him to treat you like that.

主句的谓语动词是think,believe,imagine,suppose,consider,expect,fancy,guess等,并且主句的主语是第一人称而且为一般现在时,从句的否定词一般要转移到主句上来,其反义疑问句一般与宾语从句一致.

I don’t believe that man is killed by Jim,is he?

我认为那个人不是Jim所杀的,是不是?

I expect our English teacher will be back this weekend, won't she/he?

We suppose you have finished the project, haven't you?

如果宾语从句中有某个含有否定意义的形容词或副词(不包含带有否定前缀的词,如:unhappy,unfair,dislike等),其反义疑问句要用肯定形式.

We find that he never listens to the teacher carefully, does he?

我们发现他从不仔细听老师讲课,是不是?

当主句的主语是第二、三人称时,其反义疑问句一般与主句保持一致。 Your sister supposes she needs no help, doesn't she?

You thought they could have completed the project, didn't you?

They don't believe she's an engineer, do they?

She doesn't expect that we are coming so soon, does she?

在以下情况中that不能省略

1、当句中的动词后接多于两个由that引导的宾语从句时,第一个that可省,但后面的that不可省。

I believe(that)you have done your best and that things will get better.

2、 当主句的谓语动词与that宾语从句之间有插入语时,that一般不可省。

Just then I noticed, for the first time, that our master was wearing his fine green coat and his black silk cap.

3、 当that从句是双宾语中的直接宾语时,that不可省。

I can’t tell him that his mother died.

4、当it作形式宾语时

例句:She made it clear that she had nothing to do with him.

许多带复合宾语的句子,that引导的宾语从句经常移到句子后部,而用it作形式宾语。

5、当宾语从句前置时 That our team will win,I believe.

6、当that作learn,suggest,explain,agree,wonder,prove,mean,state,feel,hold等动词的宾语时;

由whether,if 引导的宾语从句

当由一般疑问句充当宾语从句时,用if或whether引导,意为“是否”。如:

I don't know if /whether he still lives here after so many years.我不知道这么多年后他是否还住在这儿。

但在下列情况下只能用whether,不能用if:

①在具有选择意义,又有or或or not时,尤其是直接与or not连用时,往往用whether(if…or not也可以使用)。如:

Let me know whether /if he will come or not.(=Let me know whether or not he will come)让我知道他是否能来。

I don't know whether /if he does any washing or not.(=I don't know whether or not he does any washing.)我不知道他洗不洗衣服。 I wonder whether we stay or whether wego.我不知道我们是去还是留。

②在介词之后用whether。如:

I'm interested in whether he likes English.我关心的是他是否喜欢英语。

We're thinking about whether we can finish the work on time.我们正在考虑是否能按时完成这项工作。

③在不定式前用whether。如:

He hasn't decided whether to visit the old man.他尚未决定是否拜访那位老人。

He hasn't decided whether to go by bus or by train.他还未决定是乘公共汽车去还是坐火车去。

④whether置于句首时,不能换用if。如:

Whether this is true or not,I can't say.这是否真的我说不上来。

⑤引导主语从句和表语从句时宜用whether。如:

Whether she will come or not is still a question.她是否能来还是个问题。

⑥若用if会引起歧义时,则用whether。如:

Please let me know if you like the book.可理解为:

b.If you like the book,please let me know.你如果喜欢这本书,请告诉我

只能用if不能用whether引导的宾语从句

1、 if引导条件状语从句,意为“如果”

The students will go on a picnic if it is sunny.

2、 if引导否定概念的宾语从句时

He asked if I didn’t come to school yesterday.

3、 引导状语从句even if(即使)和as if(好象)时

He talks as if he has known all about it.

连接代词和连接副词引导的宾语从句

这样的宾语从句实际上是由特殊疑问句变化而来的,宾语从句要用陈述句语序。用于这种结构的动词常常是:see, say, tell, ask, answer, know, decide, show, find out, imagine, suggest, doubt, wonder, discover, understand, inform, advise等。

②连接代词:who,whom,whose,which,what,在句中担任主语、宾语、定语或者表语。

连接代词一般指疑问,但what, whatever除了指疑问外,也可以指陈述.

Do you know who has won Red Alert game?

你知道是谁赢得了红色警报的游戏么?

The book will show you what the best CEOs should know.

这本书会告诉你最好的执行总裁该了解什么.

Have you determined whichever you should buy,a Motorola or Nokia cell phone?

你决定好是买诺基亚还是摩托罗拉的电话了吗?

③连接副词有:when,where,why,how,在句中担任状语的成分。

He didn’t tell me when we should meet again. 他没有告诉我什么时候我们能再见面.

Could you please tell me how you use the new panel?

你能告诉我怎么用这个新的操作盘吗?

None of us knows where these new parts can be bought.

没有人知道这些的新的零件能在哪里买到.

三.宾语从句的语序

宾语从句的语序是陈述句语序即:连接代词/副词+主语+谓语+其他成分。

I don’t know what they are looking for. Could you tell me when the train will leave?

四.宾语从句的时态

时态:主句是一般现在时,从句根据实际情况使用任何时态。

例句:The headmaster hopes everything goes well.

1、 主句是过去时态,从句须用过去时态的某种形式。

例句:She was sorry that she hadn’t finished her work on time.

2、 当宾语从句表示的是一个客观真理或者事实时,即使主句是过去时,从句也用一般现在时态。

例句:The teacher told his class that light travels faster than sound.

(1) 注意:运用虚拟语气的情况在表示

建议 suggest 、advise、propose; 要求demand 、desire、request;

决定 decide; 命令 order、command、require; 坚决主张 insist;

等动词后跟宾语从句,用(should)+v.(虚拟语气)

Eg: I suggested that you(should)study hard.

He ordered that we should go out at once.

虚拟语气的用法

虚拟语气是一种动词形式,表示说话人的一种愿望,假设,怀疑,猜测,建议等含义,虚拟语气所表示的含义不是客观存在的事实。

虚拟语气的用法:

1) 虚拟语气用在简单句中,表示祝愿,命令。如:

May you be happy. 祝你幸福。

May you have a good time. 祝愿你玩得痛快。

May the friendship between us last long. 祝愿我们的友情天长地久。

Have a good journey! 祝愿你旅途愉快!

You go out! 你出去!

2) 虚拟语气用在宾语从句中:动词 wish, suggest,order,insist, propose,等词后面的宾语从句表示的是一种虚拟语气,宾语从句中的动词动作表示的只是一种愿望、要求。如:

I wish she would be on my side. 我希望她能站在我一边。

I wish I could help him. 我希望我能帮助他。

He insisted that all of us should be there on time by any means. 他坚持要我们大家想尽办法按时去那儿。

动词 demand, suggest, order, insist, propose 后面的从句中,"should" 可以省略。如:

The teacher suggested that we (should) clean the blackboard after class. 老师建议我们课后把黑板擦了。

He ordered that the students wash the clothes every week by themselves. 他要求学生每周都要自己洗衣服。

3) 虚拟语气用在主语从句中:在句型 "It is important (necessary, strange, natural) that .... " 中,that 后面的从句中的谓语动词用: should + 动词原形,如:

It's necessary that we should have a walk now. 我们有必要出去散散步。

It's natural that she should do so. 她这样做是很自然的。

It's important that we should take good care of the patient. 重要的是我们要照顾好病人。

4) 虚拟语气用在状语从句中:虚拟语气最多地用在表示条件的状语从句和表示结果的从句中。在表示与事实相反的虚拟语气时,动词有三种时态形式,即现在、过去和将来。

A.与现在事实相反的: If I (we,you,he,they)+ 动词过去式.. if I (he,she) were... I (we) should + 动词原形。 He (you,they) would + 动词原形。

B.与过去事实相反的: If I(we,you,he,they)+ had + 过去分词 I(we)should + have+ 过去分词。He (you,they) would + have + 过去分词。 If I were you, I should buy it. 如果我是你,我就买了它。

If I had time, I would study French. 如果我有时间,我会学习法语的。

If she knew English,she would not ask me for help. 如果她懂英语的话,她不会找我帮忙的。

If you had got up earlier, you could have caught the train. 如果你早一点起床,就会赶上火车的。

If it were fine tomorrow,I would go shopping. 如果明天天气好,我就去买东西。

明白了虚拟语气的用法就会明白什么时候需要用虚拟语气了,在表示说话人的一种愿望,假设,怀疑,猜测,建议等含义,或表示的含义不是客观存在的事实时需要用虚拟语气。

简化宾语从句的方法

方法一:当主句谓语动词是hope, decide, wish, choose, agree, promise等,且宾语从句的主语与主句主语一致时,宾语从句可简化为不定式结构。例如:

Li Ming hopes he will be back very soon. →Li Ming hopes to be back very soon.

We decided that we would help him. →We decided to help him.

方法二:当主句谓语动词是know, learn, remember, forget, tell等动词,且主句主语与从句主语一致时,宾语从句可简化为“疑问词+不定式”结构。例如:

She has forgotten how she can open the window. →She has forgotten how to open the window.

注:当主句谓语动词是tell, ask, show, teach等动词,且后带双宾语,从句主语和间接宾语一致时,宾语从句可简化为“疑问词+不定式”结构。例如:

Could you tell me how I can get to the station? →Could you tell me how to get to the station?

结构。例如:

The headmaster ordered that we should start at once. → The headmaster ordered us to start at once.

方法四:某些动词后的宾语从句,可以用介词加动名词(短语)等其他形式简化。例如: He insisted that he should go with us. →He insisted on going with us.

The poor boy doesn’t know when and where he was born. →The poor boy doesn’t know the time and the place of his birth.

方法五:某些动词后面的宾语从句可转化为“宾语+V-ing形式(作宾语补足语)”结构。例如: Liu Ping found that there was a wallet lying on the ground. → Liu Ping found a wallet lying on the ground.

方法三:当主句的谓语动词是order(命令),require(需要)等时,如果主句和从句的主语不一致,宾语从句可简化为“名词(代词)+不定式”

方法六:动词seem后的宾语从句,也可以用不定式(短语)来简化,但句型需要进行适当的变化。例如: It seemed that the boys were going to win. →The boys seemed to win.

除上述方法外,还有一些特殊句式的转化,如:

I found that it was difficult to learn English well.

→I found it difficult to learn English well.

Soon we found that the ground was covered with thick snow.

→Soon we found the ground covered with thick snow.

They found that the box was very heavy.

→They found the box very heavy.

将来进行时用法小结

【口诀】

“将来某时(段)正进行,预计不久要发生。通常用在口语中,语气委婉顿生情。”

【用法】

将来进行时由“助动词will / shall + be + 现在分词”构成,具体用法如下:

(1) soon, tomorrow, this evening, on Sunday, by this time, in two days, tomorrow evening等表示将来的时间状语连用。如:

I will be having an English class at 8 tomorrow. 我明天八点钟正在上英语课。

Mary will be working in the factory in the next two months.下两个月玛丽将在这个厂里工作。

(2) 在口语中常用来表示按计划或安排即要发生的动作。如:

This time tomorrow I shall be flying to New York. 明天这个时候我将飞往纽约。

At 7:00 this evening I will be watching the news programmes on TV.

今晚七时,我将正在收看电视上的新闻节目。

(3) 表示预料不久要发生或势必要发生的事情或将来的某种可能性,说话人往往有“我料想”或“我估计”的含义。如:

We believe that peasants’ life will be getting better and better.

我们相信农民的生活会越来越好。

If we don’t do so, we shall be making a serious mistake.

如果我们不那样做,我们就会犯严重的错误。

(4) 表示亲切或委婉的语气。如:

When shall we be meeting again? 我们什么时候再见面?

【注意】

在时间、条件等状语从句中,用现在进行时代替将来进行时。如:

Be careful when you are crossing the street. 过马路时要当心。

If Tom is doing his homework when you come back, don’t disturb him, please.

你回来时如果汤姆正在做作业,请不要打扰他。

一般将来时用法小结

【用法】

“will / shall + 动词原形”构成的一般将来时,其被动形式为“will / shall + be + 过去分词”。

(1) 表示单纯的将来。如:

Her elder sister will be thirty years old next month. 下个月她姐姐就30岁了。

(2)

We are really lost. I’ll stop to ask someone the way. 我们真的迷路了。我要停下来问问路。

(3)

Go straight on and you’ll see a church. You won’t miss it.

直走你就会看到一座教堂,你不会错过的。

【注意】

1. 用“be going to+动词原形”构成的一般将来时。

(1) 人作主语时表示打算,“有计划要做”。如:

My daughter is going to be a doctor when she grows up. 我女儿打算长大后当医生。

(2) 物作主语时表示目前有迹象表明将要发生某事,“有……的趋势(如天气变化)”。如:

Look at the black clouds. It’s going to rain. 看那些乌云,要下雨了。

2. 用“be about to+动词原形”构成的一般将来时,“正要做……”

(1) 表示即将发生的动作,在时间上指最近的将来,时间范围小一些。如:

We are about to start. 我们就要出发了。

The new school year is about to begin. 新学年开学在即。

(2) 在含有be about to do的句子中,不能再加时间状语。如:

Wrong: The medical team is about to start immediately.

Right: The medical team is about to start. 医疗队就要出发了。

3. 用“be to+动词原形”构成的一般将来时,计划性非常强,形式很正式,常常翻译成“应该”。

(1) 表示事先商定、安排或准备要做的事情。如:

The students are to meet at the school gate tomorrow. 明天学生们将在学校大门口集会。

(2)

Her necklace was not to (couldn't) be found. 她的项链找不到了。

The door is to be locked. 你要把门关上。

4. 。从句用一般现在时表示一般将来时:如: The football match will be put off if it rains tomorrow. 如果明天下雨,足球赛将被推迟举行。

5. 在时间、条件或让步状语从句中常用一般现在时表示将来。如:

They will go home for the winter vacation as soon as they finish their exams.

他们一考完试就回家过寒假。

I can’t go to your birthday party unless my father agrees.

除非我爸爸同意,否则我去不了你的生日会。

【将来进行时与一般将来时的比较】

两者都表示将来的行为,但在用法上有所区别:

(1) 将来进行时表示将来某一时刻或某一段时间里正在进行的动作;而一般将来时表示将来某时将要发生的动作。如:

She won’t be having a meeting in her office at 8:00 tomorrow. 明天8点她不在办公室开会。

What will you do at five tomorrow afternoon? 明天下午五点你将干什么?

(2) 将来进行时常用来表示说话人设想已经安排好的事;而一般将来时表示临时决定。如:

We will be taking our holiday at the seaside in July. 七月份我们要去海边度假。

-Did you tell Julia about the result? 你告诉朱莉娅结果了吗?

-Oh, no. I will call her now. 噢,没有。我现在就告诉她。

(3) 将来进行时不表示个人意愿。如:

They will be meeting us at the station. 他们会在车站接我们的。

(4) 将来进行时比一般将来时在语气上要委婉客气。如:

When will you finish these letters? 你什么时候会处理完这些信件?

When shall I be expecting you this evening? 今天晚上我几点等你?

过去将来时用法小结

【用法】 过去将来时表示在过去某个时间看来将要发生的动作或存在的状态。即:过去将来时是“立足过去,着眼未来”的一种时态,常用于宾语从句和间接

,而不是时间。如:

I heard that they were going to return to Shanghai soon. 我听说他们不久要回到上海。

I didn’t know if he would come. 我不知道他是否会来。

They never knew that population would become a big problem.

他们从来都不知道人口问题将会成为一个大问题。

She didn’t tell me where she would go. 她没有告诉我她要去哪儿。

Betty said she would visit the Great Wall next Saturday. 贝蒂说下周六她要去参观长城。

但是,在一定的语境中也可于其他从句或句子中:

It was a problem whether they would support us. 他们是否会支持我们还是一个问题。

It was six o’clock. The sun would soon set. 这时是六点钟。太阳即将落山。

【构成】

① 由助动词“would/should+动词原形”构成,常表示按计划或安排即将发生的事。would可用于各种人称;should主要用于主语是第一人称时。如: Whenever we had trouble, he would come to help us.

不论何时我们遇到困难,他总会给予帮助。

He said he would come to see me. 他说他要来看我。

He told me he would go to Beijing. 他告诉我他将去北京。

② 由“was/were going to+动词原形”构成,表示过去某时计划、打算、准备做某事。如:

No one knew when he was going to come. 没有人知道他什么时候来。

She said she was going to start off at once. 她说她将立即出发。

I was told that he was going to return home. 有人告诉我他准备回家。

此结构还可表示根据当时情况判断有可能但不一定会发生某事,或者在一定的上下文中有时可表示过去未曾实现的想法或打算:例如:

It seemed as if it was going to rain. 看来好像要下雨。

She was going to attend the concert last night, but she was too busy.

她昨晚本想去听音乐会的,但她太忙了。

③ 用“was (were) about+不定式”构成,表示在过去看来正要做某事或表示过去即将发生的事情。如:

I was just about to go to bed when he came to see me. 我正要睡觉,他来看我了。

The US said that the war on Iraq was about to start in a week.

美国说伊拉克之战将在一周后打响。

④ 用“was (were)+不定式”构成,表示定于过去某时将要做某事。如:

He was to meet her at 10 on the street. 他约定和她10点钟在街上见面。

也可以表示过去曾经计划要做的事,或者过去应当做的事,而且从现在的角度来看已经实现了。如:

I felt nervous because I was soon to leave home for the first time.

I was to play Juliet.

The expedition was to start in a week’s time. 如:

【注意】

① 表示“往来”时空变化的短暂性动词,如“go, come, arrive, travel, start, begin, leave, move, fly, return, take off”等,通常用过去进行时来表示过去将来。如:

He said they were leaving at seven. 他说他们将于七点动身。

He said the train was leaving at six the next morning. 他说火车将于第二天早晨六点离开。

She told me she was coming to see me. 她告诉我她要来看我。

② 条件状语从句和时间状语从句中须用一般过去时代替过去将来时。例如:

I didn’t know when she would come, but when she came I would let you know.

我不知道她什么时候来,但她来了我会告诉你。

The teacher said that it would be very difficult to make progress if I didn’t work hard.

老师说,如果我不努力学习的话,就很难取得进步。

③ was/ were to have done表示“本打算”、“本计划”或“本应当”做的事而没有做成或没有发生或被取消。如:

I was to have seen him last Wednesday, but he didn’t come.

We were to have been married last year.

We were to have left at 6 last night. 我们本来计划昨晚6点离开的。

【过去将来时典型错误例析】

1. 我们不知道他是否要在会上发言。

误:We didn’t know whether he is going to speak at the meeting.

正:We didn’t know whether he was going to speak at the meeting.

析:该句主句为过去时,且宾语从句表示从过去某个时间看来将要发生的动作,所以从句要用过去将来时态。

2. 老师问汤姆长大后准备干什么。

误:The teacher asked Tom what he was going to be when he would grow up.

正:The teacher asked Tom what he was going to be when he grew up.

析:在时间状语从句中,常用一般过去时表示在过去看来将要发生的动作。

3. 他们说如果下星期天不下雨他们就去农场。

误:They said that they were going to the farm if it would not rain the next Sunday.

正:They said that they were going to the farm if it didn’t rain the next Sunday.

析:在条件状语从句中,也常用一般过去时表示在过去看来将要发生的动作。

4. 王林打电话告诉她妈妈,她要买一些书。

误:Wang Lin rang up to tell her mother that she should buy some books.

正:Wang Lin rang up to tell her mother that she would buy some books.

析:过去将来时可以由“助动词should/would+动词原形”构成,但should一般只用于第一人称。而would可用于各种人称。

5. 上次我见到你时,你正打算开始乘火车去西藏。

误:Last time I saw you, you had started to go to Tibet by train.

正:Last time I saw you, you were going to start to go to Tibet by train. 将来完成进行时

将来完成时用来表示在将来某一时间以前已经完成或一直持续的动作。经常与before+将来时间或by+将来时间连用,也可与before或by the time引导的现在时的从句连用。

将来完成进行时表示动作从某一时间开始一直延续到将来某一时间。是否继续下去,要视上下文而定。这个时态常和表示将来某一时间的状语连用。如:

I shall have been working here in this factory for twenty years by the end of the year. 到今年年底,我将在这个工厂工作20年了

If we don't hurry up the store will have been closing before we get there. 咱们如不快一点儿,等我们到了那儿,店门就会关了。

The play is coming off in August. By then the play will have been running for three months. 这个剧将于8月停演。到那时为止,这个剧将连演三个月了。

注意:

将来完成进行时表示:

a. 状态完成:表示某事继续到将来某一时为止一直有的状态。

b. 动作完成:表示将来某一时或另一个将来的动作之前,已经完成的动作或一获得的经验。

They will have been married for 20 years by then.

You will have reached Shanghai by this time tomorrow.

将来完成时的构成

将来完成时的构成是由"shall/will + have +过去分词"构成的。

Before long he will have forgotten all about the matter. 不久他就会全然忘记这件事的。

He is somebody now. He will not have remembered his old classmates. 他现在是一个有身份的人了,他可能不会记得老同学了。

Will you have known Kevin for 10 years next month? 到下个月你认识凯文该有10年了吧?

一.现在完成时的构成:

现在完成时由助动词 have(has)+动词的过去分词构成。has用于第三人称单数,have用于其他各种人称.

二.现在完成时的用法:其用法主要有三种

I.“已完成”用法 :表示一个过去发生并结束的动作对现在造成的影响或结果。

这一类情况可以细致分为下述两种情况。

1)表示开始于过去的动作刚刚结束。常和just,now,already,yet,not?yet等不确定的时间状语连用。

Li Ming has just turned off the light. 李明刚刚把灯关上。(说明现在灯关上了)

I've finished my homework now. 现在我已经做完作业了。(说明可以交作业或做别的了)

2)表示过去动作的结果,现在仍残留着。一般不用时间状语。

I have lost my pen. 我把笔丢了。 (说明过去某时丢的,现在我还没找到这支笔)

She has become a teacher. 她已经当了老师。(说明她现在仍是老师)

II.“未完成”用法。表示动作或状态从过去某时开始,持续到现在,可能继续下去,也可能刚刚结束。常和表示一段时间的状语连用。如today,ago,since 1991,for a long time,for a month,so far,up to now,till(until) now等。

He has lived here for 30 years. 他住在这儿三十年了。(现在还住在这儿)

They've known each other since childhood. 他们从小彼此相识。(现在还在往来)

How long have you studied English? 你学英语多久了?(现在仍在学)

III.经验性用法:表示从过去开始到目前为止这段时间中反复发生的动作或多次出现的状态。

常与频度副词如often,always,every week,twice等连用。

I have been to the Summer Palace twice. 我曾经去过颐和园两次。

He has always said so.他总是这么说.

三.现在完成时的时间状语

I现在完成时属于现在时范围,故不能和过去的时间状语连用。如:yesterday,last Sunday,in1990,three years ago等。但是,在强调动作产生的后果和影响时,可以和一些表示不确定的时间状语连用。

a. 用副词already和yet。already一般用于肯定句中,yet一般用于否定句和疑问句中。

如:We have already finished our homework.我们已完成作业了。

They haven't finished their homework yet.他们还没有完成作业。

b. 用ever和never.多用于否定或疑问句中,表示“曾经”或“从未“等。

如: -Have you ever been to the Great Wall?你曾经去过长城吗?

-I have never been to the Great Wall.我从未去过长城。

c. 用表示到说话为止的过去时间状语,如just, before, up to now, the past few years等。

例如:I have seen her before,but I can not remember where. 我以前见过她,但记不起在哪里见过。

He has been there three times the last few days. 近几天他去过那里三次了。

d. 用包括“现在”在内的时间状语,如now,today,this morning(month,year,term)等。例如:-Have you met him today?-No,I haven't. 今天

你见过他吗?我没有。

this week(month),lately,recently,these days,in the past few days,during the last two weeks,since,since yesterday,since 2 days

How many times have you been there this year? 今年你去过那里多少次?

die, get up等。但如果要保留表一段时间的时间状语,必须将动词改为延续性动词。

现归纳总结一下由非延续性动词到延续性动词的转换

如: fall asleep (ill) →be asleep (ill)

get to know→ know begin,(start)→ be on

open →be open buy→ have get up→ be up die→ be dead go out→ be out come→ be in close→be closed arrive→be here join→be in, be a +名词 finish( end )→be over leave, move →be away, borrow →keep go to school→be a student catch(a cold)→ have(a cold) begin to study→study come back→be back put on→wear 或be on

如:He has been a soldier for three years.他参军三年了。

His father has been dead for two years.他父亲去世二年了。

The film has been on for 5 minutes.电影已开始五分钟了。

We have studied English for three years. 我们(开始)学英语已三年了。

四.几点注意事项

I. have been(to)与have gone( to)的区别:

have been(to)表示“去过某地(现在已经回来了)”,可用于各人称;

have gone(to)表示“去某地了(说话时某人不在当地)”,常用于第三人称,

前者可与once ,never,several times等连用,后者则不能。

如: They have been to Beijing twice.他们去过北京两次。

He has gone to Beijing . 他去北京了。

II.不可延续性动词现在完成时的否定式,已变成一种可以延续的状态,因此可以和表示一段时间的状语连用。 如: I haven't left here since 1997.自从1997年以来,我一直没有离开过这儿。

(错)I have received his letter for a month.

(对)I haven't received his letter for almost a month.

II短暂性动词不能和表一段时间的时间状语连用。如:come, go, arrive, reach, hear, close, leave, begin, start, lose, buy, fall, join,

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