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状语从句专项讲练

发布时间:2014-01-26 13:53:55  

状语从句精讲精练(一) 状语从句 (Adverbial Clause)指句子中用作状语的从句,根据其作用可分为时间、地点、原因、条件、目的、结果、让步、方式和比较等从句。状语从句一般由连词(从属连词)引导,从句位于句首或句中时通常用逗号与主句隔开,位于句尾时可以不用逗号隔开。

状语从句和各种特殊句式是高考英语的重难点之一。湖北卷的完成句子试题对各种从句的考查,呈现的变化很明显,出现板块轮流转换的特点。对状语从句的考查主要出现在常规连接词的用法上,同时涉及动词的时态、语态、动词短语搭配等其他知识。而特殊句式的出现向我们传递着一个信号,那就是完成句子中可以作为考点的语法和词汇知识有很多,因此,考生应完整而全面的掌握各种句式的用法。

状语从句这一块的语法知识多,但为了控制试题的难度,命题人对这部分的考查比较温和,主要考查常见的连词引导状语从句的用法,也可能考查非常规连词,比如名词短语the moment, every/each time, 介词短语by the time,非谓语动词supposing, providing等;对状语从句的考查还会涉及状语从句的省略,从句谓语动词的时态和语态,动词短语搭配等语法知识。不会出现偏题怪题,因为状语从句只是完成句子众多考查中的一个。

高考直通车

1. (2012湖北) However ___________________________, I could not read his handwriting. (try) 无论我怎样努力,还是没法看清他写的字。

2.(2011浙江)One Friday, we were packing to leave for a weekend away __________________________________ cries for help. (hear)

一个周五,我们正在打包要出去度周末,就在那时我女儿听到有人求救的声音。

考点一 时间状语从句

一、when, while, as

when既可引导一个持续动作,也可引导一个短暂动作。While引导的动作必须是持续性的,侧重主句动作和从句动作相对比。As可表示从句和主句的两个动作交替进行或同时完成,可译为“一边??,一边??”或“随着”。如:

When I lived there, I used to go to the seashore on Sundays.

When he was a young man(=As a young man), he was fond of hunting.

Please don’t talk so loud while others are working.

He hurried home, looking behind as he went.

As time goes on, it’s getting warmer and warmer.

When/While/As I was walking down the street, I came across an old friend of mine.

二、as soon as, immediately, directly, instantly, the moment, the minute, the instant, no sooner…than, hardly/scarcely…when…

这些从属连词引导的从句表示从句的动作一发生,主句的动作随即就发生,常译为“一??就??”。如:

I will call you as soon as I arrive in Beijing.

The children ran away from the orchard(果园), the moment/ immediately they saw the guard. No sooner had I arrived home than it began to rain.

注意:no sooner与hardly/scarcely引导的句子的谓语动词应用过去完成时,而than与when 1

引导的句子的谓语动词应用一般过去时。此外,no sooner和hardly/scarcely提到句首时,它们引导的句子应用倒装语序。如:

I had hardly got home when it began to rain.

= Hardly _________________________________________

三、till,until和not until

用于肯定句,表示“某动作一直延续到某时间点才停止”;用于否定句,表示“某动作直到某时间才开始”。till不可以置于句首,而until可以。如:

He remained there until she arrived.

He won’t go to bed till/until she returns.

Until you told me I had no idea of it.

注意not…until句型中的强调和倒装用法:

It was not until you told me that I had any idea of it.

Not until you told me did I have any idea of it.

四、before

若表示“还未??就??;不到??就??;??才??;还没来得及??就??”时,须用连词before。如:

We had sailed four days and four nights before we saw land.

We hadn’t run a mile before he felt tired.

“It will be + 一段时间 + before… ”表示“(多久)之后才??”,如:

It will be half a year before I come back.

It won’t be long before we meet again.

五、since

since表示“自从”,从句的时态若是一般过去时,主句的时态用现在完成时或现在完成进行时。如:

I have written home four times since I came here.

She has been working in this factory since she left school.

“It is + 一段时间 + since从句”表示“自??以来有(多久)了”,时间的计算一律从since从句的动作完成或状态结束算起,如:

It is three years since the war broke out.

It is five months since I smoked a cigar.

六、every time, each time, next time, the last time, any time等短语用来引导时间状语从句,表

示“每当??;每次??;下次??;随时??”等。如:

Every/Each time I was in trouble, he would come to help me out.

Next time you come, do remember to bring your son here.

Any time you need a friend, I will be here.

即时训练:完成句子

1. 我们开会的时候有人破门而入。

We were having a meeting ______________________________________________(break).

2. 趁你还没忘,请把它写下来。

Please write it down __________________________________________________(forget).

3. 要不了多久我们会再见。

It ___________________________________________________we meet again.(long)

4. 随着岁月的流逝,他的头发变白了。

________________________________________________________, his hair turned grey (go) 2

5. 还没等我们意识到,天就变黑了,于是我们就回家了。

It grew dark __________________________________________, and we were on our way back home. ( know )

6. 自从他生病以来快整整一个星期了,幸好,他现在恢复得快。

It is almost a whole week ____________________________________________; fortunately, he is picking up fast. (fall)

7. 直到她摘掉她的墨镜我才认出她是我老同学。

________________________________________ her dark glasses did I recognize that she was my old classmate. (take)

8. 她刚到家就发现她将手提包落在鲍勃的车里了。

__________________________________________than she found she had left her handbag in Bob’s car. (reach)

9. 你想回来的时候随时欢迎。

You are welcome to come back ___________________________________________ (time).

10. 直到他生了重病, 他才知道健康的重要。 It was____________________________________ that he knew the importance of health. (ill)

考点二 原因状语从句

一、引导原因状语从句的从属连词有:because, as, since, now (that), seeing (that), considering

The woolly shrank because it was washed badly.

Since/As we’ve no money, we can’t buy it.

Seeing that it’s raining, we’d better stay indoors.

Now that you are here, you’d better stay.

He must be ill, for he is absent today.

二、除了状语从句外,一些介词短语同样可以表示原因,如:because of, thanks to, due to, owing to, as a result of , on account of , as a consequence of等。其中due to多用作表语,不能置于句首。

He can’t come because he is ill.

=He can’t come because of his illness.

I said nothing about it because his wife was there. /

=I said nothing about it because of his wife’s being there.

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Owing to the weather, the outing was delayed.

The delay was due/owing to power failure.

It was thanks to his carelessness that we lost the game.

即时训练:完成句子

1. 既然你们都在这儿,让我们努力作个决定。

___________________________________ , let's try and reach a decision. (now)

2. 创立因特网的那些人并不是为了钱,而是因为他们被它所吸引了。

The people who created the Internet didn’t do it for money, but ____________________________ by it. (fascinate )

3. 因为一切事情都已解决了,所以你不必担心了。

You needn’t worry about it, _________________________________________ now. (settle)

4. 由于他的努力,获得了比我们预期的更大的成功。

__________________________________, it is more successful than we have expected. (effort)

5. 由于缺乏政府基金这个项目不得不放弃。

The project had to be abandoned __________________________________________(funding).

考点三 条件状语从句

引导条件状语从句的从属连词:if, unless(=if…not, 除非), so/as long as(只要), in case(万

一), on condition that(条件是), suppose/supposing(that)(假设,如果), provided/providing that(如果)等。如:

You’ll fail the exam unless you study hard.

As long as you don’t lose heart, you will succeed.

Suppose/supposing (that) they refuse us, who else can we turn to for help?

In case there is a fire, what will we do first?

考点四 让步状语从句

一、 although/though(虽然)和even if/though(即使)

He is unhappy, though/although he has a lot of money.

Even if/though it is raining hard, yet they went on playing football.

Even if I were busy, I would go.

注意:though还可用作副词,意为“可是,然而”,置于句末。如:

He said he would come; he didn’t, though.

二、 as或though引导让步状语从句倒装的情况

as或though引导的让步状语从句一般放在主句之前,常用倒装语序。从句中的表语、状语或动词原型置于句首,若表语是单数名词,前置时要省略冠词。如:

Much as I like it, I won’t buy it, for it’s too expensive.

Try as he might, he could not find a job.

Smart though she is, she doesn’t study hard.

三、 疑问词+-ever与no matter +疑问词(不管??;无论??);whether…or…(不管??

还是??)

Whatever you say,he won’t believe you.

=__________________________________________

Whenever we touch that core of goodness, we feel moved.

=________________________________________________

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Whether you believe it or not, it is true.

注意:whoever, whatever, whomever, whichever还可引导名词性从句,而no matter +疑问词只能引导状语从句。如:

You can take whatever you like.

四、when和while也可引导让步状语从句,相当于although,如:

While I admit that there are problems, I don’t agree that they cannot be solved.

考点五 目的状语从句

一、in order that和so that

这两个连词意为“以便??;为了??”,其引导的状语从句中须用情态动词,in order that比so that正式,其引导的状语从句可置于主句之前或之后,而so that引导的状语从句只能置于主句之后。如:

I’ll speak slowly so that you can understand me.

In order that we might see the sunrise, we started for the peak early.

二、for fear that和in case

for fear that接目的状语从句表示“生怕,唯恐”某事会发生;in case(that)表示“以防(万一)”出现某种情况。

Take an umbrella, in case it rains.

Helen didn’t want to get out of bed, for fear that she might wake her husband.

考点六 结果状语从句

一、so that, so…that…, such…that…

在非正式语体中,由so…that…, such…that…引导的句子中that可以省略,注意其结构形式: 形容词/副词+that从句

So +形容词/副词+a/an +可数名词单数+that从句

So +many/much/few/little +名词+that从句

形容词+可数名词单数+that从句

Such+形容词+可数名词复数/不可数名词+that从句

Such+a lot of/lots of +可数名词复数/不可数名词+that从句

Mike is such an honest worker that w all believe him.

=_____________________________________________

It is such fine weather that we all want to go to the park.

He earned so little money that he couldn’t support his money.

注意:当so或such置于句首时,主句要用倒装语序。如:

So clever a student was he that he was able to work out all the difficult problems.

二、除结果状语从句外,too…to…(太??而不能??),enough to…(足以能够??), so…as

to….(那么??以至于??)等不定式结构同样可以表示结果。如:

He didn’t get up early enough to catch the bus.

=_______________________________________________

=________________________________________________

考点七 方式状语从句

引导方式状语从句的从属连词:as, as if, as though等。方式状语从句应放在主句后,其中as if和as though引导的状语从句一般用虚拟语气,但如果从句中所陈述的情况很可能实现, 5

也可用陈述语气。如:

Do as you are told to, or you’ll be fired.

The old lady treats the boy as if he were her own son.

I feel as if I have a fever.

考点八 地点状语从句

引导地点状语从句的从属连词:where(在??地方),wherever。如:

Where there is a will, there is a way.

We must camp where we can get water.

You are free to go wherever you like.

注意区分where引导的定语从句与状语从句:

You’d better make a mark where you have any questions.

You’d better make a mark at the place where you have any questions.

即时训练:完成句子

1. 事实上,哪里有麻烦,你就会在哪里找到他。

Actually, ___________________________________, you’ll surely find him there. (trouble)

2. 我们必须努力学习,不断进步,以便将来能为国家作出贡献。

We must work hard and make continuous progress ____________________________ to our country in the future. (contribution)

3. 除非你父母问你,否则不要告诉他们发生了什么事。

Don’t tell your parents what happened ___________________________________. (ask)

4. 尽管他忙,但是他还是总是每天都抽点时间和他儿子交谈。

___________________________________, he always manages to set aside some time to have a talk with his son every day.

5. 你喜欢怎么做都可以,真的没关系。

You can do it _________________________; it really doesn’t matter.

6. 汤姆不像看上去的那样强壮。事实上,他还不及他的两个弟弟强壮。

Tom isn’t so strong _____________________________. Actually, he is not stronger than his two brothers. (appear)

7. 尽管旅行结束了,但是小汤姆还是精力充沛,好像旅游才刚开始。

Even if the trip was drawing to an end, little Tom was still full of energy, as if ___________________________________________. (begin)

8. 只要我们联合起来,紧密地团结起来,就没有不能克服的困难。

__________________________________and work closely together, there is no difficulty we cannot overcome. (unite)

9. 医生允许他回家,条件是他必须卧床直到他身体完全康复。

The doctor would allow him to go home ______________________________________________ to get fully recovered. (condition)

10. 他们隔得那么远,以至于我不能清晰地辩认出他们的面部模样。

They were so far away ______________________________________ their faces clearly. (make)

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