班次______ 姓名________ 学号________
在复合句中，修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫定语从句或形容词从句。如：Do you know the man who spoke at the meeting just now? That is the house where he lived ten years ago.
定语从句所修饰的词叫先行词；定语从句一般用关系代词或关系副词来引导，关系词放在先行词与定语从句之间起连接作用，代表被修饰的先行词，同时又作从句中的一个成分。引导定语从句的关系代词有：that, who, whom, whose, which; 关系副词有：when, where, why.
（一）关系代词的用法：1)先行词是人，关系代词在定语从句中做主语时，用who或that来引导。e.g. Do you know the man who / that is standing over there? The girl who / that took you to my place is my friend. 2)先行词是人，关系代词在定语从句中做宾语时，用whom或that来引导，但通常可以省略。先行词是人，关系代词在介词后面必须用whom，而且不能省略，也不能用that。The boy (whom / that) we saw yesterday is Mr. Wang’s son. The old man with whom I often go to the films is my grandfather. 3)先行词是物，关系代词在定语从句中做主语时，用which或that来引导 e.g. The train which / that has just left is for Guangzhou. The earthquake which / that happened in 1906 was the biggest in American history. 4)先行词是物，关系代词在定语从句中做宾语时，用which或that来引导，但通常可以省略。e.g. The bird (which / that) we caught the other day flew away yesterday. The pen with which I am writing was bought in the Shopping Center. 5)先行词是人或物，关系代词在定语从句中做定语，用whose来引导，修饰从句的主语或宾语，意思是“谁的”，“什么的”；它是who和which的所有格形式。指某人的也可以用?of whom代替whose；指物时也可以用?of which代替whose。E.g. This is the house whose door / the door of which / of which the door faces east.
1．when 指时间，在从句中作时间状语，它的先行词通常有：time, day, morning, night, week, year 等。如：I still remember the time when I first became a college student. Do you know the date when Lincoln was born? 注：when时常可以省略，特别是在某些句型和某些时间状语中。如：Each time he came, he did his best to help us. But help never stopped coming from the day she fell ill.
2．where指地点，在从句中作地点状语。它的先行词通常有：place, spot, street, house, room, city, town, country等，如：This is the hotel where they are staying.
I forget the house where the Smiths lived.
注：where有时也可以省略。如：This is the place (where) we met yesterday.
3．why指原因或理由，它的先行词只有reason。如：That is the reason why he is leaving so soon. 注：why时常也可以省略。如：That is the real reason he did it.
1．这三个关系副词在意义上都相当于一定的介词+which结构：when = on (in, at, during?) + which; where = in (at, on?) + which; why = for which. 如：I was in Beijing on the day when (=on which) he arrived. The office where (=in which) he works is on the third floor. This is the chief reason why (=for which) we did it.
2．当先行词是表时间的time, day等和表地点的place, house等时，一定要注意分析从句的结构，如果缺少主语或宾语时，关系词应该用which或that, 缺少时间状语或地点状语时，才能用when或where，试比较： I’ll never forget the day when my hometown was liberated.
I’ll never forget the days which/that we spent together last summer.
His father works in a factory where radio parts are made.
His father works in a factory which/that makes radio parts.
1．限制性定语从句说明先行词的情况，对先行词起限定作用，与先行词关系十分密切，不可用逗号隔开，也不可省略，否则全句意义就不完整。如：This is the telegram which he refers to. Is there anything (that) I can do for you?
2．非限制性定语从句只是对先行词作补充说明，没有限定作用，它与先行词的关系比较松散，因而不是关键性的，如果省略，原句的意义仍然完整。这种从句在朗读时要有停顿，在文字中通常用逗号与主句隔开。如：This note was left by Tom, who was here a moment ago. As a boy, he was always making things, most of which were electric. 引导非限制性定语从句的关系词有：who, whom, whose, which, when 和 where，不可以用that和why。另外，非限制性定语从句从意义上讲，相当于一个并列句，在口语中使用并不普遍，在日常生活中，人们通常用并列句或简单句来表达。如：I told the story to John, who later did it to his brother. = I told the story to John, and he later told it to his brother. Yesterday I happened to see John, who was eager to have a talk with you. = Yesterday I happened to see John and he was eager to have a talk with you.
3．两种定语从句的内涵不同，限制性定语从句具有涉他性，而非限制性定语从句具有唯一性，这在理解和翻译时应特别注意。试比较： All the books there, which have beautiful pictures in them, were written by him. All the books there that have beautiful pictures in them were written by him. His brother, who is eighteen years old, is a PLA man. （只有一个）
His brother who is a PLA man is eighteen years old. （不止一个）
4．有时，非限制性定语从句所修饰的不是某一个词，而是整个主句或是主句中的一个部分，这时一般采用which或as来引导。如：He passed the exam, which/as he hoped he would. 注：（1）as引导的非限制性定语从句位置较灵活，可以位于主句前面．中间或后面，一般用逗号与主句隔开，但which所引导的非限制性定语从句只能放在主句之后。例如：1) As we all know, Galileo’s theory of falling objects is right.= Galileo’s theory of falling objects, as we all know, is right= Galileo’s theory of falling objects is right, as we all know. （2）从意义上讲，which指前面主句的内容；而as指代的是作为一般人都知道的常识性的东西，因此常译成“就象??那样”。（3）as在引导限制性定语从句多与such或the same连用，可以代替先行词是人或物的名词。the same...as；such?as This is the same story as he told me. I hope to get such a book as he is using (4)as也可单独使用，引导非限制性定语从句，作用相当于which。可代表一个句子。例如：The elephant’s nose is like a snake, as anybody can see. (5)as做主语时，其后必跟系动词，而which无此限制。The meeting was put off, as was what we wanted. He was murdered, as seemed true. (6)as引导从句时，从句语义必须和主句一致。She was married again, which was unexpected. She was married again, as was unexpected （7）如果定语从句的内容对主句的内容起消极作用，则用which，而不用as，如：She stole her friend’s money, which was disgraceful. He tore up my photo, which upset me.
5．在正式文体中，以the way为先行词的限制性定语从句通常以in which或that引导，如：The way in which you answered the questions was admirable.
但在非正式文体中，人们通常省略in which或 that : The way (in which) he spoke to us was suspicious. I don’t like the way (that) you laugh at her.
2．关系代词作介词宾语，不论是在限制性定语从句中，还是在非限制性定语从句中，当介词前置时，只能用whom指人，which指物；但如果介词后置，则不受这种限制，关系代词还可以省去，特别是在口语中。如：Do you know the boy to whom she was talking? Do you know the boy (that) she was talking to? The pencil (which/that) he was writing with suddenly broke.
3．在限制性定语从句中，当先行词指物时，关系词可用which或that，二者常可以互换；但在下列情况中，只能用that，不用which：(1)当先行词是all, a lot, (a) little, few, much, none, 2
anything, something, everything, nothing等词时。如：All that can be done has been done. In this factory I saw little / much that was different from ours. (2)当先行词被all, any no, much, little, few, every等限定词所修饰时。如：We heard clearly every word that he said.
(3)当先行词是基数词、序数词或被序数词所修饰时。如：The first thing that should be done is to get the tickets. When people talk about Hangzhou, the first that comes to mind is the West Lake. (4) 当先行词是形容词最高级或被形容词最高级所修饰，以及先行词被序数词和形容词最高级同时修饰时，如：Is that the best that you can do? That’s the most expensive hotel that we’ve ever stayed in. This novel is the second best one that I have ever read.
(5) 当先行词被 the very, the only, the next, the last等所修饰时。如：This is the very book that I want to find.
(6) 当先行词为指人和指物的两个并列名词词组时。如：The guests spoke highly of the children and their performances that they saw at the Children’s Palace. She described in her compositions the people and places that impressed her most. (7) 当主句是以who / which开头的特殊疑问句时。如：Which is the car that killed the boy? (8) 关系代词作表语时，关系代词用that.如：It took us many years to make the city that it is today. He is not the man that he used to be.
(9) 当主句“there be”开头时，关系代词要用that 引导的定语从句修饰该句型的主语。There are four desks in the middle of the office that are used for the teachers.(10) 当先行词是“to be”后面的表语时关系代词用that. This is the dictionary that was bought in the bookstore yesterday.
只能用which的情况：(1)those/that +名词后的定语从句用which引导。不能用关系代词that。That pen which he took is mine. A shop should keep those goods which sells well. (2)介词后只用which。This is the room in which he lived. I don’t know the man to whom you talked. The chair on which he is sitting is made of wood. (3) which还有一种特殊用法，它可以引导从句修饰前面的整个主句，代替主句所表示的整体概念或部分概念。在这种从句中，which可以作主语，也可以作宾语或表语，不用that.例如：He succeeded in the competition, which made his parents very happy. (4)先行词是that时，关系代词要用which. What’s that which flashed in the sky just now? (5) 关系代词后面有插入语时，宜用关系代词 which. Here is the English grammar book which, as I have told you, will help to improve your English.
4.在限制性定语从句中，当先行词指人时，关系词可用who(m)或that，二者常可互换。但在下列情况中，用who(m)，而不用that：(1)当先行词是one, ones, any, few, anyone, anybody, someone, somebody, everyone, everybody等词时。如：Is there anyone who can answer this question? He was among the few who managed to live through the enemy prison camp. 注：在非正式文体中可以说：You’re the one that knows where to go.) (2)当先行词是he, they, those, people, person等词时。如：He who wants to catch fish just not mind getting wet. Those who are against the proposal put up your hands. 注：在固定结构的谚语或习语中，可用he that?。如：He that promises too much means nothing. (3)当先行词有较长的后置定语修饰时。如：Do you know the writer in blue with thick glasses who is speaking at the meeting? (4)在分隔式定语从句中，若先行词指人，为了明确修饰关系，应当用who(m)。如：A new master will came tomorrow who will teach you German. There’s only one student in the school who/whom I wanted to see. I was the only person in my office who was invited. (5) 两个定语从句同时修饰一个指人的先行词，第二个定语从句常用who(m)来引导，如：She is the only girl I know who can play the guitar.
(1) 当主句是以who或which开头的特殊疑问句时。如：Who is the man that is reading the newspaper over there? Which of us that knows anything does not know this? (2) 当先行词被形容词最高级或序数词所修饰时。如：He is the greatest man that has ever lived. (3) 当先行词被the only, the very, the last等词所修饰时。如：She is the only person that understands me.
6.当先行词被the same所修饰时，关系词既可以用as，也可以用that。在表示具体事物时，有时两者有一定的区别。一般说来，表示同一种类多用as，表示同一事物多用that。如： This is the same instrument that I used yesterday. 这就是我昨天用过的那台仪器。This is the same 3
instrument as I used yesterday. 这台仪器跟我昨天用过的那台一样。在抽象概念上，同种类和同一事物是没有绝对区别的，所以两个词可换用：I have the same opinion as / that you have. 我有与您同样观点。这里要注意的是：（1）使用as时，它引导的定语从句中的动词可以省略，但使用that时，定语从句中的动词不可省略。如：Women received the same pay as men. Women received the same pay that men received. 妇女领取了与男人同样薪水。（2）在“the same?that”结构中，that只是用来加强语气，强调“相同”。that可以省去而不改变句子原意，甚至连名词前的same也可以省去。如：This is the same instrument that I used yesterday. = This is the same instrument I used yesterday. = This is the instrument I used yesterday. 这是我昨天使用的仪器。但在“the same?as”结构中，same和as都不能省略。 (3) 当“the same?that”结构中的that作为关系副词用时，不可以直接与as互换。如：He lives in the same building that I live. = He lives in the same building as / that I live in. Shall we meet at the same place that we last met? = Shall we meet at the same place that / as we last met at?
7.当先行词前有such, so, as时，关系词应当用as。如：A wise man seldom talks about such things as he doesn’t understand. He spoke in such easy English as everybody could understand. At this time of the day, all buses and trolleys have to carry as many passengers as they can. It is so easy a book as every schoolboy can read. Let’s discuss such things as we can talk of freely.
另需注意：This book is written in such easy English as beginners can understand.（定语从句） This book is written in such easy English that beginners can understand.（结果状语从句）
(1)“介词＋关系代词”可以引导限制性定语从句，也可以引导非限制性定语从句。“介词＋关系代词”结构中的介词可以是 in, on, about, from, for, with, to at, of, without 等，关系代词只可用whom或 which,不可用 that 。其中whom代表人，which代表物。Who is the comrade with whom you shook hands?
He works in a factory, in front of which there is a river. Give me the book the cover of which is red (the cover of which=whose cover) He is the man whose father is a teacher.=He is the man the father of whom is a teacher. This is the neighborhood from whom I borrowed the bicycle.
(2) from where为“介词＋关系副词”结构，但也可以引导定语从句（不常用）。例如：We stood at the top of the hill, from where we can see the town..
A.依据定语从句中动词的某种习惯搭配: Mr. Smith bought a new house on which he spent all his money. B.依据先行词的某种习惯搭配确定
There was no way in which it could be bought back to the earth. ( in this way)
C.根据所表达的意思确定: The gas with which doctors can save the patients is called oxygen. The gas without which we can not live is called oxygen.
(4)注意关系代词的位置: 介词在关系代词前时，只能用which 和whom不能用that代替，也不可省略；介词在句尾时，关系代词可which ,that ,whom, who,都行，而且还可以省略。This is the drawer in which I put my letters. = This is the drawer (which/that) I put my letters in. Have you seen the pen with which I wrote letters this morning?= Have you seen the pen (which/that) I wrote letters with this morning? 所以一个句子有时有多种用法。如：那就是他工作的大学。This is the college at which he works. This is the college that/which he works at. This is the college where he works. 但像listen to, look at, depend on, pay attention to, take care of等固定短语动词，在定语从句中一般不宜将介词与动词分开。例如：This is the boy whom she has taken care of. This is the book which /that I am looking for. This is the girl I have been looking for the whole afternoon. 定语从句练习：
EX.1 Choose the best answer.
( ) 1．The doctor ____ is leaving for Africa next month.
A．the nurse is talking to him B．whom the nurse is talking
C．the nurse is talking to D．who the nurse is talking
( ) 2．I still remember the days ____ we studied together.
A．that B．which C．where D．when
( ) 3．In fact the Sweden did not understand the three questions ____ were asked in French.
A．where B．who C．in which D．which
( ) 4．He didn't know which room ____.
A．they lived B．they lived in C．did they live D．did they live in
( ) 5．To get the job started, ____ I need is your permission.
A．only what B．all what C．all that D．only that
( ) 6．I can still remember the sitting room ____ I used to sit in the evening.
A．what B．which C．that D．where
( ) 7．Finally, the thief handed everything ____ he had stolen to the police.
A．which B．what C．whatever D．that
( ) 8．His parents wouldn't let him marry anyone ____ family was poor.
A．of whom B．whom C．of whose D．whose
( ) 9．He paid the boy ＄ 10 for washing ten windows, most of ____ hadn't been cleaned for at least a year. A．these B．those C．that D．which
( ) 10．She heard a terrible noise, ____ brought her heart into her mouth.
A．it B．which C．this D．that
( ) 11．Didn't you see the man ____ ?
A．I nodded just now B．whom I nodded just now
C．I nodded to him just now D．I nodded to just now
( ) 12．The radio set ____ has gone wrong.
A．I bought it last week B．which I bought it last week
C．I bought last week D．what I bought last week
( ) 13．Have you seen the girl ____ ?
A．that I told B．I told you of C．whom I told you D．I told you of him
( ) 14．Who ____ has common sense will do such a thing?
A．which B．who C．whom D．that
( ) 15．I'll tell you ____ he told me last week.
A．all which B．all what C．that all D．all
( ) 16．Each time ____ they met they would talked long hours together.
A．which B．during C．when D．不填
( ) 17．I, ____ your good friend, will try my best to help you out.
A．who is B．who am C．that is D．what is
( ) 18． ____ , the compass was first made in China. A．It is known to all
B．It is known that C．We know all D．As is known to all
( ) 19．He must be from Africa, ____ can be seen from his skin.
A．that B．as C．who D．what
( ) 20．Please lend us ____ tool as was used the other day.
A．same B．as C．the same D．that
( ) 21．The Second World War ____ millions of people were killed ended in 1945．
A．when B．during that C．in which D．which
( ) 22．Mr Crossett will never forget the days ____ he spent with his various students.
A．when B．which C．during which D．on which
( ) 23．This is just the place ____ I am longing to visit these years.
A．that B．where C．in which D．to where
( ) 24．It's the third time ____ late this month. A．that you arrive
B．when you arrived C．that you've arrived D．that you've arrived
( ) 25．Antarctic ____ we know very little is covered with thick ice all the year round.
A．which B．where C．that D．about which
( ) 26．He has lost the key to the drawer ____ the papers are kept.
A．where B．in which C．under which D．which
( ) 27．Which sentence is wrong? ____
A．The finger I dipped into the cup was not the one I put it into my mouth.
B．Do you know the boy who jumped onto the platform?
C．Science and new technology have made it possible for farmers to produce more food on the same amount of land.
D．People in ancient times took it for granted that the sun moved round the earth.
( ) 28．Is this museum ____ some German friends visited last Wednesday?
A．that B．where C．in which D．the one
( ) 29．The beautiful dress ____ Miss Jones went to the ball was borrowed from a friend of hers. A．in which B．worn by C．wearing which D．that
( ) 30．You may take anything useful ____ .
A．which you want B．you want them C．what you want D．you want
( ) 31．I've read all the books ____ were borrowed from the library.
A．they B．which C．不填 D．that
( ) 32． Winter is the time of year ____ the days are short and nights are long.
A．on which B．that C．when D．where
( ) 33． Can you lend me the book ____ the other day? A．which you talked
B．that you talked C．about that you talked D．you talked about
( ) 34． There are two thousand students in our school , ____ are girls.
A．two-thirds in which B．two-thirds in them C．two-thirds of them D．of whom two-thirds
( ) 35． I have bought two ball pens, ____ writes well. A．neither of them
B．none of them C．neither of which D．none of which
( ) 36． Do you know the reason ____ he was late?
A．for which B．for what C．which D．of which
( ) 37． John got beaten in the game, ____ had been expected.
A．who B．what C．that D．as
( ) 38． I often thought of my childhood, ____ I lived on a farm.
A．who B．when C．where D．which
( ) 39． You can take any seat ____ is free.
A．in which B．that C．where D．which
( ) 40．He talked about the men and books ____ interested him greatly in the school.
A．that B．when C．who D．which
1．As is known to us all, the age ______ ______ children can go to school is seven.
2．Believe it or not, I don't like the way ___________ he spoke to me.
3．Mrs Zhang often tells us that spring is the time ________ people go sight seeing.
4．He borrowed a book the other day, the author ___________ is a worker.
5．The bike _______ _______ he went to school was stolen last week, which made him feel sad.
6．Thank you for your help, _______ _______ we could not have finished the work in time.
7．Who do you suppose is the man _______ _______ our teacher is talking?
8．Do you remember the building ______ _____ flew a red flag all the year round?
9．This is the song _______ _______ I often listen in the Globle Dance Hall.
10．He built a telescope _______ _______ he could study the skies in his free time.
11．Did you attend the meeting yesterday ___________ Mary talked a lot?
12．Ours is beautiful school with a long history, ___________ we are proud.
13．The desk _____ ______ Tom is leaning is Jack's. It's covered with dictionaries.
14． The farm _______ _______ my father once worked has taken on a new look for the time being.
15． There's no doubt that this is not the way ___________ I came last time.
16．I'll never forget the soldier _______ _______ I was saved from the river on a freezing morning.
17．The fellow ___________ I spoke made no answer. Perhaps he's deaf.
18．To tell you the truth, the man ____ ____ you are waiting won't come tomorrow.
19．The world _______ _______ we live is made of matter, which has three states.
20．The book _______ _______ they are talking on and on is very interesting.
21．Here is a picture of Lei Feng _______ _______ we learned a lot.
22．I have a lot of magazines, most ______ ____ are about the English knowledge.
23．Can you see the speaker _______ _______ comes the voice, “Can I help you?”
24．The manager __________ a group of Young Pioneers are sitting is famous across China.
25．I will never forget the days ____ ____ we worked together in a foreign country.
26．There is a tree _______ _______ a group of League members often play chess.
27．Nearby were two boats _______ _______ they had come to the lonely island.
28．The airplane ____ ____ she was traveling was delayed for three hours at least.
29．The speed _______ _______ Tom drives his car is too high.
30．He had 30 pounds in his pocket _______ _______ he was determined to buy his son a gift. 7