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语法,单词和词组

发布时间:2014-01-27 13:43:50  

语法、单词和词组

Test 1

be familiar with

be familiar to 指“(主语)对(某人或某物)熟悉”,主语通常是表示人的词; 指“(主语)对(某人)来说是熟悉的”,主语通常是表示事物的词。

eg:She is familiar with modern jazz./她熟悉现代爵士乐。

He's familiar with Mary./他与玛丽很熟。

His name is familiar to me. (=I am familiar with his name.)/他的名字我耳熟。

be famous for 因……而著名

eg:Beijing is famous for many places of interest.

北京以许多名胜古迹而著称。

be famous as

be pleased with

be pleased at/about

be pleased to

be willing to do sth.

divide

infer

tell 作为……是出名的 eg:He is famous as a writer.作为一个作家他是有名气的。 表示“对……满意;喜欢……”后面通常接指人的名词或代词。 表示“对(看到或听到的)事感到高兴,”后面接指事的名词或v-ing。 表示“很高兴或很乐意做某事”,其中to是不定式符号,后面接动词原形。 愿意……,乐于;甘于。 分开,分离,除(法)。divide into 推断 区分

things of everyday use 日常用品

there’s something wrong with….某东西有毛病了。 keepsb waiting for a long time. 让某某久等。 come up with追赶上;比得上;想出

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Test 2

3、be fond of doing

4、run into 喜欢,喜爱 偶尔碰见。主句进行时+when+从句。while是主从句同时进行时。

7、have difficulty in doing sth

8、a number of 许多...,后接复数名词,谓语通常用复数.

eg:A number of students were absent from the meeting.许

多学生没有到会。

the number of .....的总数,后接复数名词,但谓语要用单数:

eg:The number of students absent from the meeting was

surprising.没有到会的学生人数很惊人。

a great many 后直接接复数名词,动词用复数。用于肯定句中,相当于many,a

large number of。

注意:a great many后接可数名词复数,不加of。

eg:I have a great many things to do.

如果a great many后接代词时,则须加上of。

eg:A great many of them have seen the film.

a great deal of

13、used to do 大量,许多,通常作定语, 修饰不可数名词 过去常常做某事,而现在往往不做了.

eg:i used to get up early in the morning when i was still a hight school student.

be used to doing

14、bring up 表示习惯于做某事eg:i am used to eating rice now. 养育

16、so+be动词/助动词/情态动词+主语

此句型只限于肯定句中,表示“某人或某物情况也是如此”。

eg:①He has lost the address. So have I. 他丢了地址,我也是。(=I have lost the address, too.)

②Mary likes playing the piano. So does Jane. 玛丽喜欢弹钢琴,简也是。(=Jane likes playing piano too.)

③If he goes there, so will I.如果他要去哪儿,我也去。(=I will go there, too.)

否定句要用 Neither/Nor+be动词/助动词/情态动词+主语

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表示"某人或物情况也不这样"

eg.①I have never been to Beijing. Neither/Nor has my brother.

②The meal didn’t cost much, nor was it very delicious. 这顿饭不太贵,也不太好吃。

③I have no excuse for being late, nor does he. 我没有迟到的理由,他也没有。 若前面句子结构中既出现了be动词又出现了行为动词或者其它不同的形式,通常用 So it is with 或 It's the same with。

eg. Mary likes playing the piano, but she can't play it well.--- So it is with her

brother. / It's the same with her brother.

【区别】■So+主语+be动词/助动词/情态动词,此句型表示赞同,“某人或某物确实如此”。

eg.①--- You seem to like tea. --- So I do. (是的,我确实喜欢)

②----Mary went to the park yesterday. ----So she did, and so did I.(她确实去了,我也去了。)

典型例题:Do you know Jim quarrelled with his brother?---I don’t know, _____.

A. nor don’t I care B. nor do I care C. I don’t care neither D. I don’t care also

答案:B. nor为增补意思"也不关心",因此句子应倒装。A错在用don’t再次否定, C neither 用法不对且缺乏连词。 D缺乏连词。

18、no sooner …than 和hardly… when以及as soon as的区别:

1) no sooner... than... ,"一...就...",引导时间状语从句,主句用过去完成时,"than"后面的从句用一般过去时.(从这里可以知道,no sooner后面是主句;than后面是从句)

例: I had no sooner reached home than it began to rain. 我一到家天就下起雨来 No sooner ...than...常放在句首,表示强调.这时主句要倒装.

例:No sooner had I reached home than it began to rain.

2)hardly ... when 意思为:"还没...就..." (主句用过去完成时,从句用一般过去时)

例: We had hardly gotten there when it began to rain. 我们还没到那儿,天就下起雨了. Hardly...when...也常放在句首 ,主句要倒装.

例: Hardly had we gotten there when it began to rain.

as soon as, hardly…when… ,no sooner…than… 这三个短语都有“一……就”、“刚刚……就”的意思,它们的意思非常相近,因此有时可以互换。

例如:“我刚到公共汽车站,汽车就开了。”一句,就可以有如下几句译法:

As soon as I got to the bus stop, the bus started.

Hardly had I got to the bus stop when the bus started.

No sooner had I got to the bus stop than the bus started.

但他们之间也有一些差异,例如,如果从两件事情的间隔时间来说,as soon as 较长,no

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sooner...than居中,hardly...when 间隔时间最短。其它的一些区别见下面,请大家在运用的时候要留意。

1、as soon as

它的意思相当于“A事情发生以后,就做B这件事”。

这个短语用的比较常用,口语和书面语都可以。它的特点是,在句子中的位置比较灵活,而且可以用于各种时态。例如:

I’ll write you as soon as I get there. 我一到那儿就给你来信。(一般现在时)

As soon as I went in, Katherine cried out with pleasure. 我一进门,Katherine 就高兴的叫起来。(一般过去时)

I’ll return the book as soon as I have read it. 我一读完就把书还回去。(现在完成时) Andrew left as soon as he had drunk his coffee. Andrew一喝完咖啡就走了。(过去完成时)

2、no sooner…than

它的意思相当于“刚做完A这件事,就做B这件事”。例如:

He had no sooner returned than he bought a house. 他一回来就买了一套房子。 如果no sooner 位于句首,主句要用倒装结构。例如:

No sooner had he arrived than he went away again. 他刚到就又走了。

No sooner had the game started than it began to rain heavily. 运动会刚开始,天就下起了大雨。

有一点要注意,no sooner…than 一般用来描述做过的事情,它不能用于表示将来的事。

3、hardly…when...

它的意思是“几乎未来得及做完A这件事,紧接着就开始B这件事。”

使用这个短语时,一般用于过去完成时;并且when有时可改用before。例如:

He had hardly finished the article when the light went out. 他刚写完文,灯就熄了。 He had hardly had time to settle down when he sold the house. 他还未安顿下来,就卖掉了那所房子。

另外,如果把hardly放于句首,主句要用倒装结构即谓语动词要提前。如:

Hardly had I finished eating when he came in. 我刚吃完他就进来了。

Hardly had she gone out when a student came to visit her. 她还没走出家门,就有一个学生来看望她。

20、while

accidental

fame

尽管,虽然。 [??ks??dentl] adj. 意外的,偶然(发生)的 n. 名声;名望 4

test 3

look forward to doing

be on holiday

attack

feed …on sth

elevator 期待做…… 度假 v. 攻击 以……为食,喂食 电梯(英国),美语中,用lift

16、i wish you had not told him the secret.

wish that sb had done ..... ( 对过去的虚拟)

wish that sb were/did ..... ( 对现在的虚拟)

wish that sb would/could do ......(对将来的虚拟)

18、be blind in one's left\right eye,

on the left of

on the left side of

19、in表示"在……范围内”,还表示“在…之中”。

on表示“与……毗邻,接壤”,还有表示“在……之上”强调和表面接触

to表示方位,不接壤。在...边(有物相隔)

fail,v. ;failure n. 失败

prepare v. ; preparation n. 准备

real 真实的;reality n. 真相,现实。

battle n. 战争,战斗。battery 电池

what is wrong with… rather than

would rather…(than) 而不是instead of sb./sth. 宁愿…而不愿…,would rather (not) do sth…(than) do sth.

1. rather than 与would 连用时,构成“would rather...than...”句式,意思是“宁愿……而不愿……”,表示主观愿望,即在两者之中选择其一。例如:

She'd rather die than lose the children. 她宁愿死也不愿失去孩子们。

2. rather than 不与would连用时,表示客观事实,意为“是……而不是……;与其……不

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如……”。它连接的并列成分可以是名词、代词、形容词、介词(短语)、动名词、分句、不定式、动词等。现分述如下:

(1) 连接两个名词或代词

He is an explorer rather than a sailor. 与其说他是一个海员,不如说他是一个探险者。 You rather than I are going to go camping. 是你而不是我要去要野营。

注意:rather than 连接两个名词或代词作主语时,谓语动词应与rather than 前面的名词或代词在人称和数上保持一致。

(2) 连接两个形容词

The sweater she bought was beautiful rather than cheap. 与其说她买的这件羊毛衫便宜不如说它漂亮。

(3) 连接两个介词(短语)或动名词

We will have the meeting in the classroom rather than in the great hall. 我们是在教室里开会,不是在大厅里。

She enjoys singing rather than dancing. 她喜欢唱歌,而不喜欢跳舞。

(4) 连接两个分句

We should help him rather than he should help us. 是我们应该帮助他而不是他应该帮助我们。

(5) 连接两个不定式

I decided to write rather than (to) telephone. 我决定写信而不打电话。

注意:rather than 后接不定式时,不定式可以带to,也可以不带to, 如上句。但rather than位于句首时,则只能接不带to 的不定式。如:Rather than allow the vegetables to go bad, he sold them at half price. 他唯恐蔬菜烂掉,把它们以半价卖掉了。

(6) 连接两个动词

He ran rather than walked. 他是跑来的,而不是走来的。

注意:这里rather than 后用了walked,而没有用walk,表示客观事实,而不是主观愿望。如果换成walk,则作“宁愿……而不愿 ……”解。

would rather的用法

一、would rather意思是“宁愿、宁可、更、最好、还是为好”,后接动词原形,常省略为’d rather,表示优先选择的一种方式

其否定形式是would rather not do sth。would rather没有人称和数的变化,所有的人称一律用would rather。

“would rather+动词原形”是英语中常见的一个惯用句式,美国英语中多用had rather。would (had)在此决无“过去”之意,它是一个情态助动词,且无词性、时态变化。 例 Mr Li would rather not listen to rock music. 李先生不愿意听摇滚音乐。

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If you’d rather be alone, we’ll all leave here. 如果你宁愿独自呆着,那我们都离开这儿。 He’d rather work in the countryside. 她宁可到农村去工作。

You would rather stay at home and do some reading this evening. 今晚你最好呆在家中读点书。

二、如果在两者中进行取舍,表示“宁愿……而不愿……,与其……宁可……”的意思时,则可用would rather…than…或would…rather than…的句型

例 I would rather watch TV at home than go to the cinema. 我宁可在家看电视而不愿去看电影。

The children would walk there rather than take a bus. 孩子们宁愿步行去那里而不愿乘公共汽车。

请注意 1) would rather…than…/would…rather than…也可以颠倒为:rather than…would…。Would(rather)和than后都接不带to的动词不定式,若选用的动词相同,那么than 后的动词可以省略。

例 I would rather have noodles than rice. 我宁愿吃面条也不吃米饭。

He would rather drink wine than beer. 他喜欢喝红葡萄酒而不喜欢喝啤酒。

Rather than work in such bad condition, he would give up. 与其在这样差的条件下工作,他宁愿放弃。

2)使用would rather…than…句型时要注意“平行结构”,即在than 的前后要用两个同类的词或词组,如两个名词、两个不定式、两个介词短语等。

例 I would rather go to work by bike than by bus. 我宁愿骑自行车也不愿乘公共汽车去上班。

I would rather talk with his mother than with his father. 我宁愿和他妈说话而不愿和他爸说话。

三、在疑问句式中,would rather 与would rather…than…中的would要放在主语之前 例 Would you rather stay here or go home?你愿意呆在这里,还是回家?

Which would you rather have, apples or bananas? 你喜欢吃苹果还是香蕉?

Would you rather read a novel than read a poem?你宁愿看小说而不愿朗读诗歌吗?

四、would rather+从句,是一个常用的虚拟语气句型 Would rather+从句,谓语一般用过去时来表示现在或将来。其意为“宁愿……,还是…… 好些”“一个人宁愿另一个人做某事”。引导从句的that常省略。在谈到过去的动作时,谓语则用过去完成时。

例 John wants to see me today. I would rather he came to tomorrow than today. 约翰今天想去看我。我宁愿他明天来看我而不是今天。(句中came不是表示过去而是表示将来) We’d rather he paid us the money tomorrow. 我们宁愿他明天付给我们那笔钱。

Don’t come tomorrow. I’d rather you came next weekend. 明天别来。我希望你下周

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末来。

请注意 1) 如果谈到过去的动作,也就是表示过去已经发生的事情在选择上不恰当。此时,主句一般为I had rather ,其(that)从句则用过去完成时。 例 Would rather you had not done that. 我真希望你没有做那件事。

2)如果只涉及主语本人而不涉及另一个人,则would rather之后不接that从句而接have done结构。

例 I would rather have gone to the theatre than stayed home night. 我真希望昨天晚上去看了戏而不是呆在家里。 He would rather be poor than have got money by dishonest methods. 他宁可穷也不愿意用不诚实的手段获取金钱。

Henry would rather that his girlfriend worked in the same department as he does.亨利希望他的女朋友和他在一个部门工作。

challenge, trip, journey, traditional, graduation, competition, activities.

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test 4

look for

look up 寻找 1、抬头往上看。

2、look sb. up 拜访,看望

3、look sth. up 查阅,查检

arrive in和arrive at的区别归根到底是in和at的区别。

说at后接小地方,in后接大地方,未免有些笼统。其实,in和at的用法差异不是一个大小就可以说明的。例如:可以说arrive in a town,也可以说arrive at a town。这里不能简单地来说arrive in a town中的town比arrive at a town中的town大。

正确的理解应该是:

用in时,说话者强调“人”或“物”进入某地“之内”;用at时,说话者则强调“人”或“物”进入某地“之点”。

当这个“某地”较大时,表达“之内”的可能性自然增大,而当这个“某地”较小时,表达“之点”的可能性较大。

请看以下例句:

Then they arrived in the city.

When is your bus to arrive at the town?(对于bus、train、plane等交通工具来说,到达一个城市只是在其旅行线路上的一个点,故用at。)

有些地点前一般只能用at,因此只有arrive at的形式,例如:

arrive at the meeting, arrive at the cinema, arrive at home, etc.

还请注意有arrive on的形式,那是因为其后的名词前习惯需要用on。例如: arrive on the moon, arrive on the top of the hill, etc.

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test 5

take your time

generally

consider

wise

experiment 别着急;从容做 一般地,通常;普遍地,广泛地;大概,概括地 以为,认为;思考,详细考虑 聪明的,明智的。unwise. ?k'sper?m?nt n. 实验,试验;尝试。vi.做实验,进行试验;尝试。 had better(常简略为'd better)是一固定词组,had better"最好",用于表示对别人的劝告、建议或表示一种愿望。其用法有以下几点:

一、had better后面必须跟动词原形。

had better后跟动词原形(即不带to的不定式),构成had better do sth.句型。这里的had不能用have来替换。如:

You'd better go to hospital at once.你最好立即去医院看病。

Tom, you'd better go there today.汤姆,你最好今天去那儿。

二、主语不论是第几人称,句子不论是什么时态,都要用had better的形式。如:

Now you(he,we) had better listen to the teacher.你(他,我们)现在最好听老师讲。

三、had better可用于的时态。

1.had better用于指现在。如:

Now you had better listen to the radio.你现在最好听收音机。

You had better be quiet.你最好安静一些。

2.had better用于指将来。如:

You had better start tomorrow.你最好明天动身。

We had better buy the more expensive one. It will last much longer and so it will be cheaper in the end.我们最好还是买贵些的,它更经久耐用,所以到头来,它还是更便宜些。

3.had better用于进行式,表示讲话人提出建议时,动作正在进行。如:

We had better be watching the TV play.我们最好现在就看到电视剧。

We had better be starting back now.我们最好现在就动身回去。

4.had better + have + V-ed可表示"本该做而没有做的事"。如:

You had better have done it .如果你把那件事办妥就好了。(但实际上你没有那样做) You had better have stayed with us .要是当时你和我们呆在一起多好啊。(实际上没有)

四、had better的否定式。如:

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常用的否定形式是将否定副词not直接放在had better的后面。如:

You had better not miss the last bus.你最好不要错过末班公共汽车。

You had better not leave for Nanjing the day after tomorrow.你最好后天不要动身去南京。

注意:否定副词not绝不能放在had的后面。如:不能说:You hadn't better go.而应该说:You had better not go.

五、had better的疑问式。

had better通常不以普通疑问句的形式出现。但有时用于否定疑问句,常用Hadn't+主语+better...?结构,作为一种劝告形式,比肯定形式的语气更婉转一些。如:

Hadn't you better take an umbrella?你不认为该带一把伞吗?

Hadn't you better ask him first?你不认为该先问问他吗?

六、had better在反意疑问句中。

在反意疑问句中,疑问部分一般用"had+主语?",但有时可用"will you?"表示一种请求或建议。如:

You'd better not go out today, had you? 今天你最好不要外出,好吗?

I must stay at home this afternoon. You had better come to my house, will you?今天下午我必须留在家里,你最好来我家,好吗?

七、在祈使句中,had有时可以省略。如:

Better not do it .最好别做那事。

Better not wait for them.最好不要等他们。

八、had better的被动式。

You had better do it.->It had better be done.

You had better have done it.->It had better have been done.

九、had better在间接引语中的用法。

在直接引语变为间接引语的过程中,had better同第一人称或第三人称连用时,保持不变;had better同第二人称连用时,可以保持不变,也可用advise+宾语+不定式(宾补)来表示。如:

He said, "Ann had better hurry."->He said (that) Ann had better hurry.

He said, " I had better hurry."->He said (that) he had better hurry.

He said to me," You had better hurry." ->He said (that) I had better hurry.->He advised me to hurry.

十、had better在表示对别人劝告、建议时,不宜用于与陌生人、长辈及上级的交谈中。 对长辈说话时,最好不用had better。比较有礼貌的说法是:It might be better for you...;

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It would be better for you...。如:

It might be better for you to help me,Grandpa.爷爷,您最好能帮我一下。 need 接动名词主动形式,表示被动意义、这时动名词和主语之间有动宾关系

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test 6

22、be decorated with 装饰

23、two hundred of 当hundred, thousand, million, billion等词前面有具体的数词修

饰时,不变成复数,还用单数,而且没有of,当前面没有具体的数词修饰时,表示泛指数目时,这些词前面加s.

two hundred students意思是(总共)200个学生

two hundred of the students(关键就是这个定冠词the!)意思是所有这些学生(>500个)中的其中200个!

two hundred of them. hundreds of students

24、give up

26、20-minute ride divide into 放弃

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