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外研版初一英语语法完整总结

发布时间:2014-01-28 10:57:31  

七年级语法复习

动词be(is,am,are)的用法
? 我(I)用am, 你(you)用are,is跟着他(he),她(she),它(it)。 ? 单数名词用is,复数名词全用are。 Eg:Your house is very big. Your houses are all very big. ? 变否定,更容易,be后not加上去。 Eg: ? 变疑问,往前提,句末问号莫丢弃。 Eg:Is your house very big? ? 还有一条须注意,句首大写莫忘记。

this,that和it用法
(1)this和that是指示代词,it是人称代词。 (2)距离说话人近的人或物用this, 距离说话人远的人或物用that。如: Eg:This is a flower. 这是一朵花。(近处) That is a tree. 那是一棵树。(远处) (3)放在一起的两样东西,先说this, 后说that。 如: This is a pen. That is a pencil. 这是一支钢笔。那是一支铅笔。 (4)向别人介绍某人时说This is…, 不说That is…。如: This is Helen. Helen, this is Tom. 这是海伦,海伦,这是汤姆。 (5)This is 不能缩写, 而That is可以缩写。如: This is a bike. That’s a car. 这是一辆自行车。那是一辆轿车。

? (6)打电话时,介绍自己用this, 询问对方用that。如: —Hello! Is that Miss Green? 喂,是格林小姐吗? — Yes, this is. Who’s that? 是的,我是,你是谁? ? 注意:虽然汉语中使用“我”和“你”,但英语中打电话时绝不可以 说:I am…, Are you…?/Who are you? ? (7)在回答this或that作主语的疑问句时, 要用it代替this或that。如: ①—Is this a notebook? 这是笔记本吗? —Yes, it is. 是的,它是。 ②— What’s that? 那是什么? —It’s a kite. 是只风筝。

3.these和those用法
(1)this, that, these和those是指示代词,these是this的复数形式,指时间,距 离较近的或下面要提到的人或事;those是that的复数形式,指时间、距 离较远或前面已经提到过的人或事物。 ①This is my bed. That is Lily’s bed. 这是我的床。那是莉莉的 床。 ②These pictures are good. 那些画很好。 ③ Are those apple trees? 那些是苹果树吗? (2)在回答主语是these或those的疑问句时,通常用they代替these或those 以避免重复。如: Are these/those your apples? 这些(那些)是你的苹果吗? Yes, they are. 是的,他们是。

4.名词+’s所有格
(1)单数名词后直接加 “ ’s ”: 如:Jim’s coat 吉姆的外套 Jeff’s mother杰夫的妈妈 (2)以s结尾的复数名词,只加“ ’ ” 如:Teachers’ Day教师节 the twins’ books双胞胎的书 (3) 不以s结尾的不规则的名词复数,加“ ’s ” 如:Children’s Day 儿童节 men’s shoes男式鞋 (4)表示两者共同拥有时,只在最后一个名词后加’s 如:Lucy and Lily’s mother 露茜和莉莉的妈妈(共同的妈妈,一个妈妈) (5)表示两者各自拥有时,要在每个名词后加’s 如:Lucy’s and Kate’s rooms 露茜和凯特的房间(各自

的房间,两间房 子)

5.There be句型
? (1)There be句型主要用以表达“某处(某时)有某人(某物)。其基 本结构为“There be+某物(某人)+某地(某时)”其中there是引 导词,没有词义;主语是be后面的名词, be是谓语动词,在一般现在 时中be只用is和are两种形式。下面这首歌诀可帮你巧记there be句型 结构: ? There be放句首,主语跟在后。地、时放句末,强调置前头。如: There is a book on the desk. ? 有时为了强调地点,也可把介词短语放在句首。如: On the desk there is a book.

? (2)There be句型中的be动词如何确定呢?请先看看下面这首歌诀: ? Be动词,有三个,am,is还有are。“There be”真特别,不留am只留 俩,那就是is还有are。要用is还是are,须看其后的名词是单数还是复 数。若是单数或不可数名词用is,否则就用are。如: ①There is a tree behind the house. ②There is some water(水)in the bottle(瓶子). ③There are some pears in the box.

? (3)注意:如果“be”后的主语是由and连接的两个或两个以上的名词, 那么be的形式要遵循“远亲不如近邻”的原则。也就是说,“be”的 形式是由与它最近的那个名词来确定的。若那个名词是单数或不可数 名词要用is,是复数就用are。如: ①There is a book and some pens on the floor. ②There are some pens and a book on the floor.

6.like一词的用法
? like用作及物动词,译为“喜欢”。 ? (1)后接名词或代词,表示喜欢某人或某物。如: I like the baby very much. 我非常喜欢这个小孩。 ? (2)后接动名词(v. -ing),表示“喜欢做某事”,着重于习惯、爱好。 如: Tom likes playing football. 汤姆喜欢踢足球。 ? (3)后接动词不定式(to do ),表示“偶尔地喜欢做某事”,着重于某次 具体的行为。如: I like reading, but I like to watch TV this evening. 我喜欢读书,但我今晚想 看电视。

7.句子单数变复数,注意以下五要素
(1)主格人称代词要变成相应的复数主格人称代词,即 I→we, you→you,she,he,it→ they。 如:She is a girl. →They are girls. (2)am,is要变为are。如: I’m a student. →We are students. (3)不定冠词a,an要去掉。如: He is a boy. →They are boys. (4)普通单数名词要变为复数形式。如: It is an apple. →They are apples. (5)指示代词this,that要变为these,those。如: This is a box. →These are boxes.

8.英语日期的表示法
? 英语中月份和星期名称都是专有名词,它们的首字母必须 大写,并且前面无需用冠词。如:On Monday ? 用英语表示日期,其顺序为月+日+年,日和年之间需用逗 号隔开。如:August 2nd,2003(2003年8月2日)。 ? 也可以用日+月+年来表示。如:10th May,2003(2003年5 月10日) ? 英语

日期前介词的使用:若指在哪一年或哪一月,则用介 词in,若具体到某一天,则需用介词on。

9.时间的表达法
? (1) 直读式,即直接读出时间数字 7: 05 seven five 8:16 eight sixteen ? (2) 过、差式,即几点差几分,几点过几分。(以30分为分界线) 1:25 twenty five past one 2:30 half past two 3:43 seventeen to four 4:38 twentytwo to five ? (3)12小时制 6:00 a.m. 上午6点 8:20 p.m. 下午8点20分 ? (4)24小时制 13:00 13点钟 22:15 22点15分 ? (5)15分可用quarter 4:15 a quarter past four 5:45 a quarter to six (6)时间前通常用at. at 5 o’clock at 7:30 p.m.

10. want用法
? (1)想干什么用want to do sth They want to join the sports club. 他们想加入运动俱乐部。 ? (2)第三人称单数作主语,want要作变化 ①He wants to play basketball. ②Li Xia wants to play the piano. ? (3)变疑问句,否定句要借助助动词do或does. ①-Do you want to play soccer ball ? - Yes , I do . / No , I don’t. ②-Does he want to go home by bus ? - Yes , he does . / No , he doesn’t

11否定句
? 含有否定词not或 no的句子。 ? 改否定句的方法:先加后借 ①在句中找到Be动词(am, is, are)或情 态动词(can,may,could,would,will),在它后面加not;②找不到以上 词时,借don’t或doesn’t,放在动词前。 ? 注意:句子是三单主语时,借doesn’t;不是三单主语时,借do. 并且:doesn’t一出现,三单式要滚蛋。

练习 1.She is an American girl 2.I have a good friend 3.She lives in london 4.We go to school by bike

12英文一般疑问句及肯定和否定回答
一般疑问句是以be动词、情态动词和Do/Does开头的,用Yes或No回答的 疑问句。 ? Ⅰ、以be动词开头的一般疑问句及答句 ①Am I …? Yes,you are./No,you aren’t. ②Are you …? Yes,I am./No,I’m not. ③Is he/she/it…? Yes,he/she/it is. No,he/she/it isn’t. ④Are we/you/they …? Yes,we/we/they are. No,we/we/they aren’t. ? Ⅱ、以情态动词开头的一般疑问句及答句 Can…… ? Yes,…can. No,…can’t(cannot). ? Ⅲ、以Do/Does开头的一般疑问句及答句 ①Do you +行为动词 ?Yes,I do/No, I don’t. ②Do we/you/they+行为动词 ?Yes,we/they do. No, we/they don’t. ③Does he/she/it+行为动词 ?Yes, he/she/it does. No, he/she/it doesn’t.

注意事项: ? 1、肯定和否定回答中必须用人称代词主格,即只能用 I,we,you,he,she,it,they等,不能出现其它词,特别注意不能用 this,that,these,those等指示代词。 ? 2、肯定和否定回答要保持三个单词,因此当am,is,are出现在句尾时, 一定不能缩写。如:不能用Yes,I’m; ? Yes,he’s;Yes,they’re. ? 3、am not 不能缩写,如:No,I’m not不能用No.I amn’t. ? 4、肯定和否定回答不能出现前后矛盾。如:不能说 ? Yes,he isn’t; No,I do; Yes,she doesn’t.

? 改一般疑

问句的方法:先找后借 ①在句中找到Be动词(am, is, are)或情 态动词(can,may,could,would,will),把它提到句首;②找不到以上词时, 借Do或Does,放在句首。 ? 注意:句子是三单主语时,借Does;不是三单主语时,借Do.并且:Does 一出现,三单式要滚蛋。 练习: ? He likes his family members. ——Does he like his family members? ? We are singing and dancing. ——Are you singing and dancing? ? Mary can ride a bike. ——Can Mary ride a bike? ? There is some water in the cup. ——Is there some water in the cup?

13特殊疑问句
以疑问词开头的疑问句叫特殊疑问句。常用的疑问词有:what who whose where how why等。回答特殊疑问句时,不能用yes/no,要问什 么答什么。 ? 特殊疑问句的结构:疑问词+一般疑问句? ? 对划线部分提问就是把句子改为特殊疑问句。方法如下: ①把划线部分替换成相应的疑问词,放在句首; ②把没划线部分改为一般疑问句,放在疑问词后。 ? 提示:划线部分在句首时,只需第①步,没划线的词照抄。如: Maria goes shopping with Miss Wang. ------Who goes shopping with Miss Wang? ?

1、目前所学的动词的形式有4 种:
①动词原形;如:do;have;like ? ②动词的三单式(常在动词原形后加s);如:get-gets ? ③动词不定式(to+动词原形);如:meet-to meet ? ④动词ing式(动词原形后加ing)如:look-looking

2、表示征求意见或建议邀请的礼貌用语
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Would you like +to+动词原形? (你想要……吗?) How about+动词ing ?(……怎么样?……好不好?) What about +动词ing? (……怎么样?……好不好?) Why not +动词原形? (为什么不……呢?) Why don’t you +动词原形 ?(你为什么不……呢?) Let’s +动词原形.(让我们……吧。) 表示同意、答应:①Yes,I’d like to./Oh,I’d love to. ②All right/OK.③Great!④Sure. ⑤Good idea!⑥Thanks.I’ll be glad to ⑦Thanks.That would be very nice.⑧I’d like that. 表示不同意、拒绝: ①No,thanks.②Sorry,I can’t. ③I’d like to.But I’m afraid I can’t/I have no time.

3、目前学过的情态动词有can, may,could,would和 will等五个
学好情态动词必须把握三个用法: ? ①后必须跟动词原形 ; ? ②没有三单式(其后不能加s); ? ③可以把情态动词提到句首构成疑问句; ? 可以在情态动词后面加上not构成否定句。

4、目前学过的后跟动词不定式(to+动词原形)的有:
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ①would like to+动词原形(想要做某事); want to+动词原形(想要做某事); ②forget to+动词原形(忘记要做某事); ③like to +动词原形(喜欢做某事); love to +动词原形(喜欢

做某事) ④ask sb. to +动词原形.(请/叫某人做某事) tell sb. to +动词原形.(告诉/叫某人做某事) would like sb. to +动词原形.(想叫某人做某事) want sb. to +动词原形.(想叫某人做某事) ⑤have to +动词原形(必须/不得不做某事) ⑥Nice/Glad/happy to +动词原形(很高兴做某事) 如:Nice to meet you. I’m glad to be here. ⑦It’s time to +动词原形(是做某事的时候了) It’s very kind/nice of you to help me.

★英语的一些重要原则★
①英文句子中至少有一个动词,用来作谓语。如: 我很高兴-----误:I very happy.正:I am very happy. 她最喜欢熊猫.------误:She favorite pandas.(favorite不是动词) 正:She likes pandas best/Her favorite is pandas. ②同一个句子中不能同时用be动词和行为动词。 误:I am at six get up. 正:I am get up at six. 误:Are you want to go for a picnic?(Are改为Do) ③句子中的单数名词前要带冠词,或用复数名词来表示类别。 误:orange is orange. 正:An orange is orange/ Oranges are orange. ? 误:He is doctor.(他是医生) 正:He is a doctor. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

? ④限定词的唯一原则 ? 限定词是指(1)冠词(定冠词,不定冠词)、(2)形容词性物主代词、 (3)指示代词、(4)名词所有格、(5)量词(some, any, no,many , much等), 这五类词只能用一个修饰同一个名词。 ? 如:我的一本书--- 误:my a book 正:my book ? 吉姆的这个风筝---误:Jim’s this/the kite正:Jim’s kite ? your the bike the some animals that a bus ? ⑤形容词放在名词前的顺序 ? 数量+大小形状+新旧+颜色+地方出处+名词。 ? my small yellow desk 我的小黄桌 ? an old brown English house 一座旧的棕色的英式房子 ? ⑥英文句子结构顺序 ? 主语+ 谓语+ 宾语+小时间+大时间+小地点+大地点。 ? Kangkang finds Baby monkey at eleven this morning in the zoo in Beijing. ? 主语 + 谓语 + 宾语 +小时间+大时间 + 小地点 + 大地点

一般现在时
? 1. 构成:主语+动词+其他 ? 2. 标志词:always, usually, often, sometimes, never, 等频率副词。 ? 3. 否定句: ? 1)当动词是 be, can, may, must, should等在其后加not Eg. I can’t play football. ? 2)当是实义动词时加助动词don’t/doesn’t后跟动词原形 Eg. I don’t like football. She doesn’t like football. ? 4. 疑问句:1)当动词是 be, can, may, must, should等将其提前 Eg. Can you swim? ? 2)当是实义动词时将助动词do/does 放在前面,后跟主语和动词原 形。 Eg. Does she like football 5. 特殊疑问句:特殊疑问词+一般疑问句

现在进行时
? 1. 构成:主语+be+doing+其他 2. 动词→动词-ing变化规律: ? 1)一般情况下直接加-ing, eg. Working ? 2)以不发音e结尾的去e加-ing, eg. Taking ? 3)以辅音字母+元音字母+

辅音字母结尾的重读闭音节,双写末 尾辅音字母加-ing, eg. Stopping ? 4)特殊变化, lie—lying ? 3. 标志词:look, listen, now, at the moment, it’s o’clock? ? 4. 否定句:be动词后加not ? Eg. She is not listening to music. ? 5. 疑问句:将be动词提前 ? Eg . Is she listening to music? ? 6. 特殊疑问句:特殊疑问词+一般疑问句

三.一般将来时
? 1. 构成:主语+be going to/will+动词原形 ? 2. 标志词:tomorrow, next day/month/year 等表示将来的时间 ? 3. 否定句:be动词后加not;will后加not Eg. He is not going to have a piano lesson this weekend. He will not have a piano lesson this weekend. 4. 疑问句:将be动词提前;将will提前 Eg. Is he going to have a piano lesson this weekend? Will he going to have a piano lesson this weekend? 5. 特殊疑问句:特殊疑问词+一般疑问句

四.一般过去时
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 1. 构成:主语+动词过去时+其他 2. 标志:yesterday, just now, ?ago, this morning, when I was young,last?等 3. 动词→动词过去式变化规律: 1)一般动词结尾加-ed, eg. Walk--walked 2)以字母e结尾的动词加- d, eg. Live--lived 3)以辅音字母加y结尾的变y为i加-ed, eg. Hurry—hurried 4)以辅音字母+元音字母+辅音字母结尾的重读闭音节,双写末尾辅音字 母加-ed, eg. Stop –stopped 4. 否定句:1)动词be过去式后直接加not Eg. I was not in Chengdu last year. 2) 当是实义动词时,加助动词didn’t后跟动词原形 Eg. I didn’t telephone my parents yesterday. 5. 疑问句:1) 动词be过去式提前 Eg. Were you in Chengdu last year? 2) 当是实义动词时将助动词did 放在前面,后跟主语和动词原形 Eg. Did you telephone my parents yesterday? 6. 特殊疑问句:特殊疑问词+一般疑问句

用正确的动词形式填空。
? 1.The children are running ___________ (run) there now. ? 2.-I got _______ up at half past six this morning. (get ) My father always come _______(come) back from work very late. s ? 3.My mother _________ a lot of fruit yesterday afternoon . (buy) bought ? 4.Listen! Who__________ (sing) in the music room? is singing Oh. Mary is _____________(sing) there. singing didn't have ? 5.They _______________ a meeting yesterday. ( not have) ? 6.- Do ______ you _________ ( have) any color pens? have Sorry, I don’t have any. like (not like) bread. ? 7.She likes eggs, but she doesn't _____________ tells (tell) me a story every night. ? 8.My mother ________ do you _______ want (want) ? -? 9.-- How much meat ________ A kilo, please. is (be) in the next room. ? 10.Someone ______

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

is (be) a pen and two erasers in the pencil- box. 11.There _____ 12.You must _______ (get) here at two this afternoon. get 13.The twins _________ thirteen two years ago. (be) 14.The teacher were is busy. He

only __________ (sleep) five hours sleeps a day. 15.Look! The bus ____________________ (come). is to coming 16.She __________ (go) school from Monday to Friday. goes he _________ (like)? 17.What _______ does (teach) like 18.He __________ English in a middle school. teaches 19.She always ________ (do) your homework well. does 20.--What ________ she ___________ (do)? -is doing She ________________ (clean) her room now. is cleaning

形容词
(1) 在句子中做定语,一般放在名词之前。但是当形容词修饰 something, somebody, anything, anybody, nothing, nobody时,要放于其 后。 Eg. I have an interesting book. There is nothing serious. ? (2) 作表语,放在系动词之后。 Eg. This kind of dress is expensive. ? (3) 以a-开头的形容词,一般在句子中只能作表语。 Eg. Keep quiet! My baby is asleep in the room. ? (4) 作宾语补足语,放在宾语之后。 Eg. The good news makes us very happy.

副词

? 副词在句子中主要做状语,可以修饰动词、形容词、副词。 修饰动词时,一般放在行为动词之后;修饰形容词时,一 般放在形容词之前;表示时间、地点的副词一般放在句末 或句首;频度副词一般放在行为动词之前。 ? Eg. I can’t hear you clearly.

3.

比较级用法

(1 ) 可以单独使用 ? eg. I hope to do better in English. (2 ) 和than一起用 ? eg. Zhang Jun is stronger than Lin Tao (3 ) 其他几种用法 a. 两者比较,哪一个更怎么样? Who/Which + be+比较 级, A or B? ? Eg. Who did better, Lucy or Lily? b. 用比较级形式表达最高级意义 比较级+than any other+n.+比较级范围(in/of?) =比较级+than any of the others+ in/of? =比较级+than the other+n.+in/of?(在同一范围内比较) 比较级+than any + n.+ in/of?(在两个不同范围内比较 ) Eg. Kate is more careful than any other girl in our class ? . Shanghai is bigger than any city in Shangdong Province

d. 有范围的两者之间的比较用 “the+形容词比较级+of the two” Eg. My mother is the busier of the two e. 用来修饰比较级的副词有:much/ far/ lots/ a lot; a litter; even;still等

4. 最高级用法 用来对三个或三个以上的人或事物进行比较, 形容词的最高级前必须加定冠词the,副词前的the可以省略。
? a. 最高级+范围 Eg. Changjian is the longest river in China. b. 主语+be+one of the+形容词最高级+名词复数+比较级范围(of/in短 语),表示“最??的??之一”。 Eg. Yang Liwei is one of the most famous heroes in China. c. 主语+be+the+序数词+形容词最高级+单数名词+比较范围,表示 “??是??的第几”。 Eg. The Yellow River is the second longest river in China. 注:有些比较级与最高级之间的句子可以转换。

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? ?

? 一. 写出下列形容词与副词的比较级与最高级形式: ? 1. few____ _____ 2.little______ fewer fewe

st less _____ least 深的 further furthest ? 3.bad/ badly _____ _____ worse worst 4.far____ 远的 farther farthest better best ? 5.good/well _____ 6. many/much _____ ______ more most ? ? 二、写出下列形容词的副词形式: heavily nicely happily ? 1. heavy_________ 2. happy ________ 3. nice________ easily carefully 5. easy________ angrily ? 4. careful______ 6. angry________ slowly quickly well ? 7. slow ________ 8. quick_______ 9 . good________ healthily hard badly ? 10. hard________ 11. bad_________ 12.healthy_____

? 三、用所给词的恰当形式填空。 ? 1.Which is the __ __ _ __ (big) ,the sun, the moon or the earth? biggest ? 2.Which is __ ___ beautiful more _ (beautiful),the black coat or the blue one? ? 3.This mooncake is the_ cheapest _ _ _ (cheap) of all. ? 4.He is the __ _ __ __ (strong) in the class. strongest more ? 5.Maths is _ ___ difficult ___ ___ __ ( difficult) of the two subjects. older ? 6. My sister is two years _______ (old ) than I. youngest ? 7. Mary’s parents have four daughters, and she is the _____ ___ (young) child. better ? 8. Dick can sing ________ (well), and she sings ________(well well ) than John, but Mary sings ______(well) in her class. best happier (happy) in her mew house. ? 9. She will be much ______ ? 10. His handwriting is ______ worse than yours. (bad)

四、选择正确的答案 。
? 1.Which does Jimmy like _______, Chinese , English or art? B A. well B. best C. better D. much ? 2. The Changjiang River is one of ______ C in the world. A. the longest river B. The more longer C. the longest rivers D. longer river ? 3. The pen is ______ C than that one. A. more cheap B. cheap C. much cheaper D. quite cheaper ? 4. There are _______ girls in Class 2 than in Class 4. A A. more B. nicest C. most D. best ? 5. Tingting is _____ than Meimei,but Meimei is ______ D than Tingting. A. tall, stronger B. taller, strongestt C. tallest, strong D. taller, stronger ? 6. Mother is _______ in my family. C A. busy B. busier C. the busiest D. more busy ? 7. She is _______ A than me at drawing. A. better B. best C. good D. harder

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8. This blue sweater is too big for me. Will you please show me a ______ one? A. small B. smaller C. the smallest D. smallest ? 9. The air in Beijing is getting much ______ now than a few years ago. A. clean B. cleaner C. cleanest D. the cleanest ? 10. Mobile phones are very popular now and they are ______than before. A. cheap B. cheaper C. cheapest D. the cheapest 11. — Tom is good at drawing. How about Mike? — Mike is ______, I think. He has got more prizes(获奖)than Tom. A. well B. OK C. good D. better ? 12. —Which is ______ river in China? — The Changjiang River. A. longer B. the longest C. longest D. the longer ? 13.If there is less homework, we should have ___ at school. A. the happiest time B. a more happier time C. much happiest time D. a much happier time ? 14. I feel __ better than yeste

rday. A. more B. very C. much ? 15. This schoolbag is _______ and sells______ . A. well, well B. nice, nice C. nice, good D. nice, well


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