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初中英语语法课件

发布时间:2014-01-28 15:49:33  

Outline

过去
1 .一般现在时 2 .一般过去时 3 .一般将来时 4 .过去将来时: 5 .过去进行时: 6. 过去完成时 7. 现在进行时: 8. 现在完成时:

现在

将来

用法: 经常性的和习惯性的动作 常用时间状语 : usually, sometimes, in spring, every day, in the morning 一般现在时的动词形式: 动词原形 1.am;is ;are 2.have,has 3.第三人称单数形式-(e)s

肯定句:I watch television every day. 否定句:I don’t watch television every day. 疑问句:Do you watch television every day.
注意: start, leave, go, come等的一般现在时可表示按规定要发生的未 来动作,如列车将离开。客观真理在从句中也用一般现在时.

Examples: It snows in winter. It doesn’t snow in winter. Does it snow in winter?

一般现在时的使用:
1.一般现在时表示总是、通常、习惯 性的动作或状态。 It snows in winter. I watch television every day.

2.用于对客观事实的普遍性的陈述。

Water consists of hydrogen and oxygen. Most animals kill only for food. The world is round.

3.某些动词的一般现在时表示说话时正在 存在的一种情况。
I have only a dollar right now. He needs a pen right now.
注:这些动词不能用于进行时。

用法:过去时间发生的或过去经常性的动作 常用时间状语: yesterday, last night, two days ago, in 2000, at that time, before ,when 等引导的含 过去时的句子。 动词构成:动词过去时(--ed) listen—listened study---studied stop-----stopped come----came

否定构成:didn’t+动原 didn’t work used not (didn’t use) to work 一般疑问构成及简答举例:Did+主语+动原+其它? 特殊疑问句举例:What did he do yesterday? When did he get up this morning?
注意:He has opened the door.(表示过去“开门”的动作对现在的影响是 门还开着)He opened the door.(不能确定门现在是否开着)

一般过去时的使用:
1.一般过去时表示一个动作或情况在过去 某个的时间开始和结束. I walked to school yesterday. I bought a new car three days ago.

walked,bought

now

2.表示过去经常性的动作或情况。 I often got up at 6:00 last year. I didn’t walk to school yesterday.

Did you walk to school yesterday ?

用法:将来会出现或发生的动作
常用时间状语:this evening, tomorrow, next month, in a few minutes, at the end of this term 动词构成: 1. will/shall+动原 2.am/is/are going to+动词原型 3. am/is/are(about)+动词不定式 4. am/is/are+coming等现在分词 以work为例:will/shall work am/is/are going to work am/is/are(about) to work am/is/are coming/leaving…

否定构成:will/shall not… am/is/are not… 特殊疑问句举例:What will you do tomorrow? When are we going to have a class meeting?
注意:在if条件或as soon as等时间状语从句中用一般现在时代替一般将来时。

一般将来时的使用


1、 基本结构是will / shall do。 例:We shall send her a glass hand-made craft as her birthday gift.(我们将送给她一个玻璃的手工制品,作为给她 的生日礼物。)
2、 有些动词,如:arrive, be close, come, do, done, go, have, leave, open, play, return, sleep, start, stay等,用于一般 进行时,并且通常与一个表示将来时间的时间状语连用,可以 表示将来时。 例:My mother is coming to visit me next week and is staying here until May.(我妈妈下周将来看我,并会呆到5月。)

3、 表示“打算去……,要……”时,可用be going to do。 例:This is just what I am going to say.(这正是我想说 的。)

4、 表示“即将、正要”时,可用be about to do。强调近期 内或马上要做的事。 例:Don't worry, I am about to make a close examination on you.(别担心,我马上就给你做一次仔细的检查。)

5、 “be to do”的5种用法:

a) 表示“按计划、安排即将发生某事或打算做某事”。 例:She is to be seen in the lab on Monday.(星期一你准会在实 验室见到她。) b) 该做或不该做的事情(语气上接近于should, must, ought to, have to),表示一种命令、规劝性语气。 例:You are to go to bed and keep quiet, kids. Our guests are arriving in less than 5 minutes.(孩子们,你们必须 上床睡觉,不 准吵闹。我们的客人5分钟之内就要到了。)
c) 能或不能发生的事情(接近can, may) 例:How am I to pay such a debt?(我怎么可能还得起这么大的一 笔债呢?)

d) 不可避免将要发生的事情,后来将要发生的事情。 例:I assure you that the matter _______ as quickly as possible. Have a little patience. A. will be attended B. will be attended to C. is attended D. is attended to e) 用于条件从句“如果……想,设想”(接近if ……want to,或 if ……should) 例:Greater efforts to increase agricultural production must be made if food shortage ____________ avoided. A) is to be B) can be C) will be D) has been

用法:从过去某时间来看将要发生的动作或状态, 常用于宾从句
常用时间状语:the next week等 动词构成: 1、would/should+动原 2、 was/were going to+动原 3、was/were(about) to+动原 以work为例:would/should work was/were going to work was/were(about) to work

否定构成:would/should not… was/were not… 一般疑问构成:常用if或whether引导宾从

特殊疑问句举例:He asked what they would do the next week. I thought I would make lots of newfriends. They said that they were going to spend the vacation together.

过去将来时的使用:
一、过去将来时表示对于过去某一时间而言将要发生的动 作或存在的状态。

would或was /were going to + V would可用于各种人称。

二、would +V还可表示过去的习惯动作,在这点上同used to同义。
When we were ch

ildren, we would/used to go swimming every summer.
比较:I used to walk to school, but now I go by bike. used to +V,指过去的习惯或状态,暗含的意思是“现在不做某事 了”。

A: Where did you go? B: I was going to visit the park, but in the end I went to the free market. A: What was it like? B:I thought it would be busy, but it was very quiet.

三、I thought I was going to...表示“原本打 算干某事”。
---Alice, why didn’t you come yesterday? ---I ___, but I had an unexpected visitor. A. had B. would C. was going to D. did

---Come in, Peter, I want to show you something. ---Oh, how nice of you! I ___ you ___ to bring me a gift. A. never think; are going B. never thought; were going C. didn’t think; were going D. hadn’t thought; were going
Never thought “从未想过“, 与how nice of you所表达的喜悦之情相符

This morning Alice ___ out ___ the door opened and in came some strangers.
A. B. C. D. was just about to go; while went ; when was going ; while was just about to go; when

We were all surprised when he made it clear that he ___ office soon.
A.leaves B.would leave C.left D.had left

用法:过去某一时刻或某一段时间内正在发生 的动作 常用时间状语:at this time yesterday,at that time, at ten o’clock yesterday或when引导的从句 动词构成: was/were+现在分词(--ing) 以work为例:was/were working

否定构成: was/were not+现在分词 一般疑问构成及简答举例: Was/Were+主语+现在分词+其它? Yes, I was No, I wasn’t 特殊疑问句举例: What were you dong this time yesterday? Where was he standing when the teacher came in?

过去进行时:

When it began to rain

now
I was walking I was walking down the street when it began to rain.

I was walking down the street when it began to rain.

I was not walking down the street when it began to rain. Were you walking down the street when it began to rain?

Exercises:
用一般过去时或过去进行时填空。

1. I don’t want to go to the zoo today because it is raining. The same thing happened yesterday. I (want ,not) ____ to go to the zoo because it (rain)____.

2.I (call)____ Roger at nine last night, but he (be, not)____ at home. He (study)____ at the library.
called;was not;was studying

3.I (hear,not)___the thunder during the storm last night because I (sleep)____.

didn’t hear;was sleeping

4.My brother and sister (argue)____ about something when I (walk)____ into the room.
were arguing;walked

5.----Nancy is not coming tonight. ----But she ____! A. promises B. promised C. will promise D. had promised

6.Shirley ___ a book about China last year but I don’t know whether she has finished it. A. has written B. wrote C. had written D. was writing

7.I don’t think Jim saw me; he ___ into space. A.just stared B.was just staring C.has just stared D.had just stared

The students ___ busily when Miss Brown went to get a book she ___ in the office. A. h

ad written; left B. were writing; has left C. had written; had left D. were writing; had left

Mary ___ a dress when she cut her finger. A. made B. is making C. was making D. makes

用法: 1、过去某时间或动作之前完成的动作或状态(过去的过去)。 2、过去某一时间的动作延续到过去另一时间
常用时间状语: by that time,by the end of… , when/before+ 从句, said/knew/asked的宾从中动词构 成:had+ 过去分词(--ed) 以work为例: had worked

否定构成:had not+过去分词 一般疑问构成:Had+主语+过去分词+其它? Yes, I had. No, I hadn’t. 特殊疑问句举例: How many English words had you learned by the end of last term?

When we got to the theatre, they had sold all the tickets. 过去的过去

had sold

got to the theatre

Now

过去完成时是一种与过去时相比较而存在的时态, 用以表示“过去的过去”的动作或状态。

1.When we _____(arrive) at the theatre, the
play ____(already start).

arrived; had already started

2.The police found that the house ___and a lot of things___. A. has broken into; has been stolen B. had broken into; had been stolen C. has been broken into; stolen D. had been broken into; stolen

3.Tom didn't go to hear the singer because he___ him. A. heard B. would hear C. has heard D. had heard

4.---Why didn't you come to the party? -----I___ to come, but one of my friends came to see me just then. A. wanted B. was wanting C. had wanted D. had been wanted

5.His wife ___ to catch the first train but she was too late. A.hoping B.had hoped C.has hoped D.would hope
had hoped意为“原希望”,常用于这一结构的动词有 “think, want, plan, suppose, intend”

用法:说话时正在进行的动作或当前一段时间正在进行 的动作

常用时间状语 :now,these days
现在进行时中动词形式: am is + - ing are 1、do-doing 2、live-living 3、重读闭音节 sit-sitting drop-dropping 以 ie 结尾 die-dying lie-lying

She is writing another book this year.

并不表示说话的时候她正 拿着笔坐在书桌前。

1.现在进行时表示一项活动在说话时 (或较长时间)正在进行。
finish start now

John and Mary are talking on the phone.

2.现在进行时强调此刻正在进行的动作。 一般现在时表示不确定时间经常、反复发生 的动作或状态。

3.进行时的将来用法:
When are you leaving? =When will you leave? John and Mary are talking on the phone. John and Mary are not talking on the Phone. Are John and Mary talking on the phone?

John and Mary are talking on the phone.
John and Mary are not talking on the Phone. Are John and Mary talking on the phone?

1.Diane (wash) ____ her hair every other day or so. 2.Kathy usually (sit) ____ in the front row during class,but today she (sit)___ in the last row. washes, sits, is sitting

3.(Lock,you,always)________ the door to your apartment(公寓) when you leave? 4.I wrote to my

friend last week.She hasn’t answered my letter yet.I(wait,still)____ for a reply. Do you always lock, am still waiting

5. Every morning,the sun(shine)___ in my bedroom window and (wake)___me up.

shines,wakes

6. A: Look!It (snow)____. B: It’s beautiful! This is the first time I’ve ever seen snow. It (snow, not, often) ___ in my country.

is snowing;does not often snow

--- Can I help you, sir? --- Yes, I bought this radio here yesterday, but it ___. A.didn’t work B.won’t work C.can’t work D.doesn’t work

---Can I join the club, Dad? ---You can when you ___ a bit older. A. get B. will get C. are getting D. will have got

My cousin, Jenny, ___ in New York till next Saturday.
A.is staying B.has stayed C.will have stayed D.stayed

---Do you know when she ___? ---No, but I’ll tell you as soon as she ___.

A.will come; comes B.comes; will come C.will come; will come D.comes; comes

Look! ________ ! A.Here the bus comes B.Here comes the bus C.Here is the bus coming D.Here the bus is coming
here, there放在句子开头,句子主谓要倒装。(如主语为 代词,主谓不倒装)。在here, there引导的句子中,常用

一般现在时代替现在进行时。

用法: 1、发生在过去的动作且对现在仍有影响的动作,强调 对现在的影响.
2、从过去一直延续到现在的动作 常用时间状语:already, just, never, before, recently, in the past few years, ever, so far, since+过去的点时间,for+段时间

动词构成:have/has+过去分词(--ed)

have/has worked

否定构成:have/has not+过去分词 一般疑问构成: Have/Has+主语+过去分词…?

特殊疑问句举例:What have you done recently? How long has he lived in Beijing?
注意:暂时性动词不能与for…, since…,How long…等 表示段时间 的短语同时使用。

现在完成时的用法
现在完成时表示过去某时发生的行为对主语 目前产生的影响。即用过去发生的某个行为 来说明现在的某种情况。

We are good friends.(现在的情况) I knew him in 1997.(过去的动作) We have known each other since 1997.
(现在完成时把过去的动作和现在联系起来并着眼于现在)

She has been to Beijing. (现在已不在北京,从结果上和现在联系起来)

She has been in Beijing for two years. (现在仍在北京,从时间上和现在联系起来)

现在完成时的三种基本用法: 1、未完成用法。表示动作或状态开始于过去, 一直延续到现在,可能继续发展,也可能刚刚 结束。 He has been in the army for ten years. I have studied English since 1980. He has lived here all his life.

a. be, live, study都是延续性动词。 b.常用的时间状语: since…,for…,in the past few years,so far, all his life.

2、反复性用法,表示过去到现在这段时间 内反复发生的动作。 I have been to the city twice this week. I have often wondered where she gets her money all these

days.
这种用法从时间上与现在发生了联系。

3、完成性用法,表示动作或状态到说话时已经完成, 通常所产生的结果把过去的动作和状态和现在联系 起来。
He has gone to Shanghai. 他已经去了上海。

(结果:他已不在这儿,He is not here now.)

Can you make sure ___ the gold ring?

A.where Alice had put B.where had Alice put C.where Alice has put D.where has Alice put
使用现在完成时表示过去发生的“放”的动作对现在的影响,究竟金戒指现在 “在哪里”。

When I was at college I ___ three foreign languages,but I ___ all except a few words of each. A.spoke;had forgotten B.spoke;have forgotten C.had spoken;had forgotten D.had spoken;have forgotten
“但都忘了”是现在的情况,要用现在完成时,强调结果。

----I’m sorry to keep you waiting. ----Oh,not at all.I ___ here only a few minutes. A.have been C.was B.had been D.will be

“(for) only a few minutes”说明几分钟前来了这里,一直到现在。

The CCTV has been broadcasting English programs ever since 1977.

1977

now

表示一个事件在某个事件之前一直进行,用于表达 事件的持续性.
You look hot and tired. Have you been exercising? I'm sorry I'm late. Have you been waiting long?

---Hi, Tracy, you look tired. --- I am tired. I ___ the living room all day.

A. painted B. had painted C. have been painting D. have painted

She ___ letters all morning and felt tired. A. has been writing B. writes C. has written D. had been writing

----Isn’t it hard to drive downtown to work? ----Yes, that’s why I ____ to work by train. A. have been going B. have gone C. was going to D. will have gone


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