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初中定语从句

发布时间:2014-01-29 09:45:37  

初中定语从句

[概念]
在复合句中,修饰一个名词或代词的从 句叫做定语从句;被定语从句所修饰 的词叫先行词;定语从句必须放在先 行词之后;引导定语从句的词叫关联 词。如:

关联词
常见的关联词有关系代词that, which,who,whom,whose和关系 副词where,when,why等。关系代 词和关系副词放在先行词及定语从句 之间起连接作用,同时又作定语从句 的重要成分。

由that引导的定语从句
一般情况下that可指人或物,可以代替who,whom和 which,在从句中作主语或宾语,作主语时不可省略, 作宾语可省略。如: 1.The man that(who)is speaking at the meeting is an advanced worker.正在会上讲话的那个同志是 个先进工人。 指人作主语不可省略 2.This is the doctor that(whom)you talked about yesterday.这就是你们昨天谈论的那位医生。 指物作宾语可省略 3.The letter that(which)I received yesterday was from my father.昨天我收到的信是我父亲寄来的。 指物作宾语可省略

由which引导的定语从句
which指物,在从句中作主语或谓语动词的宾语。在从句中 作主语或宾语,作主语时不可省略,作宾语可省略。例如: 1.Mary likes music which is quiet and gentle. 玛丽喜欢轻柔的 音乐。作主语不可省略 2.The film (which)we saw last night was wonderful. 我们 昨天晚上看的那部电影很好看。作宾语可省略 3.The house which Lu Xun once lived in is now the Lu Xun Museum.== The house that Lu Xun once lived in is now the Lu Xun Museum.=The house in which Lu Xun once lived is now the Lu Xun Museum.鲁迅曾经住过的那所房子现在是鲁 迅博物馆。 [注意点]关系代词在定语从句中作宾语时,关系代词常省去。 如:The play(which)I watched just now had been on twice on Channel 3.我刚才看的那个戏剧在3频道上已上演了两次。

由who,whom和whose引导的定语 从句
who在从句中作主语,whom在从句中作宾语,在 口语中,有时可用 who 代替 whom, 也可省略。 whose在从句中作定语。如: 1.This is the thief who stole my bike.这就是偷我 自行车的那个贼。作主语可省略 who=that 2.He is the boy whom you wanted to find.他就是 你想要找的那个男孩.作宾语不可省略 whom=that 3.The girl whose mother is a doctor is waiting for you outside.妈妈是个医生的那个女孩在外面等 你。作定语

由where,when和why引导的定语 从句
where在从句中作地点状语,when在从句中作时状 语,why在从句中作原因状语。如: 1.I will never forget the day when I joined the League.我永远忘不了我入团的那一天。 2.He will go back to the school where he studied next week.下周他要回到他曾经学习过的学校。 3.I don't know the reason why he quarreled with Zhang Lin.我不知道他同张

琳吵架的原因。

注意:(1)介词 + which/whom
介词在关系代词前时,只能用“介词 + which/whom”结构。例如: This is the house ( which /that) we lived in last year. =This is the house in which we lived last year. 不能说This is the house in that we lived last year. that 作介词的宾语时,介词不能放它 的前面,只能放在从句中动词的后面。 The person whom/who/that you just talked to is Mr Li. = The person to whom you just talked to is Mr Li. 你刚才谈的人是李先生。

注意(2)
含有介词的固定动词词组中,介词不 可前置,只能放在原来的位置上。例 如: This is the person whom / that you are looking for. 这就是你要找的那个 人

注意(3)关系词只能用 that 的情况:
a. 先行词被序数词或形容词最高级所修饰,或本身是序数词、 基数词、形容词最高级时,只能用 that,而不用 which。 例如: He was the first person that passed the exam. 他是第一 个通过考试的人。 b. 被修饰的先行词为 all, any, much, many, everything, anything, none, the one 等不定代词时, 只能用 that,而不用 which。例如: Is there anything that you want to buy in the shop? 你在 商店里有什么东西要买吗? c. 先行词被 the only, the very, the same, the last, little, few 等词修饰时,只能用 that,而不用 which。例 如: This is the same bike that I lost. 这就是我丢的那辆自行车。

注意(3)继续
d. 先行词里同时含有人或物时,只能用 that, 而不用 which。例如: I can remember well the persons and some pictures that I saw in the room. 我能清楚记得我在那个房间所见到的人和一些照片。 e. 以 who 或 which 引导的特殊疑问句,为避免重复,只 能用 that。例如: Who is the girl that is crying? 正在哭泣的那个女孩是谁? f. 主句是 there be 结构,修饰主语的定语从句用 that,而 不用 which。例如: There is a book on the desk that belongs to Tom. 桌子上 那本书是汤姆的。

(4)关系词只能用 which,而不用 that 的情况:
a. 先行词为 that, those 时,用 which, 而不用 that。例如: What's that which is under the desk? 在桌子底下的那些 东西是什么? b. 关系代词前有介词时,一般用 which,而不用 that。例如: This is the room in which he lives. 这是他居住的房间。 c. 引导非限制性定语从句,用 which, 而不用 that。例如: Tom came back,which made us happy. 汤姆回来了,这 使我们很高兴

关于非限制性定语从句的分类
? 根据定语从句与先行词的关系,定语从句 可分为限制性定语从句及非限制性定语从 句。限制性定语从句紧跟先行词,主句与 从句不用逗号分开,从句不可省去,非限 制性定语从句主句与从句之间有逗号分开, 起补充说明作用,如省去

,意思仍完整。 (非限制性定语从句高中学,初中不作要求)

1. Is this the factory __________ he visited yesterday? A. that B. where C. what D. the one 2.Is this the factory __________ he worked ten years ago? A. that B. where C. which D. the one 3. I’ll tell you __________ he told me last week. A. all which B. that C. all that D. which 4.We’re talking about the piano and the pianist __________ were in the concert we attended last night. A. which B. whom C. who D. that

Exercises:

5. The girl _________an English song in the next room is Tom’s sister. A. who is singing B. is singing C. sang D. was singing 6. Can you lend me the novel __________ the other day? A. that you talked B. you talked about it C. which you talked with D. you talked about 7. Is there anything __________ to you? A. that is belonged B. that belongs C. that belong D. which belongs 8. The train __________ she was travelling was late. A. which B. where C. on which D. in that

9. May the fourth is the day __________ we Chinese people will never forget. A. which B. when C. on which D. about which
10. The hotel __________ during our holidays stands by the seaside. A. we stayed at B. where we stayed at C. we stayed D. in that we stayed 11. Is that the reason __________ you are often late? A. which B. what C. why D. for that 12. The two things __________ they felt very proud are Jim’s gold watch and Della’s hair. A. about which B. of which C. in which D. for which

13. The dinner was the most expensive meal we __________. A. would have B. have had C. had never had D. had ever had 14. Do you know which hotel __________? A. she is staying B. she is staying in C. is she staying D. is she staying in 15. There is only one thing __________ I can do. A. what B. that C . all D. which 16. They were interested __________ you told them. A. in which B. in that C. all that D. in everything

17. The great day we looked forward to __________ at last. A. come B. came C. coming D. comes 18. I like the second football match __________ was held last week. A. which B. who C. that D. when1. 19.Is this factory __________ some foreign friends visited last Friday? A. that B. where C. which D. the one 20. That tree, __________ branches are almost bare, is very old. A. whose B. of which C. in which D. on which

21. I have bought the same dress __________ she is wearing. A. as B. that C. which D. what 22. He failed in the examination, __________ made his father very angry. A. which B. it C. that D. what 23. Didn’t you see the man __________? A. I nodded just now B. whom I nodded just now C. I nodded to him just now D. I nodded to just now

24. ---- “How do you like the book?” ---- “It’s quite different from __________ I read last month.” A. that B. which C. the one D. the one what

25. Mr. Zhang gave the textbook to all the pupils except __________ who had already taken them. A. the ones B. ones C. some D. the others 26. It’s the third time __________ late this

month. A. that you arrived B. when you arrived C. that you’ve arrived D. when you’ve arrived 27. Is it in that factory __________ “Red Flag” cars are produced? A. in which B. where C. which D. that 28. ---- Do you know the town? --- No, this is the first time I __________ here. A. was B. have been C. came D. am coming 29. I have many books, some of __________ are on chemistry. A. them B. that C. which D. those


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