TRANSLATION & WRITING
A POSTGRADUATE LEVEL TRAINING COURSE FOR THE CANDIDATES
根据新颁布的在职人员申请硕士学位英语统一考试大纲的 规定，翻译为两种题型，即短文翻译和单句翻译。1998年6月以 前的翻译考试主要是短文翻译，占总成绩的10％。新考试大纲增 加了单句翻译，该项目也是10分，每题2分；这两种题型交替使 用。汉译英对在职人员来说具有较大的难度，主要在于选词和造 句两个方面。选词涉及到对词汇的熟练拼写和运用；造句则涉及 到对英语语法规则的掌握和使用。以下就汉译英翻译过程中需注 意的有关问题以及如何更有效地进行翻译做一简单介绍。 一、汉英翻译要求 翻译标准通常以“准确、通顺”为衡量译文质量的尺度。 在职人员英语考试中的翻译要求是：语法、句型结构正确，用词 恰当。因此，在翻译时，考生需注意：1)译文应该较准确而完整 地表达原文的内容，不要随意增删、更改和遗漏；2)译文的语言 需要规范标准，通俗易懂；尽可能避免逐词死译、生搬硬套；3) 译文应尽力保持原文的风格，不要任意改动和破坏。
二、汉英翻译过程 汉英翻译过程通常可分为三个主要阶段：1)理解准备阶 段。正确理解翻译的短文或单句，分析其结构，确定英语的 句型及所需词汇。2)表达阶段。在正确理解的基础上，将思 考好的句型及词语按照英语的规则写下来。表达的质量取决 于对英语语言的掌握程度。在表达阶段需注意的是，不要一 对一地死译或乱译，应注意不要出现严重的语言错误或拼写 错误。尽可能使表达的文字通顺和流畅。3)校对阶段。在这 个阶段，首先应检查译文是否正确地转述了原文的内容；其 次，需认真检查是否有语言上的明显错误，如时态、语态、 单复数、拼写等。汉译英对考生提出的要求较高，要掌握好 这一翻译技能需要一定的语言基础和不断的实践。在相对短 的时间内，集中训练也是可以提高汉译英的能力的。
汉英单句翻译部分为5个汉语句子，每句约在20字左右。单 句翻译重点考核学生在句子水平上的中译英能力，其中包括句 子中的词汇、短语以及对语法结构的正确运用。 一般情况下， 每个句于侧重某一语法现象。 如：最近要不是下一场大雨，旱情就更严重了。
If there had not been a heavy rain，the drought would have become worse． 在上面句子的翻译过程中；除了选择正确的词语外，还要掌 握好虚拟语气这一语法现象，否则无法翻译这个句子。下面从 8个常见的语法现象入手，介绍单句翻译在语法或句型方面需 注意的事项，以及如何通过掌握这些语法现象和句型结构来提 高单句汉译英的
一、比较级 比较级是英语中的一个比较重要的语法现象，分为一般比 较级和最高级。英语中的 形容词和副词的比较级和最高级主 要有三种构成方式。
a．需要在形容词或副词后面加 -er 或 -est； b．在多音节形容词或副词前加 more 或 most； c．另外有少数特殊的形容词和副词有不规则变化， 如 good，well —— better 和 best． 比较级常用句型有： 1) M is better than N． 2) M is as good as N． 3) M is not so good as N． 4) M is the best among ... 5) M runs faster than N． 6) M runs the fastest of ... 7) The more..., the more...
比较级单句翻译 1．看上去他同我一样高。 He looks as tall as I am. 2．这个房间恰好同那个房间一样宽。 This room is just as wide as that room. 3．他像他的妹妹一样努力工作吗? Does he work as hard as his sister? 4．我认为这本英文书比我上周读的那本书还难。 I think that this English book is more difficult than the one I read last week. 5．他告诉我们新版本比旧版本便宜一些。 He told us that the new edition was less expensive than the one. 6．这是我们厂生产的最大的发电机。 This is the largest generator which is manufactured in our factory.
7．事实上，你读的越多，速度越快； In fact, the more you read, the faster you can. 8．他每天上学比其他同学都早。 He goes to school earlier than the other students every day. 9．他的文章比我的组织的好。 His composition is better organized than mine. 10．在大学时，他讲英语比我们流利得多。 At university, he spoke English more fluently than we did. 11．这个电影比那个电影更让我喜欢。 I like this film much better than that one. 12．我们将尽快地把技术资料寄给你们。 We will send the technical data to you as soon as possible.
二、不定式 不定式是英语动词的一种非限定形式，通常前面需加 to 。 其语法作用可以是主语、宾语、表语、定语或状语。例如：
1．To finish this book needs five people at least. (主语) 2．I want to go to class right now． (宾语) 3．It is good to read English every morning． (表语) 4．We have three papers to finish this semester (定语) 5．To pass the test, we have to work hard． (状语)
不定式单句翻译 1．众所周知，英语不是随便可以学好的。 It is known to all that it is not an easy thing to master the English language. 2．乘飞机到上海需要多少小时? How many hours does it take to get to Shanghai by plane? 3．教师们认为忽视拼写是错误的。 The teachers believe that to ignore spelling mistakes is wrong. 4．考虑到成本问题，他们不得不拒绝采纳这个建议。 Considering the cost, they had to turn down the prop
osal. 5．他们发现在10点前不可能把一切准备好。 They found it impossible to get everything ready before 10 o'clock. 6．我们的任务是在30天内记住2000英语单词。 Out task is to memorize 2000 English words within 30 days.
7．他的最大志愿是成为清华大学物理系的一名学生。 His greatest wish is to become a student in Physics Department of Tsinghua University. 8．在这样的办公室里工作是很舒适的。 It is comfortable (a pleasure) to work in such an office. 9．我们必须培养分析问题和解决问题的能力。 We must cultivate the ability to analyze and solve problems. 10．他们发现这局势不好对付。 They found it difficult to cope with the situation. 11．学习科学的最好的方法之一是做实验。 One of the best ways to study science is to do experiment. 12．下月在我校召开的国际会议一定会成功。 The international conference to be held in our university next month is bound to be a success.
三、定语从句 英语中的定语从句是由连接词 that，which，who，whom，where， when，why 等引出的；一般分为限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句两种。后 者通常使用逗号与句子的其他成分分开。定语从句修饰“人”时，一般用关系代 词who，whom 或 that；修饰“物”时，采用 that 和 which；修饰“地点”和 “时间”时，分别使用 where 和 when。 1．This is the room where we lived ten years ago． (修饰地点的关系副词) 2．He is the person who talked to us in the classroom yesterday. (修饰人的关系代词) 3．This is the reason why we could not come for the meeting． (修饰原因的关系副词) 4．She has got the book which you would like to read． (修饰物的关系代词) 5．He is the student whose English is very good． (修饰人的所属格的关系代词) 6．We like the teacher whom you told me yesterday． (修饰人的宾格关系代词) 7．Ten o'clock is the time when you can leave the school for home． (修饰时间的关系副词)
定语从句单句翻译 1．坐在我对面的那个中年人是我们的老师。 The middle aged man who sat opposite me is our teacher. 2．他会上提出的这个建议是值得研究的。 The suggestion he made at the meeting is worth studying. 3．这是我们期待已久的一场比赛。 This is the game which we have long wished to watch. 4，这是第一次世界大战爆发的地方吗? Is this the place where the First World War started? 5．他不是害怕困难的那种人。 He is not the person of that kind who is afraid of difficulties. 6．这是我们第一次参观长城。 This is the first time we visit the Great Wall. 7．你班上有谁家在上海吗? Is there anyone in your class whose family is in Shanghai? 8．这就是我们拒绝他的建议的原因。 This is the reason why we have turned down his proposal. 9．他报告中强调的那几点是非常重要的。 The
points he stressed in his report are very important indeed. 10．想参加考试的人在这里签名。 Those who want to take the test sign their names here.
11．他说的一切似乎都有道理。 Everything he said seems reasonable. 12．附近有什么地方我们可以买到邮票吗? Is there any place around where we can buy some stamps? 13．任何了解我国经济情况的人都知道发展农业的重要性。 Anyone who understands the economic conditions in our country knows the importance of the development of agriculture. 14．这本小说是我曾经读过的最引人入胜的一本，而且是同类书中最长的本。 This novel is the most fascinating one I have ever read and the longest of its kind. 15．我们对他解决问题的方法很感兴趣。 We are interested in the way by which he solved the problems.
四、名词性从句 以从句的形式在句子中起名词作用的从句称为名词性从句，可以用做 主语和宾语。引导名词性从句的连接词有 what，who，why，how 等。 1．What we are doing today is something never dreamed of by our forefathers．(主语) 2．To most people，it is not easy to explain why his theory is so important. (宾语) 3．The question is how we can put the plan into practice. (表语) 1．很显然，生产决策实际上依靠的是信息资料 。 It is clear that a production decision, in fact, depends on the information. 2．什么时间召开讨论会还没有定下来。 When the discussion will be held has not been decided yet. 3．我们对他所说的那个地区的局势表示关注。 We are concerned about what he said about the situation in that area. 4．更为重要的是通过技术引进改变我们的生产方式。 What is more important is that through the introduction of the advanced technology our method of production can be improved. 5．我们对他所做的而不是他所说的感兴趣。 We are interested in what he did, not what he said.
6．这是一个很好的例子表明热是怎样做工的。 This is a very good example showing how heat works. 7．他没有告诉我们为什么他没有参加会议。 He didn't tell us why he failed to attend the meeting. 8．他们之间的差异之处在于前者是被迫学习英语的。 The difference between them is that the former is forced to learn English. 9．随着时间的过去，他将会懂得我所讲的话。 With time passing, he will understand what I said. 10．他不停地问我在北京做了些什么? He kept asking me about what I had done in Beijing. 11．谁第一个被面试还没有确定。 Who will be the first to be interviewed has not been decided yet. 12．我们何时开工并无关系。最重要的是我们必须做好准备。 When we start doesn't matter. The most important thing is that we should make good preparations for it. 13．计算机是如何工作的将在下一次课上做详细说明。 How a computer works will be explained in detail at
the next lecture. 14．这家工厂只能供应我们所需要的30％。 This factory can only supply thirty percent of what we need. 15．她说的使我想起了自己的童年。 What she said makes me think of my own childhood.
1．When l got home，it was already eleven o'clock． (时间) 2．As We have only ten minutes left，we'd better hurry up． (原因) 3．I sent the letter by air so that it could reach them in time． (目的) 4．I will lend you my lecture notes if you can give them back to me tomorrow. (条件) 5．This project was completed earlier than we had thought． (比较) 6．He looked as if nothing had happened． (方式) 7．Although he is aged，he is still very strong． (让步) 8. I’ll go wherever a hearty and consistent support can be found. (地点)
1．学生应该上课之前完成好教师布置的家庭作业。 Students must finish their homework assigned by the teacher before they go to class. 2．他的笔记本说明，他经常是一面读书，一面记笔记。 His notebook indicates that he always makes notes while reading. 3．由于他母亲病重，他接到电报后便立即动身了。 As his mother was seriously ill, he started off instantly (immediately) as soon as he received the telegram. 4．人们没有失去健康以前，不知道健康的可贵。 People do not know the value of health till they have lost it. 5．只要哪里水源充足，就要在哪里修水电站。 Where water resources are plentiful, there hydra-electric power stations are built. 6．无论他走到哪里，他都受到了．热烈欢迎。 Wherever he went, he was warmly welcomed. 7．他们工作得又快又好，结果超额完成了生产计划。 They worked fast and well, so that they overfulfilled the production plan. 8．正如所预料的那样，经理禁止了建议召开的会议。 As expected, the manager banned the proposed meeting. 9．由于我没有读过这本书，所以我无法告诉你我对这本书的看法。 As I haven't read the book, I can't tell you what I think of it.
10．按照常规，合同要在有关双方签字后才能生效。 As a matter of routine, a contract must be signed by the two parties concerned before it comes into force. 11．在老师再解释一遍后，同学们才听懂这个句子的意思。 Only after the teacher explained it a second time did the students understand the meaning of the sentence. 12．因为我们住在海滨，所以能够享受到有益健康的气候。 Since we live near the sea, we enjoy a healthy climate. 13．尽管我们两家公司在商业上是竞争对手，但在许多方面存在共同益。 Although both our companies are business competitors, we share common interests in many areas. 14．他们对问题进行详细讨
论后，达成了一致的意见。 After they discussed the matter in detail, they came to an understanding. 15．他的讲演这样的精彩，因此人人都称赞他。 He made such a wonderful speech that everyone spoke highly of him.
分词是英语动词的另一种非谓语形式，可起到形容词和副词的语 法作用，一般用做定语、表语和状语。分词可分为现在分词和过去分 词两种。其表现方式为动词的过去分词和动词原形 十 ing。 例如： There is an exciting news for us． (现在分词) Excited by the news，they forgot the fatigue and hunger. (过去分词) 1．一位18世纪作家写的小说将拍成电影。 The novel written by an 18 century writer will be made into a film. 2．在这里学习外语的大多数人是教师。 Most of the people studying foreign languages here are teachers. 3．你对那位工程师提出的建议有什么想法? What do you think of the proposal put forward by that engineer? 4．门外有一群记者要求见你。 There is a group of reporters outside the door asking to see you. 5．依靠自己的力量，他们克服了所有工程中的困难。 Depending on their own efforts, they overcame all the difficulties in the project.
6．去年，我们厂生产的拖拉机减少到了5万台。 Last year, the tractors manufactured by our factory were reduced to 50 000. 7．我们看到一辆汽车飞快地向我们开来。 We saw a car coming towards us at a fast speed. 8。桌上有许多图表说明生产增长的情况。 There are many charts on the table indicating the increases in production. 9．我们需要社会的支持，但是我们所急需的是更多的合格教师。 We need support from the society, but what we need urgently is qualified teachers. 10．再给20分钟，我们就可以准时到达目的地。 Given 20 more minutes, we would be able to reach the destination on time. 11．采用这个办法，我们提高了学习英语的效率。 Adopting this method, we have improved our efficiency in English learning. 12．由于英语考试只得了60分，她显得很失望。 She looked rather disappointed because she got only 60 points in the English test. 13．在实践中取得的经验将对我们的工作很有好处。 The experience gained in practice will be of great value to our work. 14．从今年上半年看，经济增长较快，形势令人鼓舞。 In the first half year, economy has increased rapidly, and the situation is encouraging. 15．我们必须使我们的思想适应变化了的情况。 We must adapt our thinking to the changed conditions.
被动语态是我们比较熟悉的语法现象。其句型变化主要在谓语动词和 助动词 be 上。请见下面被动语态的时态变化。 1．The bridge is built． (表示一般现在时) 2．The bridge is being built． (表示现在进行时) 3．The bridge was built． (表示过去时) 4．The bridge has be
en built (表示现在完成时) 5．The bridge will be built． (表示将来时) 6．The bridge will have been built． (表示将来完成时) 7．The bridge was being built． (表示过去进行时)
1．校园内的这些街道正在加宽。 These streets on the campus are being widened. 2．如果采用这一方法，生产成本将降低。 If this method is accepted, the production cost will be reduced. 3．学生不允许把报纸和杂志拿出阅览室。 The students are not allowed to take the newspaper and magazine out of the reading room. 4．我听说这本小说已经译成英文了。 I heard that this novel has been translated into English. 5．每个人都很清楚这个工程必须在5月之前完成。 Every one knows that the project must be completed before May.
6．那个城市的工厂比1980年增加了两倍。 The number of factory in that city has been increased twice as compared 7．虽然有这些例外，但他的理论仍被认为是很有效的。with that of 1980. Regardless of these exceptions, his theory is still considered to be 8．据我所知，到目前为止还没有得出正确的结论。 very effective. As far as I know, no correct conclusion has been drawn up till now. 9．我们很高兴在这一地区已采取了措施减少噪音。 We are pleased that some measures have been taken to reduce the noise 10．你们提出的这一计划将在下周会上认真讨论。in this area. The plan you put forward will be discussed at the next week's meeting. 11．过去10年中，经过共同努力，在我国的研究生教育方面取得了很大的进步。 Over the past 10 years, with joint efforts a big progress has been made in graduate education in China. 12．大量的统计资料进行了编辑，以便随时可提取和解答。 A plenty of statistical data have been compiled so that they can be drawn 13．随着车辆的增加，恐怕交通事故态将增加。and answered at any time. As the number of vehicles increases, it is feared that the number of traffic 14．你们应该在货物运到后立即付款。 accidents will be increased, too. You should make the payment right after the goods are delivered. 15，在我国英语被看做是学习西方先进科学技术的一种工具。 In our country English is regarded as a tool by which we can learn advanced science and technology from Western countries.
在英语句型中，表示主观愿望和假设的情况是不可能发生的或发生的可能 性不大，则用虚拟条件句。虚拟条件句主要分三类，即表示现在及将来情况的虚 拟语气、表示过去情况的虚拟语气和表示间接命令或建议的虚拟语气。例如：
1．What would you do if you were in his place? (表示现在) 2．If you had not come here on time，there would have been an accident．(表示过去) 3. He ordered that the medicines (should) be sent by special plane. (表示间接命令或建议)
明天使用那台新设备的话，要先看一下说明书。 If you were to use that new equipment tomorrow, you would read the 2．我建议你考试结束后就去看大夫。 instructions first. I suggest that you (should) go to see the doctor after the test has finished. 3．科学家早已证明，如果没有水，地球上就不会有生命。 Scientists have long proved that without water there would be no life on 4．如果他有时间的话，他一定会来帮助我们的。 the earth. If he had time, he would come and help us. 5．要是让我来做这项工作的话，我会采取另一种方式。 If I were asked to take this work, I would adopt another way.
6．如果不能按时完成这项工程，我们就要赔偿损失。 If we were not able to finish the project on time, we would make up the 7．我要是早一点离开家就可以赶上汽车了。 loss. If I had left home a little earlier, I would have caught the bus. 8．没有健康的经济发展基础发生这种变化是不可能的。 The change would not have taken place without a foundation of healthy 9．万一发生火灾我们怎么办? economic development. What should we do if there were a fire? 10．我过去对英语发音注意得更多一些就好了。 I wish I had paid more attention to English pronunciation in the past. 11．他要求学生在星期五之前把作业交上来。 He insists that students (should) hand in their homework before Friday. 12．他建议我们乘出租汽车去医院。 He suggested that we take a taxi to the hospital. 13．他看上去就像刚刚睡醒似的。 He looks as if he had just woken up. 14．要是他没有受过适当的训练，他是无法使用计算机的。 If he had not received proper training, he would not have been able to use the computer. 15，要不是明天测验，我今晚就去看电影了。 If I were not to have a test tomorrow, I would go to movie this evening.
Guided Writing (30 minutes, 15 points)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition of no less than 1OO words under the title of Why We Work. Your composition should be based on the following outline given in English. Outline
1. Some people live to work 2. Other people work to live 3. Your opinion
Some people think that ____________________________. They claim that ________________________________________ ________________. What’s more, _________________________ ________________________.
However, ________________________________________ _________________ as other people may believe. Although ______________________________________________________ ______________, still ___________________________________ ____________________________. In case of myself, I prefer to _________________________ ____________________________ because ________________ _________________________________.
Why We Work
When we live in the world, we all work for some reason or other. Different people have different atti
tudes towards work. Some people live to work. They devote themselves to their work. The aim for which they work is to realize the value of life, to promote the development of society and to make more people lead a happy life. They make great contributions to society and at the same time they also find pleasure from their work. On the contrary, other people work to live. They regard work as a way of making a living. The purpose for which they work is to kill time or to make enough money to support themselves and their families. They often regard work as what they have to do. So they can't pick up pleasure and enjoyment from their work. Such people, once they can afford to support themselves and their families, perhaps quit their work. In my opinion, we shouldn't go to the extremes. Since we are members of society, we should do what we can to better it so that we can live in more comfortable and more convenient surroundings. Good life is an assurance of smooth work. Only when we realize this can we live happily and work well.
Translate the following paragraph into English
阅读技巧的提高是对人类交流的一大贡献(contribution)。 Improvement of reading skill is a big contribution to the human communication. 人们已经广泛地认识到，在商业、工业、“教育以及其他领域， 更有效的交流是十分重要的。 People have widely realized that it is very important to communicate more efficiently in business, industry, education, etc. 如果我们能够提高读、写、听、说的能力，就能达到更好的交流， 因为我们主要是通过口头和书面文字进行交流的。 If we can improve our ability in reading, writing, listening and speaking, we are able to conduct a better communication, since we mainly communicate in the form of speaking and writing.
模 板 Some people are inclined to A for the following reasons. Firstly, (1)_______________________________________ ________.Secondly, as we can often observe, (2)_______ ______________. Other people, however, prefer to B. They think (3)_____ _________________________. Besides, (4)____________ _________. In my opinion, whether____________ or ____________ depends on _________________. I would like to ________ ________________________.
Graduates' Choice for a Place of Their Work
Some people like to work in their hometown after graduation. Their reasons are probably as follows. First, their hometown needs well-educated personnel to develop its economy or education. Second, perhaps they need to look after their parents who are old. Third, they can get some help from their family or relatives in their hometown for their job.
However, other people like to work away from their hometown. Perhaps, they like to find a job for which they can make full use of what they learned at university. Besides, it might be a good chance for them to train their ability to work and live independently.
In my opinion, whether one works in his hometown or away from his f
amily depends on whether he can apply his knowledge to his work. I would like to work where I can develop myself and can make good use of my knowledge.
（1）名言或谚语 The good old proverb ___________________ reminds us that
（2）释义 ___________________ lndeed, we can learn many things from it. （3）理由一 Frist of all, _________________________ . For example, （4）举例说明 （5）理由二 ___________________. Secondly, ______________________. 6）举例说明 Another case is that （ ________________. Furthermore, ____ （7）理由三 _______________________. （8）我的观点 ln my opinion, __________________________________ ________________________________.
Survival of the Fittest
At the economy market, it is very important to understand the principle "Survival of the Fittest", which tells us that one cannot keep its position unless he meets the changeable needs of the society or the market. For example, if a factory which produces radios failed to know what the customers need, it would not be able to survive at the market of today. On the contrary , if the factory can constantly change its products to satisfy customers' needs, it will develop fast. Therefore, it is obvious that at the economy market, every enterprise should follow the principle, "Survival of the Fittest". In our daily life, this rule is also applicable to everyone. We need to adopt ourselves to the changing environment. Otherwise we could not keep up with the pace of the development. For instance, if you didn't want to accept the E-mail for communication, you will fall behind others in getting the information. As a result, you might be ousted. To meet the needs of the social development, I need to study continuously. Also I have to adjust myself from time to time. Learning will help me to catch up with the new tides In the society, and adjustment will help me to make necessary corrections in my personalities and behaviors.
Task: To apply for a new job, write a letter describing post work experience and personal qualifications.
Dear Sir or Madam， I am writing to apply for your recently advertised position for ① 填人职位______________________________ Enclosed is my resume，which details my work experience and qualifications My work experiences and qualifications make me suitable for the job. And also ② 填自己适合这份工作的原因________ __________________________________________________ _____________________________________. I would be grateful if there could be an interview．I can come at your earliest convenience． I can be contacted at ③ 提供联系方式_________________ _____________________________. Thank you for your time to read this letter. I look forward to your early reply． Yours sincerely, (signature)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition of no less than 120 words under the title of “E-mail in China” . You should base your composition o
n the outline given in Chinese below.
Nowadays many people prefer A because it has a significant role in our daily ife. Generally, its advantages can be seen as follows. First, ______________________ Besides, ___________________. But every coin has two sides. The negative aspects are also apparent. One of the important disadvantages is that _________________.To make matters worse____________. Through the above analysis, l believe that the positive aspects overweigh the negative ones. Therefore, l would like to ___________________. As long as______________.
E-man In China E-mail is getting more and more popular in China due to the rapid development of computer. E-mail has entered many families and offices, and it is used by almost every student and teacher in universities, and almost every government officer. E-mail is popular now because it has its own advantages. First, it is fast. Within a few seconds, your message will reach its destination. Besides, it is also very cheap. One letter to the United States will cost only a few fens. However, it also has some disadvantages. First, if a computer is broken down or affected by virus, your message will be delayed or damaged. Second, your message is likely to be discovered by those whom you don't expect to read it. And finally, if you overuse the E-mail your eyesight will be affected. Anyhow, I believe that the E-mail will have a bright future, and it will be more popular in China.
Translate the following paragraph into English
1. 对于现代的科技书籍，尤其是教科书，如果作者希望书的内容能跟上 时代的步伐，就要在每隔一段时间后加以修订(revise)， In regard to the modern scientific and technical books, especially textbooks, their authors should revise them at short intervals. 将新的概念、新的发现以及新的内容充实到书中。 If they wish to keep pace with the times, the authors have to put the new ideas, new findings and new contents into their books. 教科书是学生获取知识的重要渠道，因此，作者需要精心编写 (compile)。 The textbook is an important channel for students to acquire knowledge. Therefore, the authors should compile the textbooks with great care.
每个国家都有自己独特的进餐习俗(eating customs)。 Every country has its own unique eating customs. 美国人认为，要做一个受欢迎的客人，首先就是要准时(be punctual)。 Americans think that a welcomed guest should first be punctual. 如果某人应邀六点半赴宴，女主人就指望他六点半到或者最多晚到几钟。 If one is invited to dinner at 6:30, a hostess will expect him to arrive at 6: 30 or a few minutes late. 客人如果不能按时到达，应该打电话通知男主人或女主人，讲明原因，并 说 If the guest cannot arrive on time, he should call the host or hostess,
明什么时间能赶到。 explaining why he cannot make it on time.
3. 很多教师认为，学习主要依赖于学生本人。 Many teachers believe that learning mainly depends on student themselves. 教师起指导作用，布置(assign)书单，让学生阅读，希望学生能够熟 悉阅读得到的信息。 Teachers just guide them, and give them a reading list, expecting them to be familiar with the information acquired from reading. 理想的学生被认为是为了学习而学习的学生，而并非仅仅想取得高分 的学生。 The ideal students are regarded as those who learn for the sake of learning, not those who are interested only in getting high grades.
4. 在过去的几年里，发展中国家的经济情况日益恶化。 In the last few years, the general economic situation in the developing countries has got worse. 这使得大部分人口特别是妇女的处境越来越糟。尤其是经济活动衰退 (decline)，对原有的收入分配不均衡(unbalanced)具有不利的影响。 This has put a large part of the population, especially women in a more difficult situation. In particular, the decline in economic activity is having a negative impact on an already unbalanced distribution of income. 而失业率高对妇女的影响更甚于对男子的影响。 Furthermore, the high rate of unemployment affect women more than men.