1)当宾语从句由陈述句 充当时,由that引导, 连词that，只起连接作用，在从句中不作成分，也无词义，常被省略。
例如:I believe ( that ) you are right. He said ( that ) the fastest way to travel was by plane.
2)当宾语从句由一般疑问句 充当时,由if或whether引导, 它们起连接作用，在从句中不作句子成分，作“是否”解，在口语中多用if。
eg. Tom don’t know if/whether his grandpa liked the present. He asked me whether or not I was coming.
一般情况下，if 和whether可以互换，但以下3种情况只能用whether： ①在不定式前：Whether to go there or not hasn’t been decided.
②在介词前：It depends on(依靠) whether it is going to rain.
③与or not连用：They are talking about whether to go there or not.
1、3)当宾语从句由特殊疑问句 充当时,特殊疑问词就是引导词, 连接代词
who, whom, whose, what, which，连接副词when, where, why, how， 它们起连接作用，作句子成分，各有自己的意义。
eg. The teacher asked the new students which class he was in. I wonder where he got so much money.
eg. I don’t know how I should do with the presents. ? I don’t know how to do with the presents.
Can you tell me who(m) do we have to see?(╳) Can you tell me who(m) we have to see?( √) 思考: what在从句中的成分)
陈述句变为宾语从句时,要注意人称和时态的变化,语序不变。 eg. She said, “I will leave a message on the desk.” ? She said she would leave a message on the desk.
一般疑问句和特殊疑问句变为宾语从句时,也要注意人称和时态的变化,后面接陈述语序。Eg. “Where are the tickets?” I asked him. ? I asked him where the tickets are.
eg. I thought (that) you are free today. (╳) today. ( √)
eg. I heard she had been to the Great Wall. Can you tell me which bus I should take?
宾语从句的复合句在变成反意疑问句时，如果主句的谓语动词为 think, guess, believe, suppose 等且主果主句不是 think 等上述动词或谓语动词是这些词且主语不是第一人称时，附加部分由主句决定。如：
I think that he is right, isn't he? I don't believe he is a student, is he? He supposes that she will come tonight, doesn't he? He never said he was a good student, did he?
▲五、 宾语从句和状语从句的区分： . 2) I don’t know
句1中if引导的是状语从句。这个从句表示“条件”，修饰主句。整个句子的意思是如果明天天气好，我就出去。句2中if引导的是宾语从句，充当谓语动词don’t know的宾语。整个句子的意思是我不知道火车是否到达。 判断方法：
1．These flowers are from Guangdong. He said. He said _______ these flowers _______ from Guangdong.
2. Light travels faster than sound. My teacher told me. My teacher told me ____ light ____ faster than sound.
3．There will be a meeting in five days. Jack didn’t know .Jack didn’t know _____ there _____ ____ a meeting in five days.
4．Can they speak French? I want to know. I want to know ______ _______ _______ _______ French.
5．Are the children playing games? Tell me. Tell me ______ the children ______ ______ games.
6．Have you finished your homework yet? Mr. Zhao asked Ma Gang.
Mr. Zhao asked Ma Gang ____ _____ ____ ____ ___ homework yet.
7．How many people can you see in the picture? Who knows?
Who knows ______ _____ _____ ____ _____ ______ in the picture?
8．Where did she park her car? Do you know? Do you know _____ _____ ____ her car?
9．What does he often talk about? The girl wondered. The girl wondered _____ _____ often ________ about.
10．Who knocked at the door so loudly? I don’t know. I don’ t know ____ _______ at the door so loudly.
11. Does he still live in that street? I don't know. I don't know ______ he still _______ in that street.
12. What's his name? I asked him. I asked him what _____ _____ _____.
13. When does the train arrive? Please tell me. Please tell me ________ _________ ________ _________.
14. Do they want fried chicken? He asked the boys. He asked the boys _______ they ______ fried chicken.
15. Was the watch made in Shanghai? I don't know. I don't know _______ the watch _______ made in Shanghai.
( ) 1. What did Mike say? He said ____________________.
A. if you are free the next week B. what colour was itC. the weather is fine
D. summer comes after spring
( ) 2. Tom asked my friend ________________.
A. where was he from B. that the earth is bigger than the moonC. when did he come back D. not to be so angry
( ) 3. Let me tell you __________________.
A. how much is the car B. how much does the car cost C. how much did I pay for the car D. how much I spent on the car
( ) 4. Peter knew_______.A. whether he has finished reading the book B. why the boy had so many questions
C. there were 12 months in a year D. when they will leave for Paris
( )5. Could you tell me ___________?
A. where do you live B. who you are waiting for C. who were you waiting for D. where you live in
( )6. I can't understand ____the boy alone. A. why she left B. why did she leave
C. why she had leftD. why had she left
( )7. She told me the sun ______ in the east. A. rise B. rose C. rises D. had risen
( )8.I don't know ________ up so early last Sunday.A. why did he get B.why he gets C.why does he get D. why he got
( )9. The manager came up to see _________
A. what was the matter B. what the matter was C. what the matter is D. what's the matter
( )10. He asked his father ___. A. where it happens B. where did it happen C. how it happened D. how did it happen
( )11. No one tells us______, so we need your help.
A. how we should do B. what should we do C. how to do it D. what to do it
( )12. Could you please teach me _______ the computer.
A. how check B. to check C. how to check D. to how checking
( )13.They don't know _______their parents are. A that B what C why D which
( )14. ─Where do you think ______ he _____ the TV set? ─ Sorry, I've no idea.
A./, bought B. has, bought C. did, buy D. did bought
( ) 15. Our homework has changed a lot. Who can tell _____ it would be like in
_____ five years.
A. how, another B. what, more C. how ,other D. what, another
( )16. ─ Could you tell me ______? ─ Yes. He ____ to the USA.
A. where is he/ has been B. where he is/ has gone C. where was he/ has been D. where he was/ has gone
( )17. ─Mike wants to know if ____ a picnic tomorrow. ─Yes. But if it _______, we'll visit the museum instead.
A. you have/ will rain B. you will have/ will rain C. you will have/ rains D. will you have/ rains
( )18. I really don't know if she _______ it when she ________.
A. finds/ arrives B. finds/ will arrive C. will find/ will arrive D. will find/ arrives
( )19.Miss Liu said ______ she would leave the message on the headmaster”s desk.
A. that B. where C. which D. what
( )20. He asked me _____. A. who will kick the first goal in the World Cup B. when was the APEC meeting held
C. when China became a member of the WTOD. where the 2008 Olympics will be held
( )21. In the bookshop , a reader asked the shopkeeper ______ Who Moved My
Cheese was an interesting book.
A. that B. how C. what D. if
( )22. You must remember _______.
A. what your teacher said B. what did your teacher sayC. your teacher said what D. what has your teacher said
( )23. I don”t know ______ .
A. which room I can live B. which room can I live C. which room I can live in
D. which room can I live in
( )24.－－Do you know when he ______ back ? －－Sorry , I don”t . When he _______back , I”ll tell you .
A. comes ; comes B. comes ; will come C. will come ; comes
D. will come ; will come
( )25 The girls asked if they ____ some food and drink with them. A. took B. take C. takes D. will take
( )26 Mary said that she ___ to Guangzhou.A. has never gone . had never gone C. has never been D. had never been
( )27 The students want to know whether they___ a PE class today.A. had B. has C. will have D. are
( )28. Can you tell me___ you were born, Betty? A. who B. what C. when
( )29.I don't know ___ they have passed the exam. A. what B. if C. when D. where
( )30. Do you know _____ they listened to yesterday evening?A. what B when C why D how
1. Jim told me ____ he didn't go fishing yesterday afternoon.（how, why）
2. Do you know ______ else is going to be on duty today？（who, whom）
3. She said _____ it wouldn't matter much.（that, if）
4. He always thinks ______ he can do better.（how, who）
5. I really don't know ________ the bridge will be finished.（how long, how soon）
6. They don't know _______ to go or wait. (if, whether)
7. We are talking about ______ we’ll go back tomorrow. (whether, if)
8. I was really surprised at ______ I saw. (where, what)
9. I don't know ____ so many people are looking at him. (how, why)
10. Do you know ______ you are studying for? (why, what)
1. “Do you want to try it?” Tom's mother asked him.(同义句)→Tom's mother asked him _____ ____ ____ to try it.
2. I think this is a good idea.（改为否定句） → I _______ ________ this ________ a good idea.
3. Lucy hasn't decided which trousers to buy.（改为复合句） → Lucy hasn't decided _____ ______ ______ _______ buy.
4. I don't know how I can get to the hospital.（改为简单句） → I don't know ____ ______ _______ to the hospital.
5. I don’t suppose they will come, _______ ______ ? (改为反意疑问句)
1. We are sure that he ________ (go) to school tomorrow.
2. Do you know who ______ (be) the first man to walk on the moon?
3. Could you tell me where the post office ______ (is)?
4. Our father said that he _______ (will) buy a new computer.
5. I hear that he _______ (swim) in the sea yesterday.
6. The little boy tells us where his father _______ (work).
7. He said that he _________ (finish) his work already.
8. They thought they could _______ (hike) to the top of the mountain.
9. He was glad that so many people _____ (help) him.
10. She doesn’t know whether ________ (go) or wait.