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新目标英语八年级上册知识点小结

发布时间:2014-01-29 15:51:38  

新目标英语八年级上册知识点小结

12大家都到齐了吗?

3、something,somebody,someone,somewhereanything,anybody,anyone,anywhere 你做了有趣的事吗?(表疑问)

Why don’t you visit 你为什么不跟我一起去拜访下某个人呢?(表建议) If anything happens, please tell me. 如果有事情发生,请告诉我。

4、 few与little 的区别:

5、Still no one seemed to be bored. 仍然没有人感到烦闷。

seem意为“好像;似乎;看来”,是个连系动词,构成的短语有:

好像做某事 如:他们似乎在等你。

(to be)+adj. 似乎...... 如:昨天他似乎病了。 It seems that + 从句 似乎...... 如:昨天他似乎病了。 其他表示状态的系动词有:feel(觉得); keep(保持);stay(保持);look(看来像...); smell(闻起来)sound(听起来……)taste(尝起来……)

6、 bored (adj),意为“感到厌倦的、无聊的”,其主语是某人;

boring(adj),意为“令人厌倦的、无聊的”其主语是某物。 如:

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我对这无聊的工作感到厌倦。

相类似的词语还有: interested/ tired/ excited/ amazed/surprised

interesting/ tiring/ exciting/ amazing/surprising

7、

形/

副+that 从句:

名短+ that 从句:She is such a popular girl that...

so that +从句:结果…(为了) 如:He gets up early so that he can catch the early bus.

8、反身代词:myself/yourself/itself/herself/himself/ourselves/yourselves/themselves 如:The child (herself) usually wears the clothes (herself).

9、What a difference a day makes! 一天的差异多大啊! What a/an + adj.+ n(单 What + adj. +n(复/不)+

How + adv+

10、由how构成的疑问词组的用法

(1) how many+ 可数名词复数 如:how many programs

how much+不可数名词。 如:how much coffee

但how much=what’s the price of..? 还有“多少钱”的意思 如:How much are those pants?

(2)how many times: “多少次”. 其答语表示次数。如:once ,twice,three times等

(3) How old...? 询问年龄 如:How old are you? I am five.

(4) 多久(时间) 常用 for two days,for three hours等回答。

多长(某物的长度) 如:---How long is the river? --- 10 kms.

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(5)how soon 用来询问过多久,多久以后,其答语是in two hours,in three days等。 如:How soon will he come back? In an hour.

11、 You can 度过(时间) 如: 花费(时间、钱) 如: 同义句:12、 形容词和副词的比较级

一、含义

1. 大多数形容词和副词有三个等级: 原级、比较级、最高级: good – better - best

2. 比较级:表示两者(人或物)之间的比较。

3. 加more/most ~的情况:①.部分双音节和多音节词;②.-ed/ing结尾的词;③adj+ly→adv.

4. 双写的词:一个大热天,一个胖子和一个瘦子穿着红衣服,汗湿了,很伤心。 big hot fat thin red wet sad

二.比较级基本句型:

↗连系动词+ adj.(比) 如: Lucy is slower than Lily.

1.主语++ than+ 对比成分

↘实义动词+ adv./ (比) 如:Lucy runs more slowly than Lily.

2. 主语必须与对比成分保持一致:

3. …as+adj./adv.(原级)+as …: “如同…一样…”

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否定:… not as/so+adj./adv.(原级)+as …: “不如……一样……”

4.比较级+and+比较级:越来越…… e.g. They talked more and more loudly.

5. The比较级…,the+比较级…:越…就越… The more exercise you do, the stronger you’ll be.

6. “Which / Who is + 比较级, A or B?” e.g. Which T-shirt is nicer, this one or that one?

7. the+比较级+of the( two ) : 两者中较…的一个

Of the twins, she was the more hard-working .

13、常用the one代单数可数名词,the ones /those 代替复数名词,that 代替不可数名词. . 14、比较级前可用“数词+名词” 表示确定的度量。

e.g. I am (5 years) older than him.The room is (3 times) as large as that one.

注意: 1. 原级常与very, as,so, too, quite,pretty, really等连用。

2. 比较级常与much, even, far, than, a little, a bit, a lot 等连用.

3. than 后的比较状语结构15、It’s not easy for me to 与...交朋友)

某人做某事怎么样. (It是形式主语,to do sth.是真正主语)

16、形容词和副词的最高级

一、含义

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1. 大多数形容词和副词有三个等级: 原级、比较级、最高级: badly – worse - worst

2. 最高级:表示三者或三者以上(人或物)之间的比较。

二.最高级基本句型结构

↗ 同类 ( of all/us..)

1. 主语 + 谓语动词 + the + adj./adv.(最) +

↘ in + 范围 (in China...)

如:Tara is the youngest of all. Linda draws (the) most carefully in her class.

注:1. 副词的最高级前可省略 “the”: 如:sit (the) most comfortably 坐得最舒适

2. 最高级前有其它的限定词时,不加“the”: 2. Which / Who …+the + 最高级…, A, B or C ?

e.g. Which do you like (the) best, apples, pears or oranges?

3. one of +the +最高级(形)+名(复): “最…之一”。

e.g. Jack Chen is one of the most famous actors in the world.

4. the + 序数词+最高级(形)+名(单):e.g. Hainan is the second largest island in China.

5. This is the +最高级(形)+名(单)+ that 从句:

e.g. This is the worst movie that I have ever seen. 这是我曾经看过的最糟糕的电影。

6. a+最高级(形)+名(单) : 表示“非常”。 e.g. Spring is a best season.

三.原级、比较级、最高级的相互转换

1e.g. He speaks more loudly than me. → I don’t speak as/so loudly as he/him.

2、比较级与最高级的转换: the other + (在范围之内) the+最高级 → 比较级+than+ any other+5

e.g. Jim is the tallest student in our class.(在同一个范围) 但:不在同一个范围)

17、 --- What do you think of soap operas? --- I don’t mind them.

认为;以为:如: What do you think of sitcoms?

想起;记得:如: I can’t think of his name now.

考虑;关心:如: Lei Feng always thought of other people first.

想一想; 想象:如: Think of the past, you’ll feel happier.

think about: 考虑 如: He is thinking about going on vacation .

think highly/lightly of sb. /sth.: 对…评价甚高/ 轻视 ; 看重/看轻

如: Mr. Black thinks highly of his students.

think out: 想出(= come up with= think up ) 如: think out a plan

think over … : 仔细考虑….. 如: Let me think it over.

think twice : 慎重考虑; 三思而后行 如: You’d better think twice about going there alone

18、一定会... 如:She is sure to pass the text.

对...有把握 如:I’m sure of the result.

that 从句 确信... 如:I’m sure that he will succeed.

确信的 Be sure to do sth. 一定要/务必 如:Be sure to come tomorrow.

有把握的 make sure of sth. 如:You should make sure of the time.

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务必 确保;核实如:Make sure (that) anyone else knows the secrets.

当然 for sure 确切地;肯定地 be sure of oneself 有自信 sure = certainly = of course 当然(回答请求)

19、 for 用法

朝/向;(电话礼物)给 如:I’m leaving 为了... 如: 在...期间(时) 如: I’m going to stay there 适于... 如: 对...来说 如: It’s necessary 以为…交换/代价 如: 因为 如:

支持 如:(反对) the plan?

20、 一般将来时

1. 含义:一般将来时表示将来某个时间要发生的动作或存在的状态,也表示将来经常或反复发生

的动作,常与等表示将来的时间状语连用.

2. 结构: 助动词 + 动词原形: 1) will +动词原形 动词原形

1). 否定: 一加二改 : 一加(助动词 + not ); 二改 (some 改为 any )

1). He will visit you tomorrow. ----- He won’t visit you tomorrow. (won’t = will not)

2). They’re going to buy some food. ---- They aren’t going to buy any food.

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2). 一般疑问:一提二改三升调:把(will / be)提 到句首;把some改为any、句号改为问好;读声调

1). Will he visit you tomorrow? ------ Yes, he will. / No, he won’t.

2). Are they going to buy any food? ------ Yes , they are. / No, they aren’t.

3. 辨析:从不严格的语法角度而言 ,be going to与 will二者可以互换, 但:

1)be going to 表示根据主观判断及将要发生的事情,或含有“计划,准备”的意思。

2)will表示客观上将来势必发生的事情。 He will be twenty years old next month.

4.注意:

1). There be 句型的一般将来时结构为:将会有...

2). come, go, leave, arrive等表示位置移动的动词常用现在进行时表示将来:He is leaving.

3). 在条件、时间状语从句中,一般是主将从现。

If(如果 类似的有:引导条件状语的词: if(如果);as long as

引导时间状语的词:when , after, before, as soon as,not .... until....

21、现在已经有机器人在工厂里工作了。 There be sb. doing sth. 有某人正在做… There is a bird 22、 可数名词与不可数名词

一.初中常见的不可数名词有:

ice ice-cream metal glass hair air water milk wine beer bread sugar rice meat cheese weather sunshine experience traffic homework advice housework information peace trouble anger food fish grass tea drink coffee fruit snow education knowledge time music coke paper orange chicken hair exercise friendship pollution work room news salad popcorn corn salt pepper gravy honey soup porridge sunshine light money rain wind Chinese Japanese English beef pork oil juice

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二.1.既可修饰可数名词也可修饰:all, some, most, a lot of, lots of, plenty of …

2.修饰可数名词的词有:数词(one...), few, a few, many, a number of, numbers of...

3. 修饰不可数名词的词有:little, a little, a bit of, much, a great deal of

4. 不可数名词通常用表示复数: three pieces of paper

23、 祈使句

一. 定义:祈使句指的是表示命令、请求、建议或劝告的句子。其主语you常省略,谓语动词用原形,句末用感叹号或句号,读降调。

二.结构:

1. 肯定的祈使句:动词原形+其他 Stand up, please. Be careful!

2.否定的祈使句: 1). Don't + 动词原形 Don’t laugh at others.

2). Never do sth. Never do that again!

3). No + v-ing/n. No smoking! No noise, please.

4). Let’s not do sth. Let’s not waste time.

5). Don’t let sb. do sth. Don’t let them make any noise.

三.祈使句的考点:A: Don’t forget to turn off the light. B: OK. I won’t.

A: Don’t play on the road. B: Sorry. I won’t.

A: Remember to return it as soon as possible B: OK./All right./I will.

24、if 用法归纳

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◇典型例句:(必背)

1. If we miss the last bus, we’ll have to walk home.

2. If it rains, we’ll have to go home tomorrow.

3. If it doesn’t rain this weekend, they will go to Gaungzhou.

4. If it isn’t rainy this weekend, they will go to Gaungzhou.

5. If I have enough money next year, I will go to England.

6. What shall we do if it rains tomorrow?

7. I would study harder than before if I were you.

8. If I had much money, I would buy a big house for my parents.

9. She asks me if I will leave here next week.

10. Can you tell me if they will plan to come?

11. I don’t know if she’s coming.

12. She asked me if I could go to the party.

13. I don’t know if you will come here tomorrow.

If you come here tomorrow, I will invite you to have dinner.

14. unless===if…not 如果不;除非

You will be late for school if you don’t get up early enough.

You will be late for school unless you get up early enough.

15. ( 在宾语从句中,“是否”,只能用whether 的几种情况)

I don’t know whether to go there next year.

I don’t know whether I will go there or not.

I don’t worry about whether you will go home on time tomorrow.

◇相关词组

☆if you want/like” 如果你愿意的话” You can come and stay with us if you want.

☆if so如果是的话 Are you planning to return to work, and if so, who is going to look after the baby? ☆if not如果不是的话 Can you help me do housework ? And if not, why not?

☆if necessary/if possible 如果必要/可能的话

We are ready to save the animals in great danger if necessary.

I should be back here by 10:30 if possible.

☆what if 要是……,那怎么办? 如果……那会怎样?

What if I am late tomorrow? =====What will happen if I am late tomorrow?

☆as if好像是……(虚拟语气) She always talks to me as if she were my sister.

☆even if即使 (虚拟语气) I would not leave Zhuhai, even if they offered me a million dollars.

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