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2013届中考英语语法考点知识复习8

发布时间:2014-01-29 16:56:35  

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动 词

 (一) 知识概要

动词在语言中是必不可少的一部分。它的语法现象也较多,但在初中范围主要有以下几方面问题。① 时态:初中范围主要有一般现在时,一般过去时,现在完成时,过去完成时,将来时与过去将来时六种时态。② 语态:主动语态与被动语态。③ 助动词和情态动词。④ 非谓语动词,也就是不定式,动名词及现在分词的用法。时态主要掌握以下几种时态的应用要点和习惯用法。

1 一般现在时:主要有以下三方面,① 用来表示状态,特征或不受时间限制的客观存在和真理。如:Matter exists in three states物质有三态。又如:The earth moves around the sun ② 表示习惯性和经常发生的动作,如:I often go to bed at 9∶30 ③ 在时间、条件等状语从句中表示将来要发生的动作,如:As soon as I get there I'll telephone you.

2 一般过去时:① 主要用于表达过去时间内发生的动作或存在的状态,如:I was ill last week ② 过去经常发生的动作或习惯性动作,如:I used to get up at six.

 3 一般将来时:用于表示将要发生的动作,其构成方式① 用will (shall)+动词原形来表达将来在某一时间内要发生,或经常、将要发生的动作或状态,如:School will begin on Sepember 1st ② 用be going to+动词原形,用来表示不久将要发生或打算去作的动作。如:

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I'm going to swim this afternoon③ be+现在分词,也就是用某些动词的现在进行时表示将来,如:I'm coming。这些动词只限于:go, come, leave, start, move, sail, arrive, reach, get to等动词。④ 在状语从句中用一般现在时表示将来。

4 现在进行时:用于表示现在正在进行的动作,如:What are you doing now?要注意的是表示状态,情感的某些词没有现在进行时,这些动词有:like, have (有),love, know, understand, remember, forget, see, hear, smell, taste, feel, wish hope, expect…

5 过去将来时:用来表达从过去某时间点上看将要发生的动作,如: He told me he would come to my party

6 现在完成时与过去完成时:现在完成时的两个用处是:① 用来表达在过去开始的动作持续到现在,如:I've studied English for two years ② 用来表达过去发生的事但它影响到现在,如:I haven't had my breakfast. so I'm hungry now 现在完成时与过去完成时的区别在于动作的截止时间,现在完成时所表达的动作截止于现在,而过去完成时所表达的动作截止于过去。如:I haven't seen my old teacher for a long time 我好久未见到我过去的老师了。是指到目前截止。如果加上一句话,则将变为过去完成时,如:Yesterday I saw my old teacher. I hadn't seen him for a long time. 因为我好久未见他这一情况截止于昨天。还要注意的一个问题是截止性动词可以有完成时,但不能与表示一段时间的状语连用,如:When I got to school, the class had

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begun 如果一定要讲开始几分钟了则要换用表示状态,或延续性动词,如:When I got to school, the class had been on for five minutes语态:英语中只有主动语态与被动语态之分。主动语态,句子中的主语是动作的执行者,如:I broke the window 而被动语态句子中的主语是主动语态句子中的宾语,如:The window was broken by me 被动语态主要用于,动作的执行者不明确,或没有必要说出来,如:The New building was built last week 关键要注意的是在主动语态中有省略不定式符号to的动词,在被动语态要还原,如: 主动语态 I saw him come in.被动语态 He was seen to come in. 助动词和情态动词:助动词本身没有词义,它只不过与实义动词一起构成谓语动词,形成了时态、语态、构成了疑问句,否定句,以及用来加强语气。而情态动词则表达一种可能、必要、允许、愿望、猜测……的意图、倾向。也用来表示语气的委婉和祝愿。初中阶段主要有:can, could, may, might, will, would, must (have to), shall, should。最后要谈论的是非谓语动词,非谓语动词分为不定式,和动词的ing形式,(即现在分词和动名词)。虽然在初中范围,这一项不是语法重点,但还是要花一定时间去学习,为的是打下良好的基础。为进一步学习提供良好的条件。不定式在句中可以作主语、宾语、表语。如:To see is to believe.(百闻不如一见) He want to see a film 还可以作补足语,如:He wants me to leave.也可以作状语,如:I come here to learn English.动名词也可以起到上述作用,如:Seeing is believing. I like swimming very much. 而现在分词多用于作定语、补足语、状语,如: The girl driving

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a car is her sister.(定语) Did you notice his hand shaking?(宾语补足语) Hearing the noise, we stopped talking.(状语)

(二) 正误辨析

 [误] She laid down and soon fell asleep.

 [正] She lay down and soon fell asleep.

 [析] 考试中常出现的是易混动词lay放,lie躺,lie说谎。它们的过去时、过去分词和现在分词变化如下:

 lay (放) laid, laid, laying (及物动词)

 lie (躺) lay, lain, lying (不及物动词)

 lie (说谎) lied, lied, lying

 [误] Please rise your hand.

 [正] Please raise your hand.

 [析] rise 是不及物动词,其后不能接宾语,如:The sun rises in the east.而raise是及物动词。

 [误] I like to swim very much, but I don't like swimming this afternoon.

 [正] I like swimming very much, but I don't like to swim this afternoon.

 [析] like作为"喜欢"讲时,可以接动名词也可以接不定式,但

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接动名词时多表达一种习惯性动作。而接不定式则侧重于表达一次性、特殊性的动作。 但要注意的是like 与would连用时则一定要接不定式,如:Would you like to go with me? 再有一点要注意的是,like作为介词"像"讲时,只能用分词作其宾语。

 [误] Stop! Did you listen to a strange voice?

 [正] Stop! Did you hear a strange voice?

 [析] hear的侧重点是听到、听见什么,而listen to 的侧重点为听的倾向,如:listen! Do you hear someone calling help?这样的词还有look与see。它们的侧重点也不同,look重于"看"的倾向,而see重于看见没看见。

 [误] Did you watch some film recently?

 [正] Did you see some film recently?

 [析] 英语中see 与 watch 各有不同的用处,see用于看电影、剧目,而watch用作看电视和看球赛。

 [误] Look. A beautiful lamp hanged from the ceiling.

 [正] Look. A beautiful lamp hung from the ceiling.

[ 析] hang有两个含义,① "挂",它的过去时与过去分词是hung, hung;② "绞刑",这时它是规则动词,其过去式与过去分词则为hanged, hanged。

 [误] How long can I borrow this book?

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 [正] How long can I keep this book?

[析] "借"在英文中有三个词,① 借入,即borrow,如:May I borrow some books from the library?② 借出,如:I can lend my bike to you.③ 借多久要用keep, 因为borrow与lend都是截止性动词,而keep是延续性动词。如 How long can I keep it?

 [误] We have won your class.

 [正] We have beaten your class.

 [析] win是及物动词,其后面的宾语应是比赛、战争、奖品、奖金。而beat的宾语,应是人、队、班级等等,如:We won the game.  [误] I left my key.

 [正] I forgot my key.

 [正] I left my key at home.

 [析] leave是"丢下",其后一定要接地点状语,而forget其后不要接地点状语。

 [误] Oh! It's raining outside. Please bring the rain coat with you.  [正] Oh! It's raining outside. Please take this rain coat with you.  [析] bring为"带来"如:Next time bring your little sister here.而take为"带走",fetch为"去某处取什么回来",如:Please fetch some coffee for us 要熟记的是在初中课文中与take有关的词组,如:

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 take away 拿走 take back 收回 take down 取下take off 脱下 take…out 拿出 take place 发生 take hold of 拿住 take part in 参加 take a seat 坐下take one's place 替代 take a look 看看 take one's turn 轮流 take a message 捎信 take care of 照看 take it easy 别着急take one's time 慢慢来 take one's temperature 测量体温  [误] The policeman reached his gun.

 [正] The policeman reached for his gun.

 [析] reach作"到达"讲时是及物动词,如:I reached the hotel at 8∶30但作"伸手去拿",则要用reach for something。作为"到达"讲时还有arrive (in+大地方)(at+较小的地方)和get to.要注意的是与get有关的词组有: get back 回来 get in 收割 get into 进入 get off 下车 get on 上车 get out 出去 get up 起床 get to 到达 get ready for=be ready for  get on well with 与人相处融洽 get 加比较级为变得如何,例如: get colder and colder.

 [误] This dictionary spent me five dollars.

 [正] This dictionary cost me five dollars.

 [析] 英文中的"花费"有4个spend, cost, take 和 pay,其中spend 与pay所在句中的主语应为人,如:I spent two hours in doing my homework. I paid five dallars for the book.而cost与take的主语则是事物,如:It takes me two years to finish this book.

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 [误] In summer I always sleep with the windows opened.  [正] In summer I always sleep with the windows open.  [正] I always sleep with the windows closed.

 [析] 要注意open是动词也是形容词,而close则要用其过去分词作形容词。

[误] Please wait a minute. I'm having on my clothes.

 [正] Please wait a minute. I'm putting on my clothes.

 [析] 英语中的穿衣服要分状态,是什么样的穿着打扮,还是穿衣服的动作两类动词。表示穿着状态的词有have on, wear,在用法上have on不宜用进行时态,它多用一般时态,如:She has on a new school dress. 而wear则多用进行时来表示状态,如:She is wearing a new sweater.在表示动作的词中put on是常用的一词。dress用作动词当"穿衣"讲时其后宾语不应接衣物,而要接人,如:My children were very young they couldn't dress themselves.在表示穿着状态时用其过去分词当形容词,如:He is dressed in white.

[ 误] My computer can't begin. Could you find someone to help me?  [正] My computer can't start. Could you find someone to help me? [ 析] begin与start均可指"开始",而且常常可以互换,如:School begins (starts) at 8 a. m. 但是在两种情况下不宜用begin 而要用start, ① 当作机器开动、发动讲,如:My car can't start. There must be

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something wrong with it.② 作为"旅途开始"讲,如:We should have to start early. There was a lot of traffic on the road.

 [误] I'm very glad because I have founded my lost key.

 [正] I'm very glad because I have found my lost key.

[析] find是不规则动词,它的过去式和过去分词是found, found,而found又是另外一词"建立",它是规则动词,其过去式与过去分词是founded founded, 如:The People's Republic of China was founded in 1949.

 [误] Please. Let's speak in English.

 [正] Please. Let's speak English.

 [正] Please. Let's talk in English.

 [误] Can you speak it English?

 [正] Can you say it in English?

 [析] 英文中"说"有4个常用词say, tell, speak, talk.其中不及物动词有speak和talk,如:I want to talk with you.We are talking about the new film.而speak其后接语言时是及物动词,其他情况是不及物动词。say 与tell是及物动词,其中tell常用双宾语,如:Tell us a story.但用于讲实话或谎话时也用单宾语。如: Tell the truth.

 [误] Can you say Japanese from Chinese?

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 [正] Can you tell Japanese from Chinese?

 [析] tell…from为固定词组,即分辨两者的不同。

 [误] Excuse me, did I step on your foot?

 [正] Oh, sorry, did I step on your foot?

 [析] excuse me用于未打扰对方前,以提醒对方注意的用语,而sorry则是由于自己已做的事向对方道歉。

 [误] Would you care for to swim with us?

 [正] Would you care to swim with us?

 [析] care for 后接不定式时,要省略for,或换用名词,如:Would you care for a cup of tea. care for 作"照顾"讲时与look after相同。在初中阶段学习与for有关的词组有:

 ask for 请求 call for 接人,请人 care for 关心

go in for 从事 answer for 负责 look for 寻找

wait for 等待 send for 请人 pay for 付款

search for 寻找 leave for 去某地 prepare for 准备

thank somebody for something 为某事向某人道谢。

 [误] Are you understanding it? Yes, I got to it.

 [正] Do you understand it? Yes, I got it.

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[析] understand这一词没有进行时态,如同感观动词love、hate… I got it 是美语,即I understood it。要记住get 作为"到达"讲时是不及物动词,如:I'll get to the school at 8 a. m. 初中范围常用与to有关的动词词组如下: belong to 属于 come to 苏醒 point to (at) 指着get to 到达 refer to 谈到 stick to 坚持lead to 导致 turn to 翻到 look forward to 期望agree to 同意

 [误] The meat has gone badly.

 [正] The meat has gone bad.

 [析] 英语中go, get, become, turn作为转变时,其后接形容词,这时这些动词应被看作系动词。

 [误] The teacher said the earth moved around the sun.

 [正] The teacher said the earth moves around the sun.

 [析] 如果主句的谓语动词是现在时,其宾语从句可以是任何时态。如果是过去时,则宾语从句中的时态应与之呼应。但地球围绕太阳转是不随时间而变化的客观事实,所以还应用一般现在时态来表达。

 [误] I'll come to see you as soon as I'll be back.

 [正] I'll come to see you as soon as I am back.

 [析] 在状语从句中要用一般时来表示将来,如:I should tell him when he came back.

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[误] I want to know whether you come to my party tomorrow or not. [正] I want to know whether you will come to my party tomorrow or not.

 [析] 在宾语从句中则要用将来时表示将来的动作。要注意的是如果宾语从句中仍有状语从句时,依然要用一般现在时表示将来,如:I want to know if it rains tomorrow you'll come here or not.

 [误] What did you do at eight last night?

 [正] What were you doing at eight last night?

 [析] 在描述过去某一具体时刻的动作或从某时到某时一段时间内正在进行的动作要用过去进行时,如:I was washing clothes from eight till noon last Sunday

 [误] My classmates came to see a film yesterday. I didn't go with them, because I have seen it before.

 [正] My classmates came to see a film yesterday. I didn't go with them because I had seen it before.

 [析] 现在完成时与过去完成时的相同之处是其动作均开始于过去的某一点,它的差别在于该动作是截止到什么时候。如动作截止到现在用现在完成时;如动作截止到过去,用过去完成时。例如:I've learnt English for three years.(到现在为止)又如:Before I went to college, I had learnt English for three years. (动作截止到上大学那时,即

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截止于过去)

 [误] I'm feeling well now.

 [正] I feel well now.

 [析] 瞬间动词有些无进行时态,它们是:表示思维状态的词:believe, feel, forget, imagine, know, mean, need, prefer, remember, understand, want 表示感情的动词:care, like, do like, love, mind, hate, fear 表示状态的词:belong, own 感观动词: feel, hear, see, smell, taste

 [误] When have you done this work?

 [正] When did you do this work?

 [析] when提问的是一个时间点不可用于完成时态的问句中。  [误] This is our new English teacher. He has gone to many foreign countries.

 [正] This is our new English teacher. He has been to many foreign countries.

 [析] have gone to 是到某地去了,此人现在不在这里。have been to 是到过某地,现在此人在说话现场。

 [误] I have borrowed this book for two weeks.

 [正] I have kept this book for two weeks.

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 [析] 截止性动词有完成时态,但不可和与表达一段时间的时间状语连用。如:When I got to the cinema the film had begun. 但要讲When I got to the cinema the film had be on for five minutes 这样的用法还有buy, join, die, 如:I bought this book yesterday.我昨天买的这本书。 I have had this book for two days. 这本书我已买了两天了。  I joined the club two years ago.两年前我加入了这个俱乐部。

 I have been in this club for two years. 我加入这个俱乐部已两年了。  My father died five years ago. 我父亲是5年前去世的。

 My father has been dead for five years. 我父亲已去世5年了。  [误] Have you understood the lessons?

 [正] Do you understand the lessons?

[析] 有些动词不易用完成时态,它们是understand, think, believe, know (知道)

 [误] It was said that the Second World War had broken out in 1939.  [误] It was said that the Second World War was broken out in 1939. [ 析] 在讲述过去的历史事件时,总要用过去时而不要用完成时,而且happen, break out, take place作为发生讲时均没有被动语态。  [误] When I walked along the street. I happened to meet an old friend.

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[ 正] When I was walking along the street I happened to meet an old friend.

 [析] 在一个长动作发生或进行的过程中,某一突然事件发生,这时长动作应用进行时(现在进行时或过去进行时),而突发性动作用一般时(一般现在时或一般过去时),如:When my father is reading a newspaper the telephone rings.

 [误] Please buy a book for me.

 [正] Please buy me a book.

 [正] Please buy a book to me.

 [析] 在接双宾语的动词后面的两个宾语,一个是直接宾语,一个是间接宾语,如:Buy me a book中me是间接宾语,而a book是直接宾语。如果将直接宾语前置,其后应加to,如: Tell me a story. Tell a story to me. Give me a book. Give a book to me.

 [误] He was seen come into the book store.

 [正] He was seen to come into the book store.

 [析] 在主动语态中,有时可以加不带to的不定式作宾语,如:I saw him come into the book store.但如果变为被动语态时,则要将省略的to还原。当然这些动词还可以加动名词作宾语,如: I saw him coming into the book store, 如变为被动语态时,则没有变化。如:He was seen coming into the book store.

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 [误] How nice the book is! Is it sold well?

 [正] How nice the book is! Does it sell well?

[ 析] 有些动词可以表示一种动作,但也可以用来表示某种性质,表示动作时可用被动语态,在表示性质时则不可用被动语态。如:  This book sells well. 这本书畅销。

 This car drives easily. 这车容易驾驶。

 These clothes wash easily. 这些衣服好洗。

 在作上述表达时,不要用被动语态。而要讲:

 This kind of book was sold out. (这种书卖完了)

 These clothes were washed by the washing machine. 这时要用被动语态,因为它描述的是具体动作。

 [误] Must I do it now?

No. you mustn't.

 [正] Must I do it now? No, you needn't.

 [析] need用在疑问句和否定句中常用作情态动词,其后接不带to的不定式。由must提问的问句作答语时,如是肯定的要用must,否定的要用needn't,即为没有必要。在肯定句中常用作实意动词,如:I need to wait for my boy.

 [误] Is this book yours?

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 Yes, It's.

 [正] Is this book yours?

Yes, It is.

 [析] 在肯定的回答中不要用缩写形式,而在否定的回答中可以用缩写形式,如:No. It isn't.

 [误] I'll have my bike repair tomorrow.

 [正] I'll have my bike repaired tomorrow.

 [析] have+人+动词原形或现在分词意为:让某人作某事,如:My father had me to learn how to drive, 或My father had me doing my homework from morning till might have+物+动词的过去分词为某件事被别人完成。如:I have my hair cut.我去理发。而不是自己理发。如果讲我想自己作某事,则用I want to repair my bike myself.  [误] I'll get my brother repair the bike for you.

 [正] I'll get my brother to repair the bike for you.

 [析] have与get的用法有相同之处,也有不同之处。相同之处,如:have something done, 也可用get something done, 或have (get) somebody doing something但不同之处在于have somebody do something 在用get时则要用get somebody to do something。

 [误] I have to study on Saturday but I haven't to study a full day

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 [正] I have to study on Saturday, but I don't have to study a full day.

 [析] have to 不得不,而don't have to 为其否定式。

 [误] Is Tom in the classroom? No. He mustn't be in the classroom, because I saw him talking with our teacher in the office just now.

 [正] Is Tom in the classroom? No. He can't be in the classroom because I saw him talking with our teacher in the office just now.

 [析] must 加动词原形表达一种比较肯定的推测,而表示否定的推测则要用can't。

 [误] My grandpa is over eighty but he is able to read without glasses.

 [正] My grandpa is over eighty, but he can read without glasses.  [析] can (could) 多用于表达客观的事实,主观能力,而be able to 则多用于表达主观的意愿。

 [误] She doesn't answer the doorbell. She should be asleep.  [正] She doesn't answer the doorbell.  She must be asleep [析] should 用于现在时态的句子中应译为"应该",如:You should do your homework right away. 而 must加动词原形表示一种推测。  [误] Do you like to go with us?

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 [正] Would you like to go with us?

 [析] Do you like…问的是习惯,如:Do you like swimming? 而would you like是一次性的邀请。

 [误] I am used to get up early in the morning.

 [正] I am used to getting up early in the morning.

 [析] used to 共有三种用法,① 表示过去的习惯,如:I used to live with my parents. ② 表示过去的习惯延续到现在,如:I am used to swimming in the river. ③ 用于被动语态,如: Oil is used to cook

 [误] To play with the children are very interesting.

 [正] To play with the children is very interesting.

 [析] 不定式作主语时,应视为单数主语,特别是两个不定式用and作连词作主语时,如指的是一件事也应用单数谓语动词。如:To get up early and to go to sleep early is good for your health.

 [误] He asked me do my homework alone.

 [正] He asked me to do my homework alone.

 [析] 某些动词要求不定式作其宾语或宾语补足语,它们是:ask somebody to do something 要求某人做某事。 tell somebody to do something 告诉某人做某事 还有prepare 准备, decide 决定, happen to 碰巧, seem 似乎。

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 [误] he told me to drive a car.

 [正] He told me how to drive a car.

 [析] 要学会疑问词加不定式的用法,特别要注意的是what是疑问代词,而how是疑问副词。如:I want to know what to do. (我想知道干什么)。 I want to know how to do it. (我想知道如何去作)。 要注意的是how to do it 中的it是不可少的,因how是疑问副词,不能作及物动词的宾语,而what是疑问代词,可做do的宾语,所以what to do 后不要加it。

 [误] I am very glad meeting you.

 [正] I am very glad to meet you.

 [析] 许多形容词后加不定式,这样用时形容词多是用来描述人物的感情、态度,如:glad, happy, pleased, lucky, sorry, sad, upset, ready, careful, surprised。

 [误] I'm too glad for seeing you.

 [正] I'm too glad to see you.

 [析] 这句话不能按照too…to的句型翻译为:我太高兴了以至于不想见你。而应译为:见到你太高兴了。又如:She is too honest to tell the truth 应译为:她很诚实,不会不讲实话。

 [误] Tom is too young not to join the army.

 [正] Tom is too young to join the army.

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 [析] 这是too…to的正常用法,太如何如何以至于不能如何。  [误] I went to the hospital for seeing my old friend. He was ill in hospital.

 [正] I went to the hospital to see my old friend. He was ill in hospital.

 [析] 在句中表示某动作的目的时,要用不定式而不能用for加动名词。

 [误] Could you help me to find a chair to sit.

 [正] Could you help me to find a chair to sit on.

 [析] 当不定式作后置定语时,将不定式放于名词之后。如果不定式中的动词是不及物动词,则其后面的介词不要省略。如:I sat on the chair. 这样的用法还有:I want to find a room to live in. I want to find a pen to write with.

 [误] When mother was about leaving the baby cried suddenly.  [正] When mother was about to leave the baby cried suddenly.  [析] be about to 是表达较近的即将发生的动作,可用来表示将来时,或按计划、安排的事。

 [误] This work is difficult to be done.

 [正] This work is difficult to do.

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 [析] 在不定式作宾语时,下列情况常用主动语态表示被动。① 句子的主语即是不定式动作的执行者,如:I have a lot of letters to write. ② 句中的宾语是不定式中动作的执行者,如:Could you find me a job to do? ③ 在形容词之后的不定式,如:English is difficult to learn.  [误] Would you like to see a film with us? Yes, I'd love.  [正] Would you like to see a film with us? Yes, I'd love to.  [析] 在口语简答语中要将不定式符号保留,如: I had to (不得不作) I'm going to (打算作) I used to (过去习惯作) I'd love to (喜欢作) I hope to (希望作某事) I'll be glad to (高兴作)

 [误] Did you see someone to do this work for me?

 [正] Did you see someone do this work for me?

 [析] 在感观动词之后常接不带to的不定式。这些词是see, look at, watch, hear, listen to, feel, notice。

 [误] He was seen prepare this car.

 [正] He was seen to prepare this car.

 [析] 在被动语态中要将主动语态句中省去的不定式还原回来。  [误] Please Let my child to try it again.

 [正] Please Let my child try it again.

 [析] 在make, have, let后加不带to的不定式作宾语补足语。

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 [误] Why not to do it again?

 [正] Why not do it again?

[析] Why not, you'd better 后接不带to的不定式,如:You'd better go.但要注意的是它的否定式是You'd better not go.

 [误] When he heard the news he couldn't help to cry.

 [正] When he heard the news he couldn't help crying.

 [析] can't help+现在分词表示情不自禁作某事。

 [误] In autumn, the street is always covered with falling leaves.  [正] In autumn, the street is always covered with fallen leaves.  [析] 现在分词作定语有正在的含义,如:falling leave 正下落的叶子。而过去分词作定语fallen leaves是落地的叶子。过去分词含有已经完成的意思。

 [误] Do you hear someone sing in the office?

 [正] Do you hear someone singing in the office?

 [析] 感观动词可用不带to的不定式来作宾语补足语,表达一个动作的全过程或已结束的动作,而用现在分词表示一个正在进行中的动作。

 [误] I want to shop some food for supper.

 [正] I want to buy some food for supper.

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 [正] I want to go shopping.

 [析] shop作买东西讲时,要用go shopping,其后不要加所购买的东西。这样的用法还有: go boating 划船 go sailing 航海 go skating 滑冰go shooting 射击 go dancing 去跳舞 go fishing 钓鱼go swimming 去游泳…… 不要用错,也不要改为其他式,因为这是习惯用法。

[误] When the teacher came into the classroom, the students stopped to talk.

[正] When the teacher came into the classroom. the students stopped talking.

 [析] stop to do something 是停下来去做某事,而stop doing something 则是停止做某事。

 [误] I didn't remember closing the door, so the thief came into the room directly.

 [正] I didn't remember to close the door, so the thief came into the room directly.

 [析] remember后接不定式是记着去做某事,即该动作并没有完成。而remember 后接动名词则表明该动作已经作完了。如: Do remember to turn off the light, before you leave. 即在你离开前记着去关灯。而关灯的动作并没有做。I remember meeting you somewhere. 我

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记得在某处见过你。而相见一事已经作完了。相同用法还有forget。  [误] When I finished to do this work I would go to play football.  [正] When I finished doing this work I would go to play football.  [析] 在英语中有些动词后要接动名词作宾语。在初中范围主要有两个动词finish和enjoy, 千万不要与like相比。因为like作动词"喜欢"用时,其后接动名词表示习惯性动作,接不定式表示一次性特殊的动作,而would you like后面则一定要用不定式。

 [误] When he finished his homework, he went on playing the football.

 [正] When he finished his homework, he went on to play football.  [析] go on to do something 是做完一件事紧跟着做另一件事。而go on doing something 是在做一件事的过程中被打断后接着再继续做这件事。

 [误] He's busy to prepare his lessons.

 [正] He's busy preparing his lessons.

 [析] be busy 后加doing 而不能接不定式。

 (三) 例题解析

1 Mr Zhang asked me ___ the words again.

A. read

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B. reads

C. to read

D. reading

 [答案] C.

 [析] ask somebody to do something 要求某人作某事。 2 You ___ play on the road. It's dangerous. A. mustn't

B. may

C. can

D. must

 [答案] A.

 [析] must 用于否定句表示禁止做某事。

3 Mr Brown ___ in Beijing since 1993.

A. work

B. works

C. worked

D. has worked

 [答案] D.

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 [析] 句中有since引导的时间状语,因此句中要用完成时态。 4 I ___ a letter when my mother came in.

A. write

B. am writing

C. was writing

D. will write

 [答案] C.

 [析] 当母亲进来时是一个瞬时的动作,而写信是一个长动作,所以写信这个动作应用过去进行时态,表示在写信过程中发生的另一个短动作。

5 It's not an important party, you needn't ___ .

A. pay for it

B. wear it out

C. try it out

D. dress up for it

 [答案] D. [析] pay for-为某物,某人付款,wear out-穿坏,磨破,tryout-选拔,挑选,而dress up-梳妆打扮。

6 Can I ___ a bike from him?

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A. lend

B. return

C. give

D. borrow

 [答案] D.

 [析] borrow something from…为向某人某处借某物。而lend, return, give后面的介词应用to。

7- Must I stay at home?

- No, you ___ .

A. mustn't

B. needn't

C. may not

D. can not

 [答案] B.

 [析] needn't 为"没有必要必须做某事",而mustn't为"禁止做",can not为"不能做"。根据题意是:你不一定待在家里。

8- How long have you ___ here?

- About two months.

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A. been

B. gone

C. come

D. arrived

 [答案] A.

 [析] have been here是个状态,可以与后面的长时间状语连接,而其他三个动词都是瞬间动词。

9 Stamps ___ by people for sending letters.

A. use

B. using

C. used

D. are used

 [答案] D.

 [析] 这里是被动语态,意为邮票被人们用来发信。

10 The radio says Tianjin will be ___ tomorrow.

A. rains

B. rain

C. rained

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D. rainy

 [答案] D.

 [析] rainy为形容词作表语。

11 If you don't know this word, ___ in the dictionary. A. look for it

B. look at it

C. look after it

D. look it up

 [答案] D.

 [析] look up 查字典,与look有关的词组有:look about 四周环视

look after 照顾

look around 周围,四处看

look at 看

look back 回顾

look for 寻找

look forward to 期待

look out 当心

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look like 看上去像

12 My father told me ___ play on the street.

A. not

B. to not

C. not to

D. did not

 [答案] C.

 [析] 不定式的否定式是not to do something.

13 There is going to ___ an English party this evening. A. be

B. has

C. have

D. is

 [答案] A.

[析] 这里是there be 无生命的"有"加助动词的句型,即there will be,而没有there have 的句型。

14 There ___ no bus stop here last year.

A. is

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B. was

C. are

D. were

 [答案] B.

 [析] last year为去年,所以用过去时。而there be 句型的单复数要看be动词之后离之最近的名词是单数还是复数。如:There is a pen and two pencils on the desk.

15 Our school will hold a sports meeting if it ___ tomorrow. A. isn't rain

B. rains

C. won't rain

D. doesn't rain

 [答案] D.

 [析] 在状语从句中应用一般时态来表示将来。

16 Bikes mustn't ___ everywhere.

A. be put

B. be putted

C. put

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D. putting

 [答案] A.

 [析] 这里是被动语态。与put有关的词组如下:

put away 放好 put off 推迟 put on 穿上 put out 扑灭 put down 放下

17 Neither Li Lei nor Han Meimei ___ Harbin.

A. have been to

B. has been to

C. have gone to

D. has gone to

 [答案] B.

 [析] has been to 是去过某处。

18 It's cold today you'd better ___ more coats.

A. put on

B. take off

C. to put on

D. to take off

 [答案] A.

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 [析] 'd better 其后加不带to的不定式,而put on 为"穿上"。 19 Henry ___ a birthday card for Sam yesterday.

A. has bought

B. buys

C. bought

D. will buy

 [答案] C.

 [析] 因句中的yesterday为表达过去的时间状语,所以应用过去时态。

20 When I got to the factory, the workers ___ about the filim. A. are talking

B. talked

C. were talking

D. have talked

 [答案] C.

[ 析] 状语从句中所用的动词为过去时,则主句中也要与之呼应。而工人们在谈论电影为一长时间的动作,所以要用过去进行时。 21 No hurry, please ___ your time.

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第一课件网 www.1kejian.com 免费教学资源下载基地 A. take

B. bring

C. carry

D. catch

 [答案] A.

 [析] take one's time 慢慢来别着急。

22 I enjoy ___ the light music.

A. to listen to

B. listening to

C. hearing

D. to hear

 [答案] B.

 [析] enjoy 与 finish其后只能接动名词作宾语补足语。23 Please ___ as soon as you get there.

A. ring me up

B. ring up me

C. wake me up

D. wake up me

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 [答案] A.

 [析] ring up打电话,而wake up唤醒。英文中有很多动词词组如其宾语是代词时,一定要放在动词与介词之间。

24 When I ___ , I want to be a teacher.

A. grows up

B. grow up

C. shall grow

D. grew up

 [答案] B.

 [析] grow up 长大。而状语从句要用现在时表示将来,即使主句也用的是一般现在时,但它含有将来之意。

25 I called him and he ___ to have a talk with me.

A. stop

B. stops

C. stoped

D. stopped

 [答案] D.

 [析] 这是由and连接的两个并列句,所以时态应保持一致。

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26 - Would you please ___ me an evaser, Lucy?

- Certainly. Here you are.

A. borrow

B. lend

C. borrowed

D. lent

 [答案] B.

 [析] would you please其后接不带to的不定式即动词原形,而borrow为"借入"而lend为"借出"。

27 Trees ___ in spring.

A. plant

B. were planted

C. should be planted

D. should plant

 [答案] C.

[析] should用于一般现在时态中表示应该,而此句又是被动语态。 28 - Where's your father?

- He ___ to Paris.

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A. go

B. goes

C. went

D. has gone

 [答案] D.

 [析] has gone 是已去某处了,不在这里了。所以强调过去的动作影响到现在。

29 - Must I finish my homework in class now?

- No, you ___ . You can do it at home.

A. mustn't

B. may not

C. needn't

D. can

 [答案] C.

 [析] needn't表示没有必要一定要这样做。由must提问,肯定句用must,否定句用needn't.

30 Thank you very much for ___ your book ___ me. A. lending, to

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B. lent, to

C. borrow, from

D. borrowing,from

 [答案] A.

 [析] for是介词,要用动名词作介词宾语。

31 The Great Green Wall will stop the wind from ___ the earth away.

A. blowing

B. blow

C. blows

D. to blow

 [答案] A.

 [析] stop…from doing something. 阻止某人或某物作某事。 32 The students will go to the West Hill Farm by bike, if it ___ fine tomorrow.

A. will be

B. is

C. shall be

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D. was

 [答案] B.

33 Our teacher always tells us ___ in the street. It's too dangerous.

A. don't play

B. not to play

C. to play

D. not play

 [答案] B.

 [析] 不定式的否定式为not to do。

34 English is a useful language. It ___ widely in the world. A. is spoken

B. was spoken

C. can speak

D. will speak

 [答案] A.

 [析] 本句为被动语态。

35 The kite is flying high in the sky. It ___ a bird.

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第一课件网 www.1kejian.com 免费教学资源下载基地 A. looks at

B. looks like

C. looks for

D. looks after

 [答案] B.

 [析] look like 像……,其中like 为介词。 36- Look! What's Wang Ping doing over there?

- She ___ under a big tree.

A. sings

B. sang

C. has sung

D. is singing

 [答案] D.

37 You ___ see a doctor. You've got a bad cold. A. will

B. are going to

C. had better

D. could

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 [答案] C.

 [析] had better 最好,意为一种真心的劝告。

38 Your radio is too loud. Would you please ___ ?

A. turn down it

B. turn it down

C. to turn down it

D. to turn it down

 [答案] B.

 [析] would you please 后面加动词原形。

39 Could you tell me if it ___ tomorrow?

A. rains

B. is raining

C. will rain

D. rain

 [答案] C.

 [析] if从句是宾语从句,而不是状语从句。所以还是要用将来时,而不能用一般现在时表示将来。

40 Suddenly one of the bags ___ the truck and landed in the

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middle of the road.

A. fell out

B. fell down

C. fell off

D. will be

 [答案] C.

 [析] fall off 掉落,与off有关的词组有 see off 送行 give off 散发 shut off 关闭 kick off 踢掉 turn off 关闭 get off 下车 jump off 跳下 show of 炫耀 take off 脱下 pay off 付清

41 He ___ at this school since two years ago.

A. was

B. has been

C. is

D. will be

 [答案] B.

 [析] since引导的时间状语应与完成时相呼应。

42 She doesn't know ___ .

A. when to do

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B. what to do

C. how to do

D. where to do

 [答案] B.

 [析] when, how, where均为疑问副词,而what为疑问代词,又因do是及物动词需要宾语。如用疑问副词时应为when to do it, how to do it, where to do it.

43 Must older people ___ to politely.

A. speak

B. spoken

C. be spoke

D. be spoken

 [答案] D.

 [析] 这句话的主动语态应为People must speak politely to older people对年龄较大的人讲话应有礼貌。

44 Teachers usually ask their students ___ loudly in class. A. to speak

B. speak

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C. speaks

D. spoke

 [答案] A.

 [析] ask somebody to do something 要求某人作某事。 45 - Where is Mr Zhang?

- Look! He ___ on a big machine over there.

A. works

B. worked

C. is working

D. has worked

 [答案] C.

 [析] 由look, liston等词开始的句子一般要用现在进行时态。 46 There's a football match. Please ___ the TV at once. Let's watch together.

A. turn on

B. take off

C. turn off

D. go on

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 [答案] A.

[析] turn on 打开。与turn有关的词组有: turn against 背叛 turn on 打开 turn +颜色 变为某种颜色 turn off 关闭 turn over 翻转 turn to 翻到某页 turn into 变为 turn up 向上翻

47 Please tell me where ___ have our picnic tomorrow. A. we will

B. will we

C. will

D. will you

 [答案] A.

 [析] where 引导的从句是宾语从句,而不是状语从句。

48 We ___ English for three years already. And we can speak a little English now.

A. learn

B. have learned

C. has learned

D. will learn

 [答案] B.

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 [析] for+表示一段长度的时间词,应与完成时相呼应。 49 At last, Lin Feng made the baby ___ and begin to laugh. A. stop to cry

B. stop crying

C. to stop to cry

D. to stop crying

 [答案] B.

 [析] make somebody do (or doing) something, stop doing 意为停止做某事。

50 Our classroom must ___ clean every day.

A. keep

B. to keep

C. be kept

D. to be kept

 [答案] C.

 [析] 应为被动语态。

51 I hear there ___ a sports meeting in our school next week.

A. is going to have

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B. will have

C. is going to be

D. are going to be

 [答案] C.

[析] 这是hear 的宾语从句是there be 句型。而且是用了be going to形式。

52 It's getting colder, Peter. You'd better ___ this coat with you.

A. bring

B. carry

C. take

D. get

 [答案] C.

 [析] bring 带来,take 带走。

53 Our classroom is clean and tidy.It ___ every day. A. cleans

B. is cleaning

C. cleaned

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D. is cleaned

 [答案] D.

 [析] 这里表达的是经常的一种状态,所以应用一般现在时的被动语态。

54 If you are not careful in the street, a car may ___ you. A. hurt

B. hit

C. run

D. catch

 [答案] B.

 [析] hit撞上,碰上,击中

55 The farmers were busy ___ ready for the next year. A. got

B. getting

C. to get

D. get

 [答案] B.

 [析] be busy后应用动词的ing形式。

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