A good beginning is half done. 良好的开端是成功的一半。
How do you learn English?
I learn English by working with friends.
by working with friends
I learn English by making flashcards.
by making flashcards
I learn English by reading the textbook.
by reading the textbook
I learns English by making vocabulary lists.
by making vocabulary lists
I learn English by listening to tapes.
by listening to tapes
I learn English by asking the teacher for help.
by asking the teacher for help
1a Check (?) the ways you study for an English test. Then add other ways you use sometimes. by working with friends by making flashcards
by reading the textbook
by making vocabulary lists by listening to tapes by asking the teacher for help by surfing the Internet . by reading English magazines .
a ____ 1. Mei
c ____ 2. Pierre
b ____ 3. Antonio
1b. Listen. How do these students study for a test? Write letters from the pictures above.
How does Mei study for a test?
She studies by making flashcards.
How does Antonio study for a test?
He studies by asking the teacher for help.
How does Pierre study for a test?
He studies by listening to tapes.
Ask your partner how he or she
studies for a test.
A: How do you study for a test? B: I study by working with a group.
by working with friends
by making flashcards
by asking the teacher for help
by surfing the Internet
by watching English movies
by practising with foreigners
by reading the textbook
by listening to the tapes
I study English by watching English movies. by surfing the Internet.
by asking the teacher for help.
by + V-ing
▲ “by + 动名词”常常表示手段、方 式或方法，可以用来回答“how” 引导的特殊疑问句。 By的其他用法： by是个很常用的介词（有时也用 作副词），在初中英语中的用法有 以下几种：
(1) 意为“在……旁”、“靠近”。 有的在大树下唱歌跳舞, 有的在湖边 画画儿。Some are singing and dancing under a big tree. Some are drawing by the lake.
We should get there by evening.
(3) 表示方法、手段，可译作“靠”、 “用” 、“凭借”、“通过”、 “乘坐”等。
They crossed the river by boat.
(4) 用于被动句中，表示行为主体， 常译作“被”、“由”等。如： English is spoken by many people. 英语被许多人所说。（即“许多 人讲英语。”）
考点一 : by, in, with, on by 指通过某种方式；用某种交通工具 by listening by bike
in 后面加衣服颜色，声音或写字材料 in red in ink in a low voice
with her hand
with a pencil
on the phone/radio
on her bike
请用墨水写。 Please wri
te in ink.
我们用腿走路。 We walk with our legs. 小明通过收音机学英语。 Xiao Ming learns English on the radio. The two kids practice spoken by joining the English English____ club.
2a Listen and check(?)the questions you hear.
1. ? Do you learn English by watching English-language videos? 2. ? Do You ever practice conversations with friends? 3. What about listening to tapes? 4. ? What about reading aloud to practice pronunciation? 5. ? Have you ever studied with a group?
2b Listen again and match each question above with an answer below.
Questions Answers 1. Do you learn English by watching d English-language videos? 2. Do you ever practice conversations b with friends? 3. What about listening to tapes? 4. What about reading aloud to practice c pronunciation? 5. Have you ever studied with a group? a a. Yes, I have. I’ve learned a lot that way. b. Oh, yes. It improves my speaking skills. c. I do that sometimes. I think it helps. d. No. it’s too hard to understand the voices.
A: Welcome to the English club. Today we’re going to talk about the best ways to learn English. Who has an idea ?
B: Do you learn English by watching English-language videos? C: No. It’s too hard to understand the voices . B: What about keeping a diary in English? Do you learn English that way? C: I think so. It helps to write English every day. D: Have you ever studied with a group? C: Yes, I have! I’ve learned a lot that way . A: Do you ever practice conversations with friends ? C: Oh, yes. It improves my speaking skills. B: What about reading aloud to practice pronunciation? D: I do that sometimes. I think it helps.
E: I do too. And I always look up new words in a dictionary. D: That’s a good idea!
1. aloud adv. 出声地，大声地
loudly 以与loud互换，常跟talk, speak , shout, laugh 连用
记忆方法 大声三剑客，出声大aloud , 嗓门大 loud,
为使人听见而出声,常和 read, think 连用 adv. 大声地 （含有喧闹的意思）在口语中可
Listen! All the students are reading English ______ in the classroom . Don’t speak so ____. The baby is sleeping.
2. It’s too hard to understand the voices.
▲ “too + 形容词/副词 + to + 动词原形”结构， 意为“太……而不能……”，该句型用于肯 定句，但表示否定的意义。 He is too young to go to school. 他太小了，不能去上学。 ▲ too…to…前面有never，not，only，but等 词时，或出现too …not to do的双重否定时， 否定词与不定式中的否定意义结合起来构成 了肯定意义。 It’s never too old to learn. 活到老，学到老。
Look at the pictures, ask and answer in pairs. For example:
A: Have you ever studied with a group? B: Yes, I have. I’ve learned a lot that way.
A: Have you ever studied by reading books? B: Yes, I have. I’ve learned a lo
t that way.
A: Have you ever studied by listening to tapes? B: Yes, I have. I’ve learned a lot that way.
A: Have you ever studied by surfing the Internet?
B: Yes, I have. I’ve learned a lot that way.
1. 现在完成时的谓语结构 主语 + have/has + 动词过去分词 e.g. I have lived here since I was born. 我一出生就生活在这里。 The little girl has washed her clothes for one hour. 这个小女孩已经洗一个小时的衣服了。
⑴ 强调过去动作对现在造成的影响和结果。 e.g. I have lost my keys. I can’t find them anywhere. (2)表示某种动作或状态从过去某时开始，一直 持续到现在，而且还持续了一段时间。 e.g. I have lived here since I was born.
(3)表示以前曾经做过，表经历。 e.g. I have ever seen the film twice.
3. 现在完成时的一般疑问句结构： 直接将have/has提到主语之前
They have finished the job already. Have they finished the job yet?
4. 现在完成时的否定句结构： 直接在have/has之后加not
They haven’t finished the job yet.
Read the article and complete the chart.
How do you learn best?
This week we asked students at New Star High School about the best ways to learn more English. Many said they learnt by using English. Some students had more specific suggestions. Lillian Li, for example, said the best way to learn new words was by reading English magazines. She said that memorizing the words of pop songs also helped a little. When we asked about studying grammar, she said, “I never study grammar. It’s too boring.” specific adj. 明确的;详细而精确的 memorize(memorizing) v. 记忆;背诵
Wei Ming feels differently. He’s been learning English for six years and really loves it. He thinks studying grammar is a great way to learn a language. He also thinks that watching English movies isn’t a bad way because he can watch the actors say the words. Sometimes, however, he finds watching movies frustrating because the people speak too quickly.
differently adv.不同地;有区别地 frustrate v.使失望;使沮丧;使厌烦 frustrating adj.令人沮丧的;令人失望的 quickly adv.快地;迅速地
Liu Chang said that joining the English club at school was the best way to improve her English. Students get lots of practice and they also have fun. She added that having conversations with friends was not helpful at all. “We get excited about something and then end up speaking in Chinese,” she said.
add v.又说;继续说 excited adj.激动的;兴奋的 get excited about
not at all 根本(不);全然(不)
Complete the chart.
Ways of learning English Not successful Lillian Li OK Successful
memorizing the words of pop songs watching English movies
reading English magazines
studying grammar joining the English club
Liu Chang having
conversations with friends
请根据课文内容判断下列句子的正(T)误(F): ( T )1. Many students thought the best way to learn English is to use it. ( F )2. Lillian Li thought the best way to learn new words was by memorizing them. reading English magazines ( T )3. Lillian Li never studied grammar. ( T )4. Wei Ming has learned English for seventy-two months. ( T )5. Joining the English club at school was Liu Chang’s best way to improve her English. ( F )6. Liu Chang thought having conversations with friends was helpful. was not helpful at all.
1. This week we asked students at New Star High School about the best ways to learn more English. (1) ask sb. about sth.
e.g. Ask students about the best way of learning.
(2) ask sb. to do sth. 要求某人做某事，请 某人做某事，to后面加动词原形。 e.g. He asked his mother to buy him a
(3) ask sb. for sth. 向某人要某物
e.g. You can ask the police for help if you are lost.
句中动词不定式 “to learn more English” 限制修饰名词 “ways”, 作定语，构成固定 结构 “a way to do sth.”，意为 “做...... 的方法”.
e.g. What’s the best way to learn
? ? ?
此外, 表示“做......的方法”, 还可用 “a way of doing sth.” 结构。
e.g. Mother says the best way of helping her is to leave the kitchen.
2. Many said they learnt by using English.
许多学生说他们通过使用英语来学习英语。 many 在这里是代词，而不是形容词，相当 于many students.
e.g. We can put away many of these plates. We don’t need so many.
3. He thinks studying grammar is a great way to learn a language. 他认为学习语法 是学习语言的好方法。 studying grammar 是动名词短语, 省略了 连词that的宾语从句studying grammar is a great way … 中作主语。 动名词作主语, 谓语动词要用单数形式。 Reading is a good habit. 阅读是一个好习惯。
4. he can watch the actors say the words watch sb. do sth. 看见某人做某事，强调
watch sb. doing sth. 看见某人正在做某
事，强调动作正在进行 类似的动词有：hear/see/notice等 e.g. I watched him play basketball in the playground yesterday.
5. 区别：however与but 二者都意为“可是，但是” but是并列名词，连接两个并列分句， 上下二句在总的意义上构成了对比。but 之后一般不使用逗号。 I really don’t like cheese, but I will try just a little this time. 我实在是不喜欢吃奶酪，但是这次我 要尝一点。
however不能直接连接两个分句, 必须 另起新句，并用逗号隔开。 however在位于分句之首时，
通常用 逗号；位于分句之中时，通常在其前后 各加一个逗号；位于分句之尾时，则必 须在其前加逗号。 It was raining hard. However, we went out to look for the boy. 雨下得很大，不过我们还是出去寻找 那个孩子。
6. …he finds watching movies frustrating. ……他发现看电影让人沮丧…… 动词find意思是“发现……处于某种状 态”，后可接形容词作宾语补足语，补 充说明宾语，构成find+宾语+adj.结构。 I find learning English interesting. 我发现学习英语有趣。 He found the door closed. 他发现门关着。
7. (1) frustrating a. 令人灰心的，令人沮 丧的（修饰物，事件）
e.g. Watching movies to learn English is frustrating because the people speak too quickly.
通过看电影来学英语是让人灰心的, 因为 剧中人物说话太快了。
(2) frustrated a.灰心的, 沮丧的(修饰人） e.g. I felt frustrated at that time.
disappointing 令人失望的 boring 无聊的 exciting 令人兴奋的
disappointed 失望的 bored 感到无聊的 excited 兴奋的
8. We get excited about something and … get excited about… 对……感到兴奋， 相当于be excited about…。其中get 强 调动作，be动词强调状态 e.g. we all get excited about the good news. He is excited about the English speech contest.
9. end up doing sth. 最终成为……，
e.g. When we practice speaking English, we often end up speaking in Chinese. 另外，end up with sth. 以…而告终，后 面加名词或动名词，其反义短语begin with… 以…开始。 e.g. The party ended up with her singing. 晚会以她的歌唱而告终。
3b Role play.
If you are Lillian Li, talk about the ways of learning English.
learning English by reading magazines is the best way. memorizing the words of pop songs helps a little. studying grammar is too boring.
4 Pair work. Check what you do to learn English. Then interview your partner.
A: Do you write vocabulary lists?
B: Oh, yes. I do it often
Words: always>often>usually>sometimes>seldom> never
always often usually sometimes seldom never
How do you study for a test? Section B (1)
Pronounce the words solution challenge comma mistake spoken pronounce
n. 解答; 解决 n. 挑战 n. 逗号 n. 犯错;出错 adj. 口语的 v. 发……音
It’s up to you. Here’s your change. I’ll take it. Are you ready to order? Hold on, please. I couldn’t get through.
由你决定。 这是找你的钱。 我买了。 你要点菜了吗？ 请等一会。 我打不通。
Check the statements that are true for you.
I can’t pronounce some of the words. ___
I can’t spell some English words. ___
I can’t understand spoken English. ___ I make mistakes in grammar.
I read very slowly. ____
1b What other things are difficult for you? Make a list. n.逗号 1. I don’t know how to use commas.
2. 3. . .
how to use commas 在句中是“疑问词+ 动词不定式”作宾语，此结构起名词作用， 可转换为一个名词性从句。 I don’t know how I can use commas.
Find out your own difficulties in learning English:
I have a problem. I can’t remember the
I can’t pronounce some of the words.
I can’t understand spoken English.
I always make mistakes in grammar.
I read very slowly.
I don’t know how to speak English well.
look worried get … right practice doing sound like… 看上去焦虑 使……正确 have trouble (in) doing (做……) 有困难
2a Paul is learning English. Listen and check (?) the learning challenges he talks about.
Challenges n.挑战 1. ___ ? can’t get the pronunciation right 2. ___ ? forget a lot of new words 3. ___ ? can’t always understand when people talk to me 4. ___ can’t understand the words in magazines 5. ___ ? don’t get much writing practice
2b Listen again. Match the challenges in 2a with the solutions.
2 You can always write the new words a. ___ in your notebook and study them at home. 5 You should find a pen pal. b. ___ 1 Listening can help. c. ___ 3 Why don’t you join an English d. ___ language club to practice speaking English?
辨析：join/ join in/ take part in join 意为“加入某一种组织，成为其 中一员（become a member of）”。join 后面还可接表示人的名词或代词，表示 加入到某人或某些人的活动中去。 My uncle joined the Party in 1978. 我叔叔是1978年入党的。 We are going for a swim. Will you come and join us? 我们要去游泳，你来同我们一起去好吗？
join in 表示“加入”，“参与”某种 活动，in 之后可接名词或动名词。表示 “参加某人的活动”可以说 join sb, in (doing) sth.。 He joined them in the work. 他同他们一起工作。 Will you join us in playing basketball? 你跟我们一起打篮球好吗？
take part in 表示“参加某种活动”， 与 join in 同义，一般可以互相替换，但 “参加会议”多用 take part in。 The teacher took part in (或 joined in) our discussion yesterday. 昨天老师参加了我们的讨论。 When will you take part in the meeting? 你将什么时候参加会议？
Pairwork Practice giving suggestions
A: I don’t have a partner to practice B: Maybe you should join an English
You can join an English language club. You should join an …. Joining an English club can help. Why don’t you join an …?
How I learned to learn English
Last year my English class was difficult for me. Firs
t of all, it wasn’t easy for me to understand the teacher when she talked to the class. To begin with, she spoke too quickly, and I couldn’t understand every word. Later on, I realized that it doesn’t matter if you don’t understand every word. Also I was afraid to speak in class, because I thought my classmates might laugh at me. I couldn’t always make complete sentences, either.
Then I started to watch English-language TV. It helped a lot. I think that doing lots of listening practice is one of the secrets of becoming a good language learner. Another thing that I found very difficult was English grammar. So I decided to take lots of grammar notes in every class. Then I started to write my own original sentences using the grammar I was learning. It’s amazing how much this helped. Now I an enjoying learning English and I got an A this term. My teacher is very impressed.
first of all 首先 to begin with 一开始 later on 后来，随后 also 也，而且（用于肯定句） either 也（用于否定句） so 因此 then 然后
matter v. 认识到；了解到
adj. 完整的；完全的 n. 秘诀；诀窍；秘密 n. 学习者 v. 使感动；使印象深刻
Read the statements about the article. Write “T” for true or “F” for false.
The writer found learning English difficult because… 1. The teacher’s pronunciation was poor. 2. People always laughed at her when she spoke. F 3. She had trouble making complete sentences. T 4. English grammar was difficult. T
have trouble (in) doing sth.做某事有困难
have difficulty / problems (in) doing sth. /with sth. 考点一 1.其中trouble / difficulty 前可有修饰语 some , much, no, little, any … 2. trouble/ difficulty 是不可数名词，不能用复数 3. 句中介词in可以省略 4. 若宾语为名词，介词应用with
trouble v. 烦恼，使烦恼，使忧虑
I don’t hope to trouble them . Never trouble troubles till trouble troubles you . 麻烦未来临，不可找麻烦。
Her English improved when she started… 5. Going out with English speaking friends. F 6. Lots of listening practice. T 7. Using grammar in original sentences. T
1. quickly作副词，一般指思维动作反应快且 用时少，即"迅速；敏捷"等。 如：I wrote down his car number quickly. 我飞快地把他的车号记了下来。 2. fast 多指人或物具有动作快的特点,作副词 有时可与quickly互换。 如： He runs as fast as he can. You speak too fast/quickly for us to catch. 你说得太快了，我们都听不懂。
(1) be afraid + to do sth. 不敢做某事 在晚上她不敢一个人出去。
She was afraid to go out alone at night.
(2) be afraid +of sth. 害怕某物
Most of the girls are afraid of snakes.
(3) be afraid + that 从句 恐怕我不能来这儿了。 恐怕…
am afraid that I can’t come here.
I’m afraid 可以用来推测令人不喜欢的事或
(4) I’m afraid so ( not ) .
-I like the dress, but I’m ___ I haven’t got enough money. -Don’t worry. I don’t mind ___ you some if you like. A.afraid ; lending B. glad; lending
(3b, 3c: P6)
Dear Li Lei, I know it isn’t easy to learn English well, but I have some ideas that may help. You said you couldn’t understand people who talked fast. Well, you can try to listen for the most important words, not every word. You can also do lots of listening practice.
I think it’s one of the secrets of becoming a good language learner. Another thing that I think important is English grammar. In order to learn it well, you have to take a lot of grammar notes in every class. You can write English sentences using the grammar you are learning.
You can also read more English books. Reading is as important as listening for us to learn English well. If you do so, I believe that you can learn English very well later on. Yours, Meimei
1. Fill in each blank with the correct word given. Change the form of the word if necessary. Then make you own sentences with each word.
feel spell write down join find 1. You should _________ write downnew English words in a vocabulary list. 2. If you don’t know how to ____ spell new words, look them up in a dictionary.
feel spell write down join find 3. The best way to improve your join an English club. English is to ____ 4. Another thing that he found _____ very difficult was English grammar. 5. This kind of paper ____ feels very soft.
Xu Zheng won a prize for his essay about the importance of English. Later, a reporter from the school magazine interviewed him. Use the reporter’s notes to write an article about Xu Zheng. ? You can write it after class.
How do we deal with our problems?
1b. Look up the meaning of each word in the box in a dictionary.
How do we deal with our problems?
…unless we deal with our problems, we can easily become unhappy.
…you felt they were unfair.
When we are angry, however we are usually the ones affected.
…we can solve a problem by learning to forget.
We must learn how to change these “problems” into “challenges”.
Stephen Hawking, …, who regards his many physical problems as unimportant.
We are probably quite healthy and smart.
As young adults, it is our duty to try our best to deal with each challenge in our education with the help of our t
Let’s not worry about our problems. Let’s face the challenges instead.
Section 2 While You Read 1. What may happen when people are angry with others for long? Good friendships may be lost. 2. What happens to children when they have disagreements? They decide not to talk to each other. But this usually does not last for long.
3. What must we learn at school? Why? We must learn how to change these “problems” into “challenges”. Because education is an important part of our development. 4. What’s our duty as young adults? As young adults, it is our duty to try our best to deal with each challenge in our education with the help of our teachers.
5. Who is Stephen Hawking?
He is a very clever scientist. 6. What should we do after comparing ourselves to Stephen Hawking? We should face the challenges instead of worrying about our problems.
Write out the example given for the context used in the reading. duty(n) smart(adj)
A soldier must do his duty.
It is smart of you to bring a map.
We can solve a problem by ourselves I regard your advice as the first. We’ve no coffee. Would you like tea instead?
3c Scan the reading and check the ways of dealing with problems that are mentioned.
by talking to people about them by trying to forgot about them ? by thinking your problem is not big ? by seeing a psychologist by breaking off a friendship by thinking of a problem in a positive way.
Section 4 Go For It! Look at the reading again. Which way of dealing with problems do you think is the best? Write about a time when you dealt with a problem that way. If you have time, think of another way of dealing with problems. Tell a partner about this.
１. 你是怎么为考试作准备的? _____ How do you study ____ ____ for ____ a ____ test ? 2.他是怎么学习英语的? How does ____ he ______ learn English? 3.我骑车上学． by ______. bike I go to school _____ 4. 这些声音太难听懂. too hard to understand the voices It’s ____
５．你有没有通过听英文歌来学英语？ __ you learn English ___ _______ to English songs? Do by listening ６．他通过制作词汇清单来学习西班牙语． making __________ vocabulary ______. He learns Spanish by ______ lists ７. 你曾经和小组成员一起学习吗？ Have you ever _______ studied ______ with a group? _____ ８. 他是怎样练习打篮球的？ does he practice _________ playing basketball? How _____
1. 学会了谈论和评价学习方法，如 例如： How do you study for a test? I study by …ing. … is a great / successful way to learn English … helps a little/ a lot. 2. 学会了谈论学习中遇到的困难针对学习中的困难给别人提出 一些建议，如： It wasn’t easy for me to under
stand the teacher when she talked. I was also afraid to speak in class, because I thought my classmates might laugh at me. How about watching English language TV? You should read more English stories. Why not study it with a group? …. 3. 学会了在上下文的语言环境中认知词汇.
1. ----- Will you watch the World Cup Match this year? ----- No, but I _____ several World Cup matches since I was a small child. A. had seen B. see C. was seeing D. have seen
2. Lily thinks that ___ English movies
____ a good way to learn English.
A. watching, is C. buying, wasn’t
B. loving, isn’t D. looking, was
3. ----- You are leaving your school. How do you like it? ----- Very much, of course, I ___ this school since I moved here. A. came to B. have gone to C. have been at D. have been to
4. Many English learners are afraid
____ mistakes when pronouncing
A. of making C. to making
B. make D. making
5. The life we were used to ____ greatly
B. has changed √
D. have changed
6. She looked forward to ___ the USA.
1. 我意识到我对那件事感到兴奋。 realized that I _________ got excited about that. I ________ 2. 我经常在语法方面出错误。 make mistakes in grammar. I often ______________ 3.我飞快地记下了他的车牌号。 quickly I wrote down his car number ________. 4.这是一列快车。 fast train. This is a _____ 5.别担心，我很快就回来。 Don’t worry. I’ll be back _____. soon
Swimming and English Learning Can you swim? Do you like swimming? Yes? Well, how can you learn to swim? I think the best way is to go into the water and learn. I’m afraid you’ll never learn to swim just by reading books about swimming or looking at others swimming. It’s the same with the English study. We must practice, practice and practice. Listening and speaking are very important for beginners. The children in Englishspeaking countries first listen to others. Then they try to imitate and speak. We can listen to English programs on radio. You may just understand a few words. It doesn’t matter. Just be relaxed, try to catch every word. Somebody may be a good listener. But he dare not speak. He’s afraid of making mistakes. You know we sometimes make mistakes when we speak Chinese. Don’t be afraid. We must be brave. If you really want to learn English well, you must try to speak with everyone so long as he knows English. Whether you know him or not is not important when there’s nobody to talk with, you can talk to yourself in English. It’s interesting and also a good way to practice your spoken English. Remember, the more you speak, the fewer mistakes you’ll make. Reading and writing are more important for senior school students. First we must choose the boo
ks we’re interested in. A lot of reading will improve your language sense. This is the most important. Keep writing English diaries. We can also write English articles. You may even post them to English magazines. Don’t be afraid of failure. Failure is the mother of success. Easier said than done. Well, let’s do more practice from now on. I’m sure you’ll learn English well in this way.
D You can learn to swim by_______.
B. looking at others swimming D. going into the river and learning
A. reading books about it ? C. having lessons on it
C We should learn English by _______. ? A. listening and speaking B. reading and writing ? C. A and B D. swimming ?3. What will you do with mistakes when you speak? D ? A. Don’t make mistakes. B. Study hard ? C. Try not to speak English D. Don’t be afraid. ?4. What’s more important for senior school students? C ? A. listening B. speaking ? C. reading and writing D. learning B ?5. We can listen to English ______, according to the passage. ? A. by train B. on the radio ? C. every minute D. now and then