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动词时态

发布时间:2013-09-23 17:41:15  

黄老师精品教案

动词的时态

一般现在时

1) 经常性或习惯性的动作,常与表示频度的时间状语连用。时间状语: every…, sometimes, at…, on Sunday,always, often,usually, seldom, never, sometimes。 eg.I leave home for school at 7 every morning. 2) 客观真理,客观存在,科学事实。 The earth moves around the sun. 。 Shanghai lies in the east of China. 3) 表示格言或警句。 Pride goes before a fall.

此用法如果出现在宾语从句中,即使主句是过去时,从句谓语也要用一般现在时。 Columbus proved that the earth is round. 。 4) 现在时刻的状态、能力、性格、个性。 I don't want so much.

Ann writes good English but does not speak well.

练习:

1 Tomorrow will be Father's Day. What will you do for your father? I will say "I love you, Daddy" as soon as he _______ up. A. will wake B. is waking C. wakes D. woke 简析:C。

2. Our teacher said light________ faster than sound. A. travelled B. has travelled C. is travelling D. travels 简析:D。

3.Let's go fishing if it _______ this weekend. But nobody knows if it_______.

A. is fine, will rain B. will be fine, rains C. is fine, rains D. will be fine, will rain 简析:A。

4.Is your father a doctor?

Yes, he is. He________ in Town Hospital. (2006年武汉) A. has worked B. had worked C. works D. worked 简析:C。

一般过去时

动词过去式的规则变化: 不规则:do—did, have—had, be—was/were, swim—swam

1)在确定的过去时间里所发生的动作或存在的状态。时间状语有:yesterday, last week, an hour ago, the other day, in 1982等。

Where did you go just now?

2)表示在过去一段时间内,经常性或习惯性的动作。

When I was a child, I often played football in the street.

Whenever the Browns went during their visit, they were given a warm welcome.

3)句型:

It is time for sb. to do sth "到……时间了" "该……了"。例如:It is time for you to go to bed. 你该睡觉了。

It is time that sb. did sth. "时间已迟了" "早该……了" ,例如It is time you went to bed. 你早该睡觉了。

would (had) rather sb. did sth. 表示'宁愿某人做某事'。例如:I'd rather you came tomorrow.还是明天来吧。

4) wish, wonder, think, hope 等用过去时,作试探性的询问、请求、建议等,而一般过去时表示的动作或状态都已成为过去,现已不复存在。例如:I thought you might have some. 我以为你想要一些。

拓展: 用过去时表示现在,表示委婉语气。

1)动词want, hope, wonder, think, intend 等。

Did you want anything else?

I wondered if you could help me.

2)情态动词 could, would。

Could you lend me your bike?

拓展: used to / be used to

used to + do:"过去常常",如今已不存在。

Mother used not to be so forgetful.

Scarf used to take a walk. 斯卡夫过去常常散步。

be used to + doing: 对……已感到习惯,

He is used to a vegetarian diet.

Scarf is used to taking a walk.

典型例题

1. Simon________ his fingers when he was cooking the dinner. (2007年盐城)

A. burnt B. was burning C. has burnt D. had burnt

简析:A。

2.I'm sorry you have missed the bus. It_________ five minutes ago.

What a pity!

A. was leaving B. has left C. left D. leaves

简析:C。

3.Mr. Johnson, we have found your watch.

My watch!Thank you. Where____ it?

A. do you find B. have you found C. did you find D. were you finding

简析:C。

4--- Your phone number again? I ___ quite catch it.

---- It's 69568442.

A. didn't B. couldn't C. don't D. can't

答案A.

一般将来时

will+动词原形

1) shall用于第一人称(征求意见),will 在陈述句中用于各人称,在征求意见时常用于第二人称。

Which paragraph shall I read first?

Will you be at home at seven this evening?

2) be going to +不定式,表示将来。

a. 主语的意图,即将做某事。例如:What are you going to do tomorrow?

b. 计划,安排要发生的事。例如:The play is going to be produced next month。 c. 有迹象要发生的事。例如:Look at the dark clouds, there is going to be a storm.

3) be +不定式表将来,按计划或正式安排将发生的事。

We are to discuss the report next Saturday.我们下星期六讨论这份报告。

4) be about to +不定式,意为马上做某事。

He is about to leave for Beijing. 他马上要去北京。

注意:be about to do 不能与tomorrow, next week 等表示明确将来时的时间状语连用。

拓展:

be to和be going to

be to 表示客观安排或受人指示而做某事,be going to 表示主观的打算或计划。例如: I am to play football tomorrow afternoon. 明天下午我去踢球。(客观安排)

I'm going to play football tomorrow afternoon. 明天下午我想去踢球。(主观安排)

拓展:一般现在时表将来

1)下列动词come, go, arrive, leave, start, begin, return的一般现在时可以表示将来,主要用来表示在时间上已确定或安排好的事情。火车汽车时间点

The train leaves at six tomorrow morning.

When does the bus star? It stars in ten minutes.

2)以here, there等开始的倒装句,表示动作正在进行。

Here comes the bus. = The bus is coming. 车来了。

There goes the bell. = The bell is ringing. 铃响了。

3)在时间或条件句中。主将从现

When Bill comes , ask him to wait for me.

I'll write to you as soon as I arrive there.

拓展: 用现在进行时表示将来

下列动词come, go, arrive, leave, start, begin, return等现在进行时可以表示将来。 I'm leaving tomorrow. 明天我要走了。

Are you staying here till next week? 你会在这儿呆到下周吗?

1."Ann is in hospital."

"Yes, I know. I________ her tomorrow."

A. visit B. used to visit C. will visit D. am going to visit

简析:D。

2. Mr. Smith__________ a talk on country music next Monday.

A. give B. gave C. has given D. will give

简析:D。

3.You've left the light on.

Oh, sorry._______and turn it off.

A. I've gone B. I'11 go C. I went D. I'm going

简析:B。

4.Joan, you are late! --Sorry, I ______ next time.

A. don't B. won't C. am not D. haven't

简析:B。

现在完成时

现在完成时用来表示之前已发生或完成的动作或状态,其结果的影响现在还存在;也可表示持续到现在的动作或状态。其构成:have (has) +过去分词。同just, already, yet, recently, never, ever, before 等连用。

The film hasn’t started yet. 电影还没有开始。

拓展:

Since + 一段时间的起点(在since引导的从句中一般用过去时)

For + 一段时间(如,three days, two years )

He has been here since two o’clock.

I’ve known her for a long time.

拓展

have gone (to) 表示“到某地去了”,此时人还在那里。

----Where is Tom ? ---He has gone to London.

have been (to) 表示“到过某地”,此时人并不在那里。

I have been to the Great Wall of China twice.

现在完成时的句型

1)It is the first / second time.... that…结构中的从句部分,用现在完成时。 It is the first time that I have visited the city. 这是我第一次访问这城市。 This is the first time (that) I've heard him sing. 这是我第一次听他唱歌。 注意:It was the third time that the boy had been late. 推后时态

---Do you know our town at all?

---No, this is the first time I ___ here.

A. was B. have been C. came D. am coming

答案B.

2)This is +形容词最高级+that…结构,that 从句要用现在完成时。 This is the best film that I've (ever) seen. 这是我看过的最好的电影。

1. You don't need to describe her. I ___ her several times.

A. had met B. have met C. met D. meet

答案B.

2. ---I'm sorry to keep you waiting.

---Oh, not at all. I ___ here only a few minutes.

A. have been B. had been C. was D. will be

答案A.

3.Hello,this is Lily speaking.Could I speak to Mr. Black?

Sorry.He______ the Xuanwu Lake Park.

A. has been to B. went to C. has gone to D. will go to

简析:C

过去完成时

表示过去的过去

----|----------|--------|----> 其构成是had +过去分词构成。

那时以前 那时 现在

用法

a. 在told, said, knew, heard, thought等动词后的宾语从句。

She said (that)she had never been to Paris. 她告诉我她曾去过巴黎。

b. 状语从句

在过去不同时间发生的两个动作中,发生在先,用过去完成时;发生在后,用一般过去时。例如:

When the police arrived, the thieves had run away.

We had hoped that you would come, but you didn't.

c. 过去完成时的时间状语before, by, until , when, after, once, as soon as。

He said that he had learned some English before.

By the time he was twelve, Edison had began to make a living by himself.

Tom was disappointed that most of the guests had left when he arrived at the party. 典型例题

1.The students ___ busily when Miss Brown went to get a book she ___ in the office.

A. had written, left B,were writing, has left C. had written, had left D. were writing, had left

2.Did you see Mr. Chen yesterday afternoon?

No. When I got to school, he_______ already.

A. left B. has left C. was leaving D. had left

简析:D。

现在进行时

a. 表示正在发生的事情。

We are waiting for you.

b. 习惯进行:表示长期的或重复性的动作,说话时动作未必正在进行。

Mr. Green is writing another novel. (说话时并未在写,只处于写作的状态。)

c. 表示渐变,这样的动词有:get, grow, become, turn, run, go, begin等。

The leaves are turning red.

It's getting warmer and warmer.

d. 与always, constantly, forever 等词连用,表示反复发生的动作或持续存在的状态,往往带有说话人的主观色彩。

You are always changing your mind.

典型例题

1.Where's your mother, Helen?

She________ the flowers in the garden.

A. waters B. watered C. is watering D. has watered

简析:C。

2.Hurry up! It's time to leave. --OK, ________.

A. I'm coming B. I'll come C. I've come D. I come

简析:A。"I'm coming"

3.Shall we invite Tom to play football now?

Oh, no. He his clothes.

B. A. is washing B. washes C. has washed D. washed

简析:A。

4.My dictionary ___, I have looked for it everywhere but still___ it.

A. has lost, don't find B. is missing, don't find C. has lost, haven't found D. is missing, haven't found.

答案D.

不用进行时的动词

1)表示事实状态的动词,如have, belong, possess, cost, owe, exist, include, contain, matter, weigh, measure, continue等。

I have two brothers.

2)表示心理状态的动词,如know, realize, think see, believe, suppose, imagine, agree, recognize, remember, want, need, forget, prefer, mean, understand, love, hate等。 He loves her very much. 他爱她很深。

3)瞬间动词,如accept, receive, complete, finish, give, allow, decide, refuse等。 I accept your advice.

4)系动词,如seem, remain, lie, see, hear, smell, feel, taste, get, become, turn等。 You seem a little tired.

过去进行时

1)表示过去某时正在进行的状态或动作。

2) 常用的时间状语有this morning, the whole morning, all day yesterday, from nine to ten last evening, when, while等。例如:

My brother fell while he was riding his bicycle and hurt himself.

It was raining when they left the station.

When I got to the top of the mountain, the sun was shining.

典型例题

1) Mary ___ a dress when she cut her finger.

A. made B. is making C. was making D. makes

答案C.

2) As she ___ the newspaper, Granny ___ asleep.

A. read;was falling B. was reading; fell C. was reading; was falling D. read;fell 答案B.。

将来完成时

1) 构成will have done

2) 概念

a. 状态完成:表示某事继续到将来某一时为止一直有的状态。

They will have been married for 20 years by then. 到那时他们结婚将有二十年了。

b. 动作完成:表示将来某一时或另一个将来的动作之前,已经完成的动作或获得的经验。例如:

You will have reached Shanghai by this time tomorrow. 明天此时,你已经到达上海了。

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