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英语虚拟语气、定语从句

发布时间:2014-02-03 15:47:35  

虚拟语气

虚拟语气是一种动词形式,表示说话人的一种愿望,假设,怀疑,猜测,建议等含义,虚拟语气所表示的含义不是客观存在的事实。

If I were you, I'd take them away. 如果我是你的话,我就会带走他们。 If I had met Li Hua, I could have told him. 如果我碰见了李华,我就告诉他了。 If I had time, I could come to help you. 如果我有时间,我会来帮助你的。 He suggested that our class should be divided into five groups. 他建议说我们的班应该分成五个小组。

He speaks to us as if he had been there. 他给我们讲的好象他去过那儿。 虚拟(条件)语气中,主句与从句中谓语动词的形式可分为下面四类

虚拟语气的用法

1) 虚拟语气用在简单句中,表示祝愿,命令。 May you be happy. 祝你幸福。

May you have a good time. 祝愿你玩的痛快。

May the friendship between us last long. 祝愿我们的友情天长地久。

Have a good journey! 祝愿你旅途愉快!

You go out! 你出去!

2) 虚拟语气用在宾语从句中。

动词 wish, suggest, order, insist, propose, advice,maintain, suggest (建议), recommend (推荐), advise (劝告), propose (建议) insist (坚持), consent (允诺)

decide (决定), order (命令)request (要求), demand (要求), desire (期望), ask (要求)maintain (主张), urge (催促) “should+动词原形”

等词后面的宾语从句表示的是一种虚拟语气,宾语从句中的动词动作表示的只是一种愿望、要求。

I wish she would be on my side. 我希望她能站在我一边。

I wish I could help him. 我希望我能帮助他。

He insisted that all of us should be there on time by any means. 他坚持要我们大家想尽办法按时去那儿。

动词 demand, suggest, order, insist, propose 后面的从句中,"should" 可以省略。 The teacher suggested that we (should) clean the blackboard after class. 老师建议我们课后把黑板擦了。 He ordered that the students wash the clothes every week by themselves. 他要求学生每周都要自己洗衣服。

3) 虚拟语气用在主语从句中。

在句型 "It is important (necessary, strange, natural) that .... " 中,that 后面的从句中的谓语动词用: should + 动词原形 It's necessary that we should have a walk now. 我们有必要出去散散步。 It's natural that she should do so. 她这样做是很自然的。 It's important that we should take good care of

the patient. 重要的是我们要照顾好病人。

4) 虚拟语气用在状语从句中。 虚拟语气最多地用在表示条件的状语从句和表示结果的从句中。在表示与事实相反的虚拟语气时,动词有三种时态形式,即现在、过去和将来。

A.与现在事实相反的: If I (we, you, he, they)+ 动词过去式.. if I (he, she) were...

I (we) should + 动词原形。 He (you, they) would + 动词原形。

B.与过去事实相反的: If I(we, you ,he, they)+ had + 过去分词 I(we)should + have+ 过去分词。

He (you, they) would + have + 过去分词。

If I were you, I should buy it. 如果我是你,我就买了它。

If I had time, I would study French. 如果我有时间,我会学习法语的。

If she knew English, she would not ask me for help. 如果她懂英语的话,她不会找我帮忙的。

If you had got up earlier, you could have caught the train. 如果你早一点起床,就会赶上火车的。

If it were fine tomorrow, I would go shopping. 如果明天天气好,我就去买东西。

注意: 有关虚拟语气的几个问题***

1) 有时if引导的状语从句可以省略if,而把从句中的动词 were, had 或 should 移到主语前面。

Were she younger, she would do it . 如果她年青点, 她就会干的。

Had he known her address, he would had gone to visit her. 如果他知道她的地址,他会去看她的。

2) 有时表示虚拟语气的条件从句或者主句都可以省略,而只剩下一个主句或者一个条件从句。

I could help you. 我本来可以帮助你。

If I had time. 我要有时间该多好啊!

She should have come to the party. 她应该来参加聚会。

If he had much more money. 如果他有更多的钱就能...。

3) 虚拟语气中,条件从句的动词动作可以和主句的动词动作时态不一致。

If they had studied hard, they could do it easily now. 如果他们以前努力学习的话,现在干的就会容易些。 If he had not taken my advice, he wouldn't do it much better like this. 如果他不听取我的建议,他就不会干得这样好。

1. I suggest that we (should 可省略,下同) start the meeting at once.

(suggest, should + start) (表示建议立即开会)

2. The doctor suggested that he (should ) try to lose his weight.

(suggested, should + try) (表示建议你应该减肥喔)

3. He insisted that all of us (should) be there on time by any mains.

(insisted, should + be) (表示坚持,无论如何都要准时到那儿。你再讲也没用哩!)

4. He insisted that we (should) tell him the news.(insisted, should + tell) (表示非要你告诉他不可)

5. He ordered that the students (should) wash the clothes every week by

themselves. (ordered, should + wash) (表示命令学生们每周自己洗衣服)

注意注意注意!!!虚拟语气在其他句型中的使用:

1. 用在与without, but for, but, otherwise短语连用的句型中:

例句:

The ship would have sunk with all on board but for efforts of the captain.

The rescue arrived in time, otherwise They would have been frozen to death.

2. 用在It’s time 句型中:It’s time that 主语+动词过去式……

It’s time that I went to school and picked up my daughter.

3. 在句型…as if /though+主语+动词过去式/were/had done……

例句:

He looked at me as if I were mad .

“I wish people would find out the facts,” she says, “ and not act as if I were a bad or dangerous person.”

It looks as if it’s going to rain.

4. 用在If only 句型中:表示:要是……该多好啊!

(1)If only you hadn’t told Jackie what I said, everything would have been all right.

(2)If only you would listen to reason.

初中英语定语从句的用法解析

初中英语定语从句的用法解析

【摘要】定语从句是一种形容词的关系从句。它由关系代词或关系副词引导(1)。初中英语中的定语从句仅限于限制性定于从句,但对初中生来说,定语从句既是一个重点,也是一个难点。

【关键词】定语从句 先行词 关系代词 关系副词

一、英语中的定语从句与汉语中的定语位置不同。 在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫做定语从句。英语中的定语从句始终要放在被修饰的词之后,而汉语中的定语则放在被修饰词之前。如: 先行词 定语从句

昨天我在校门口看见的那个人是我的英语老师。

二、英语从句中的句型结构比较复杂,有先行词、关系代词或关系副词。被定语从句修饰的词叫先行词,引导定语从句的关联词有关系代词或关系副词。限制性关系分句和它的先行项的所指意义有着不可分割的联系(2)。关系代词或关系副词放在先行词和定语从句之间起纽带作用,关系代词或关系副词在定语从句中要充当一个成分。关系代词在句中可作主语、宾语或定语,关系副词在句中作状语。如:

I am waiting for the boy who /that is wearing a red coat. (主语) 先行词 关系代词

我正在等穿着红色外套的那个男孩。

The dictionary that / which my sister gave me last Sunday is very expensive.(

语) 先行词 关系代词

我姐姐上周星期天给我的那本字典很贵。

The woman is his mother whose name is Linda Brown. (定语) 先行词 关系代词

那个是他的母亲,名叫琳达·布朗。

That is the house where my father used to live.(状语) 先行词 关系副词

那是我父亲曾经居住过的房子。

三、初中英语中的定语从句关系代词或关系副词的具体用法。 宾

1. who指人(也可用that),在定语从句中作主语,也可作宾语。如: Yesterday I helped an old man who / that lost his way. (主语) 昨天我帮助了一位迷路的老人。

Mr Wang is the man (who / that / whom )you met in the zoo this morning.(宾语) 王先生就是今天早上你在动物里遇到的那个人。

注意:关系代词who指人,作宾语时,可用whom代替;作宾语时,关系代词可省略。作其它成分,关系代词则不能省略。

2. whose指人,也可指物。在定语从句中作定语。

The boy whose mother is ill is staying at home to look after her today. 其母亲生病的那个男孩今天呆在家里照顾她。 I have a story book whose cover is red. 我有一本封面是红色的故事书。

3. which指物(也可用that),在定语从句中作主语,也可作宾语。如: Football is a game which / that is liked by most boys. (主语) 足球是被大多数男孩喜欢的运动。

I don’t believe the news which / that Tom won the game. (宾语)

我不相信汤姆赢得这场比赛的消息。 四、关系代词whom, which在定语从句中作介词宾语时,可以和介词一起放在先行词与定语从句之间。如:

That is the place in which I lived for five years.

=That is the place which / that I lived in for five years. 那就是我住过五年的地方。 Mr Zhang is the man for whom I am looking.

=Mr Zhang is the man who / whom / that I am looking for. 张先生就是我正在找的那个人。

五、具体使用关系代词或关系副词需要注意的问题。

1. 先行词是地点时,如果该先行词做了定语从句的主语或宾语时,关系代词用that或which. 如: The school that / which I used to study in is becoming better and better. (the school 作了介词in的宾语。)

我过去曾经学习的那所学校变得越来越好了。

先行词是地点时,如果该先行词不作定语从句的主语或宾语时,关系代词用

where. 如: The place where the accident happened isn’t far from our school. 事故发生的那个地方离我们学校不远。

(定语从句中的动词happened是不及物动词,它不跟宾语,而the accident又作了定语从句的主语,因此该定语从句既不需要主语,也不需要宾语。) 2.只用that,不用which的情况。 (1)前有序数词修饰时。如:

This is the tenth gift that I received for my birthday. 这是我收到的第十个生日礼物。

(2)前有形容词最高级修饰时。如:

That is the most exciting game that I have ever watched. 那是我曾经看过最令人兴奋的比赛。

(3)先行词是all, little, few, something, anything, everything等不定代词时。如: All that he told me is true. 他告诉我的一切是真实的。 (4)先行词被the only修饰时。如:

The only thing that I can get is a pen. 我唯一能得到的东西就是一支钢笔。 (5)先行词既指人,又指物时。如:

We talked about the people and the things that we were interested in. 我们谈论了我们感兴趣的人和事。

3. 只用which,不用that的情况。

(1)定语从句是物时,定语从句由“介词+关系代词which”引导。如: The thing about which the teacher is talking is very important. 老师正在谈论的那件事非常重要。

(2)先行词本身是that, those时,如:

What’s that which is flying in the sky? 在天空中飞的那是什么? 总之,我们作为初中英语教师要把初中英语中的定语从句讲解清楚,帮助学生理解课文和阅读理解中的定语从句,帮助学生用定语从句进行正确的书面表达,为以后更进一步的学习定语从句打下坚实的基础。

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