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初中英语语法1:句子成分

发布时间:2014-02-03 16:45:05  

句子是什么:句子成份

一.主语:

主语(subject) 是一个句子的主题, 是句子所形容的主体。

如,小李是老师。这句话说的是小李,“小李”是主语。 它的位置一般在一句之首。名词性质的词语和词组,数词,副词,句子都可以做主语。

1.名词作主语。 如:A tree has fallen across the road.

2.代词用作主语。如:You’re not far wrong. (你差不多对了)。

3.数词用作主语。如: Four from seven leaves three. 7减4余

4.名词化的形容词用作主语。

Old and young marched side by side. 老少并肩而行。

5.副词用作主语。如:Now is the time. 现在是时候了。

6.名词化的介词作主语。如:The ups and downs of life must be taken as they come. 我们必须承受人生之沉浮。

7.不定式用作主语。 如:To find your way can be a problem.你 It would be nice to see him again.

如能见到他,那将是一件愉快的事。

8. 动名词用作主语。如:Smoking is bad for you. 吸烟对你有害。

9. 名词化的过去分词用作主语。如: The deceased died of old age. 死者死于年老。

10. 介词短语用作主语。如: From Yenan to Nanniwan was a three-hour ride on horseback. 从延安到南泥湾要三个小时。

11.从句用作主语。如: Whenever you are ready will be fine. 你无论什么时候准备好都行。

12.句子用作主语。如:”How do you do ?” is a greeting.“你好”是一句问候语。

二.谓语

谓语【或谓语动词(predicate verb)】由①简单动词或②动词短语(系动词/助动词/情态动词+实义动词)③系动词(后跟表语)构成,位置一般在主语之后。

1.由简单的动词构成。 发生了什么事? 他今天苦干了一天。

2.由动词短语构成的谓语。 我在看书。

(2).I have finished my homework.我已经做完了作业。 ⑶你努力就可以做到。

3、系+表:I am a student.我是一名学生。

三.表语

表语的功能是表述主语的特征、身份等,位于联系动词之后,构成系表结构。在系表结构钟,联系动词只是形式上的谓语,真正起谓语作用的则是表语。

联系动词包括:①be动词的各种形式② 能做系动词的实义动词:

能做系动词的实义动词;变化,感官,似乎

come , go , run, turn ,get , become , keep , stay , make (表变化的动词)

fell,sound ,smell , look , taste (感观动词)

seem, appear (似乎,好像)

例如:

1.Our dream has 我的梦想实现了。(Come后常加 easy ,loose natural 等)

他病了。

保重。

Keep作为系动词还常接quiet ,calm ,cool, well, warm , silent,clean,dry

3. 一个瘦个子似乎比他的实际高度要高些。

四.宾语

宾语(object)在句中主要充当动作的承受者(动词作用的对象),因此一般皆置于及物动词之后。如:

我们的球队打败了所有其他球队。 可以用作宾语的有:名词、代词、数词、名词化的形容词、副词、不定式、动名词、名词化的分词、从句等。

1.Do you fancy a drink? 你想喝一杯吗?(名词)

2.They won’t hurt us. 他们不会伤害我们。(代词)

3.If you add 5 to 5, you get 10. 5加5等于10。(数词)。

4.I shall do my possible. 我将尽力而为。(名词化形容词)

5.He left there last week. 他上个星期离开了那里。(副词)

6.Does she really mean to leave home? 她真的要离开家吗?(不定式)

7.He never did the unexpected(想不到的,意外的).

他从不做使人感到意外的事。(名词化的分词)

8.Do you understand what I mean? 你明白我的意思吗?(从句) 扩展: 宾语中有些动词需要两个同等的宾语,直接宾语一般指动作的承受者,间接宾语指动作指向的人(多指人),具有这种双宾语的及物动词叫做与格动词(dative verb), 常用的有:answer, bring, buy, do, find, get, give, hand, keep, leave, lend, make, offer, owe, pass, pay, play, promise, read, save, sell, send, show, sing, take 等,间接宾语一般须与直接宾语连用,通常放在直接宾语之前。如:I have

五.补语

补语(complement)是一种补足主语和宾语的意义的句子成分。补足主语意义的句子成分叫做主语补语(subject complement),补足宾语意义的句子成分叫做宾语补语(object complement).

(1). 形容词用作主语补语是常置于主语之前,后有逗号。

我又累又困,就去睡了。

有时可以置于主语之后,前后都有逗号,与非限定性定语相似。如: didn’t listen to their pleadings. 那人不可置疑地残酷,不听取他们的恳求。

(2).可以用做宾语补语的有名词、形容词、不定式、动名词、分词、介词短语等 ,常见的词语find/make/name/want/think等 +sb./sth.+宾补 他们将孩子命名为吉米。(名词用作宾语补语)

2.My mother looks so young that you would think 我的母亲面很嫩,你会以为她是我的姐姐(名词短语作宾语补语) 我发现那本书很有趣。(形容词短语用作宾补)

六.定语

定语是用来说明名词、名词性代词的品质与特征的词或一组词。可用作定语的有:形容词、名词、代词、数词、副词、不定式、动名词、分词、介词短语、从句和句子等。

1.形容词用作定语是最常见的。

(1)她是一位天生的音乐家。

(2)他一定是最好的在世的小提琴手了。(后置定语)

2. 名词用作定语。如

(1). A baby girl 女婴

(2). well water 井水 双座轻型汽车

3.代词作定语。

(1). Your hair needs cutting. 你该理发了。(物主代词用作定语)

(2). Everybody’s business is nobody’s business. 人人负责就是无人负责。

4.数词作定语

现在就干吧,你可能再没有机会了。

基数词用作后置定语: page 24 Room 201 the year 1949

4. 副词充当定语、常后置,如: 出路 休息日

5.不定式用作定语 。

(1). That’s the way to do it.那正是做此事的方法。

6.动名词用作定语. 安眠药 学习方法

7.分词充当定语 正在睡中的小孩 一个退休工人

8.介词短语用作定语。

这是一幅中国地图。

9.从句用作定语,即定语从句

The car 停在外面的车是我的。 我在外面看见你的汽车了,它给另一辆车撞了。

七.同位语 当两个指同一事物的句子成分放在同等位置时,一个句子成分可被用来说明或解释另一个句子成分,后者就叫做前者的同位语(appositive).这两个句子成分多由名词(代词)担任,同位语通常皆放在其说明的名词(代词)之后。

1.名词用作同位语。

(1). We have two children, a boy and a girl.我们有两个孩子,一男一女。 【two children=a boy and a girl.】

(2)We, the Chinese people, are determined to build China into a powerful and prosperous country. 我们中国人民决心将中国建成一个强大的繁荣的国家。 【】

2.代词用作同位语。

他们都想见他。

3.数词用作同位语。

(1)。你们俩准备好了吗?

(2)。他们俩去了,我们三个留了下来。

4.不定式与动名词用作同位语。

(1)。Their latest proposal, to concentrate on primary has met with some opposition.他们最近提出了集中全力于初等教育的提议遭到了某些人的反对。 【提议=集中全力于初等教育】

(2)。The first plan, attacking at night, was turned down. 第一个计划是夜袭,被拒绝了。

5.从句用同位语,即同位语从句

(1)。The news that we are having a holiday tomorrow is not true. 明天放假的消息不正确。

(2)。We are not investigating the question

八.状语

状语(adverbial)是修饰动词、形容词、副词以及全句的句子成分。如:

1.这个女孩大有进步。

2.可用作状语的有副词、名词、代词、数词、形容词、不定式、分词、介词短语、从句等。

(1)。副词最常用作状语,位置比较灵活,可置句末、句首和句中。 He speaks the language badly but read it well.

这种语言,他讲得不好,但阅读能力很强。

Naturally we expect hotel guests to lock their doors.

当我们期望旅馆的旅客把房门锁上。

3.的、条件、让步、程度、方式、伴随等

(1)。时间状语,多位于句末和句首,有时亦可置于句中

(2).地点状语,多置于句末,有时也位于句首和句中。

(3)。原因状语,包括表理由的状语,多置于句末,有时亦可置于句首。

(4). 结果状语,多由不定式、分词和从句表示,常位于句末。

She woke(醒) suddenly (5). 目的状语,多由不定式、介词短语和从句等表示,常位于句末,强调时可以置于句首。

隐蔽处).他跑去避雨。

(6). 条件状语。多由短语和从句表示,常置于句末和句首。

(7). 让步状语,由短语和从句表示,常置于句末和句首。

(8).程度状语。常由副词、介词短语及从句等表示。 你对他们信任程度如何?

(9)。伴随状语,常由短语和独立主格等表示。对位于句末和句首。

英语句子成分基础练习及答案(一)

(一). 指出下列句中主语的中心词

① The teacher with two of his students is walking into the classroom.

② There is an old man coming here.

③ The useful dictionary was given by my mother last year.

④ To do today's homework without the teacher's help is very difficult.

(二). 选出句中谓语的中心词

① I don't like the picture on the wall.

A. don't B. like C. picture D. wall ② The days get longer and longer when summer comes.

A. get B. longer C. days D. summer ③ Do you usually go to school by bus?

A. Do B. usually C. go D. bus

④ There will be a meeting at the library this afternoon.

A. will be B. meeting C. the library D. afternoon ⑤ Did the twins have porridge for their breakfast?

A. Did B. twins C. have D. breakfast ⑥ Tom didn't do his homework yesterday.

A. Tom B. didn't C. do D. his homework ⑦ What I want to tell you is this.

A. want B. to tell C. you D. is

⑧ We had better send for a doctor.

A. We B. had C. send D. doctor

⑨Whom did you give my book to?

A. give B. did C. whom D. book

(三) 挑出下列句中的宾语

① My brother hasn't done his homework.

A B C D

② People all over the world speak English.

A B C D

③ You must pay good attention to your pronunciation.

A B C D

④ How many new words did you learn last class?

A B C D

⑤The old man sitting at the gate said he was ill.

A B C D

(四)找出下列句中的表语

① The old man was feeling very tired.

A B C D

② Why is he worried about Jim?

A B C D

③ The leaves have turned yellow.

A B C D

④ Soon They all became interested in the subject.

A B C D

⑤ She was the first to learn about it.

A B C D

(五) 挑出下列句中的定语 (6分,6分钟)

① They use Mr. Mrs. with the family name.

A B C D

② What is your given name?

A B C D

③ On the third lap are Class 1 and Class 3.

A B C D

④ I am afraid some people forgot to sweep the floor.

A B C D

⑤ The man downstairs was trying to sleep.

A B C D

(六) 挑出下列句中的宾语补足语 (6分,6分钟)

① She likes the children to read newspapers and books in the reading-room.

A B C D ②She found it difficult to do the work.

A B C D

③They call me Lily sometimes.

A B C D

④I saw Mr. Wang get on the bus.

A B C D

⑤ A B C D

(七) 挑出下列句中的状语(8分, 8分钟)

① There was a big smile on her face.

A B C D

② Every night he heard the noise upstairs.

A B C D

③ He began to learn English when he was eleven.

A B C D

④With the medicine box under her arm, Miss Li hurried off.

A B C D

⑤She loves the library because she loves books.

A B C D

(八) 划出句中的直接宾语和间接宾语 (5分,5分钟)

① Please tell us a story.

② My father bought a new bike for me last week.

③ Mr. Li is going to teach us history next term.

④ Here is a pen. Give it to Tom.

⑤ Did he leave any message for me?

答案

(一) ① teacher ② man ③ dictionary ④ To do

(二) ① B ② A ③ C ④ A ⑤ C ⑥ C ⑦ D ⑧ C ⑨ A

(三) ① D ② D ③ B ④ A ⑤D

(四) ①D ②B ③D ④C ⑤B

(五) ① C ② C ③ A ④ B ⑤ B

(六) ① C ② C ③ C ④ D ⑤ B

(七) ① D ② A ③ D ④ A ⑤D

(八) ① us, 间接宾语 a story, 直接宾语

② me, 间接宾语 a new bike, 直接宾语 ③ us, 间接宾语 history, 直接宾语 ④ Tom, 间接宾语 it, 直接宾语 ⑤ me, 间接宾语 message, 直接宾语

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