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初中英语语法2:时态精讲

发布时间:2014-02-03 16:45:06  

时态: ①基础用法 ②时态区别 ③考点归纳 ④时间标志 ⑤常见句型 ⑥电子资源

一、一般现在时:

1.概念:经常、反复发生的动作或行为及现在的某种状况。也可表客观规律以及在时间,条件状语从句中表将来时(主将从现)

2.时间状语:

always, usually, often, sometimes, every week (day, year, month…), once a week, on Sundays,

3.基本结构:

①be动词;am/is/are ②行为动词 :动词原形、第三人称单数。

4.否定形式:

①am/is/are+not;② don’t /doesn’t +动词原形+……

5.一般疑问句:

①把be动词放于句首;② Do/Does +…+动词原形+…?

二、一般过去时:

1.概念:

过去某个时间里发生的动作或状态;过去习惯性、经常性的动作、行为。

2.时间状语:

ago, yesterday, the day before yesterday, last week(year, night, month…), in 1989, just now, at the age of 5, one day, long long ago, once upon a time, this morning

3.基本结构:

①be动词;was/were …

②行为动词 :动词的过去式

4.否定形式:

①was/were+not;② didn’t +动词原形

5.一般疑问句:

①was或were放于句首;② Did +…+动词原形……?

三、现在进行时:

1.概念:

表示现阶段或说话时正在进行的动作及行为。

2.时间状语:

now, at this time, these days, look,listen ,can you see? Can’t you see ?之类的暗示语。

3.基本结构: am/is/are+doing

4.否定形式: am/is/are+not+doing.

5.一般疑问句: Is /Are …+doing sth ?

四、过去进行时:

1.概念:

表示过去某段时间或某一时刻正在发生或进行的行为或动作。

2.时间状语:

at this/that time yesterday, at that time ,at sixyesterday evening ,from eight o’clock to nine o’clock last night 或以when/while引导的时间状语(过去进行时+when+一般过去时/ 一般过去时+while +过去进行时/过去进行时+while +过去进行时)。

3.基本结构: was/were+doing

4.否定形式: was/were + not + doing.

5.一般疑问句: 把was或were放于句首。

五、现在完成时:

1.概念:

过去发生或已经完成的动作对现在造成的影响或结果,或从过去已经开始,持续到现在的动作或状态。

2.时间状语:

recently, lately, since…for…,in the past few years, already ,yet ,never ,ever, just, before, so far ,once, twice etc.

3.基本结构: have/has + done

4.否定形式: have/has + not +done.

5.一般疑问句: 把have或has放于句首。

6.反义疑问句: 直接用has /have 进行反问

7.注意:

1).have been to /have gone to /have been in 的区别

have been to +地点 表示曾经去过某地,现人已返回。(once ,twice ….) have gone to +地点 表示人已去了某地,人还未返回。(where is sb ?) have been in +地点 表示在某地呆多长时间。(for…../ since …..)

2).与时间段连用时,短暂性动词应改为相应的延续性动词。

①leave ----be away from ②close---be closed ③die---be dead ④start/begin ----be on ⑤join—--be in /be a member of ⑥become –be ⑦make friend ---be friends ⑧get up ---be up

⑨fall asleep ---be asleep ⑩catch a cold – have a cold

3).现在完成时的四种句型:

A).主语+短暂性动词的过去式+ 时间+ago

B).主语+have/has +延续性动词的过去分词+for…./since …. ago .

C).It’s +时间段+since +短暂性动词的过去式

D).时间段+has passed +since +短暂性动词的过去式

His grandfather died two years ago .

His grandfather has ____ ____ for two years.

_____two years _____ his grandfather ____.

Two years ____ ____ ____ his grandfather _____.

4).现在完成时与一般过去时的区别

现在完成时与现在有关的时态,他侧重于过去的动作对现在造成的影响。而一般过去时侧重于表示过去的动作与现在无关,若询问该动作发生的具体的时间时,只能用一般现在时。

Has he returned the library book ? Yes, he has.

六、过去完成时:

1.概念:

以过去某个时间为标准,在此以前发生的动作或行为,或在过去某动作之前完成的行为,即“过去的过去”。

2.时间状语:

1).before+过去时间,by+ 过去时间, by the end of last year(term, month…)

2).by the time +从句(一般过去时),主句(过去完成时)

3).用于由when ,after , before 引导的时间状语从句中,前后两动作都发生在过去。

过去完成时+when/before +一般过去时

一般过去时+after +过去完成时

4).用于宾语从句中。

3.基本结构:

had + done.

4.否定形式:

had + not + done.

5.一般疑问句:

把had放于句首。

七、一般将来时:

1.概念:

表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态及打算、计划或准备做某事。

2.时间状语:

tomorrow, next day(week, month, year ) ,soon, in+一段时间, by…,the day after tomorrow, this evening ,tonight

3.基本结构:

1).am/is/are/going to + do;

2).will/shall + do.

3).用现在进行时表示将来,动词go ,start,leave ,fly,move ,begin ,get ….

4).当主句为一般将来时,由if ,as soon as ,until, when ,before, after, unless 引导的状语从句中用一般现在时代替一般将来时。

4.否定形式:

①was/were + not; ②在行为动词前加didn't,同时还原行为动词。

5.一般疑问句:

①be放于句首;②will/shall提到句首。

八、过去将来时:

1.概念:

立足于过去某一时刻,从过去看将来,常用于宾语从句中。

2.时间状语: come,

the next day(morning, year…),the following month(week…), by then ,

3.基本结构:

①was/were/going to + do;

②would/should + do.

4.否定形式:

①was/were/not + going to + do;

②would/should + not + do.

5.一般疑问句:

①was或were放于句首;

②would/should 提到句首。

Ⅱ时态间的区别

一、现在进行时与一般现在时的区别

(1) 现在进行时强调目前正在进行的动作,而一般现在时强调经常性或习惯性的动作。如:

I’m reading a story now. 我在看一个故事。(目前正在干的事情)

I read stories in my spare time. 我有空时看故事。(经常性的行为)

(2) 现在进行时强调现阶段一直在进行的动作,而一般现在时只

表示动作的重复,而不表示动作的持续。如:

What are you doing these days? 这几天你在干什么? They are learning English in the summer holiday. 他们暑假在学英语。

They read English every day. 他们每天读英语。

They play volleyball every Sunday. 他们每周星期天都打排球。

(3) 表示短促动作的动词(如 jump, knock, beat, pick, skip等)的进行时,表示动作的重复。如:

The girls are jumping over there. 女孩子们在那边跳。 His heart is beating fast. 他的心脏跳得很快。

(4) 某些表示希望或想法的动词(如hope, wonder, want等)的进行时可以表示委婉客气。如:

I’m wondering whether you can help us now. 我不知道你现在能否帮我们一下。

I’m hoping that you will succeed.希望你能成功。

二、过去进行时与一般过去时的区别

(1) 过去进行时强调动作在过去某时刻正在进行或持续,而一般

过去时表示动作的完成。如:

He was writing his composition last night. 他昨晚在写作文。(不一定写完)

He wrote his composition last night. 他昨晚写了一篇作文。(已经写完)

(2) 表示过去的状态、感觉及心理活动的静态动词(如be, like, love, hate, fear, own, hear, see, know, want, notice)可用于一般过去时,但通常不用于进行时。如:

I hated it when a man spoke with his mouth full of food. 我讨厌人们说话时口里含着食物。

(3) 一般过去时与always, constantly, forever, continually等连用,表示过去经常性、习惯性的动作;而过去进行时与always, constantly, forever, continually等连用,表示动作的重复,常带有感情色彩。如:

He always got up at six. 他过去总是6点起床。 He was always thinking of his work. 他总是一心想着工作。

(4) 有时过去进行时可以用来替换一般过去时,但一般过去时表示主语的行为是经过认真考虑的;而过去进行时表示一种较随便或没

有进行仔细考虑的行为。如:

I thought that he would agree with us. 我认为他会同意我们的观点。

I was thinking of persuading him to follow my advice. 我想要说服他接受我们的建议。

三、现在完成时与一般过去时的区别

现在完成时强调动作的结果对现在的影响,属于现在时的范畴;一般过去时强调动作所发生的时间,属于过去时的范畴。因此,过去时需跟过去时间连用或有表过去时间的上下文连用,而现在完成时不能与过去时间连用。如:

I read the book two weeks ago. 我两周前读了这本书。

I have read the book for two weeks. 这本书我读了两周了。

四、现在完成时与现在进行时

现在完成时强调动作持续到现在,并且还有可能持续下去,或动作刚结束;而现在进行时只强调目前的状态。如:

They have talked for about two hours. 他们谈了大约两个小时。(强调动作的持续)

They are talking. 他们在谈话。 (强调目前的状态)

五、过去完成时与一般过去时的区别

(1) 过去完成时表示以过去某时间为起点以前所发生的动作或存在的状态,即:过去完成时强调“过去的过去”,而一般过去时只表示以现在时间为起点以前所发生的事情或存在的状态。如:

He studied there two years ago. 他在那儿学习了两年。(离现在两年)

He said he had studied there two years ago. 他说他在那儿学习了两年。(离他说话时两年)

(2) 表示过去某个时间以前所连续发生的两个或两个以上的动作时,一般用and, then, but按照动作的先后顺序连接,此时通常用一般过去时而不用过去完成时。如:

He said he went the shop and bought some food. 他说他去商店买了一些食品。

六、现在完成进行时与现在完成时的区别

(1) 现在完成时强调动作的完成,而现在完成进行时强调动作的延续。因此,表示动作的完成,只能用现在完成时,而不能用现在完成进行时。如:

He has changed his idea. 他改变了想法。

(2) 在表示动作的延续时,虽然既可用现在完成时,也可用现在完成进行时,但现在完成进行时强调动作的进行。因此在需要明确表示动作还要持续下去时,应用现在完成进行时。如:

We have been studying here for two years. 我们在这儿已经学习两年了。

(3) 有些延续性动词(如 keep, learn, live, stay, study, work等),用于现在完成时或现在完成进行时的区别不大。如: I have lived here for many years.

=I have been living here for many years. 我在这儿住了多年了。

Ⅲ需要注意的时态考点归纳

主要用来表示人、事物的现在状况和特点;表示经常或习惯性的动作,句子中常有often, always, from time to time 等时间状语;表示客观规律和永恒真理等。

He usually goes to work at 7 o’clock every morning.

She has a brother who lives in New York. The earth goes around the sun.

Guangzhou is situated in the south of China.

考点一:表示永恒的真理,即使出现在过去的语境中,仍用一般现在时。如:

I learned that the earth goes around the sun when I was in primary school.

考点二:在时间和条件状语从句中,代替一般将来时,常用的引导词有:

时间:when, until, after, before, as soon as, once, the moment / minute / day / year

条件:if, unless, provided If he accepts the job, he will get more money soon.

考点三:在make sure (certain), see to it, mind, care, matter +宾语从句中,从句用一般现在时代替一般将来时。

So long as he works hard, I don’t mind when he finishes the experiment.

只要他努力工作,我不介意他什么时候做完试验。

考点四:在the more… the more … (越…越…) 句型中, 若主句是一般将来时, 从句通常用一般现在时。

The harder you study, the better results you will get.

2. 现在进行时

表说话时或目前一段时间内正在进行的活动;与频率副词,如always,constantly,continually,again等连用,表示说话人的某种感情色彩(赞叹、厌烦、埋怨等)。

We are having English class. The house is being built these days. The little boy is always making trouble.

考点一:在时间状语或条件状语从句中表示将来正在进行的动作。

Look out when you are crossing the street.

Don't wake him up if he is still sleeping at 7 tomorrow morning. 考点二: 表示在最近按计划或安排要进行的动作(这时多有表示将来的时间状语)。

Marry is leaving on Friday.

3. 现在完成时

表示动作发生在过去,完成在过去,但强调与现在情况仍有联系,其结果或影响仍存在。现在完成时有一些标志性的时间状语。 考点一:for + 时间段;since + 时间点

They have lived in Beijing for five years.

They have lived in Beijing since 1995. I have learned English for ten years.

考点二:常见的不确定的时间状语:lately, recently, just, already, yet, up to now; till now; so far, these days

Has it stopped raining yet?

考点三:在表示“最近几世纪/年/月以来……”时间状语中,谓语动词用现在完成时。

in the past few years/months/weeks/days, over the past few years, during the last three months, for the last few centuries, through centuries, throughout history 等

In the past 30 years China has made great advances in socialist construction.

考点四:表示“第几次做某事,”或在 “It is the best (worst, most interesting ) +名词+that” 后面用现在完成时。

This is my first time that I have visited China. That is the only book that he has written.

This is the most interesting film I have ever seen.

4.一般过去时

表在过去某个特定时间发生且完成的动作,或过去习惯性动作,不强调对现在的影响,只说明过去。常与明确的过去时间状语连用,如:yesterday,

last week, in 1945, at that time, once, during the war, before, a few days ago, when。

考点一:used to + do 表示过去经常但现在已不再维持的习惯动作。to为不定式符号,后接动词原形。

比较:be / become / get used to + doing 表示习惯于

He used to smoke a lot. He has got used to getting up early. 考点二:在时间和条件状语从句中,代替过去将来时。 He promised to buy me a computer if he got a raise

5. 过去进行时

表示过去某个时间点或某段时间内正在发生的动作。

The boy was doing his homework when his father came back from work.

He was taking a walk leisurely by the lake when he heard someone shouted for help.

What were you doing at nine last night?

The radio was being repaired when you called me.

6. 过去完成时

表示过去某个时间之前已经完成的动作,即过去完成时的动作发生在“过去的过去”,句中有明显的参照动作或时间状语,这种时态从来不孤立使用。

There had been 25 parks in our city up till 2000.

By the end of last term we had finished the book.

They finished earlier than we had expected.

考点二:表示“第几次做某事”,主句用过去时,从句用过去完成时。

That was the second time that she had seen her grandfather.

考点三:动词hope, expect, think, intend, mean, want, suppose,

plan 用过去完成时,表示未实现的愿望、打算和意图。

I had hoped that I could do the job. I had intended to see you but I was too busy.

7. 一般将来时

表示在将来某个时间发生的动作或情况。常和tomorrow, next year, in 2008等表示将来的时间状语连用,其表现形式多达5种。 考点一:一般将来时总是用在一些时间状语从句或条件状语从句的主句中。

We will begin our class as soon as the teacher comes.

(主句用一般将来时,从句中一定要用一般现在时替代一般将来时。)

考点二:某些表示短暂性动作的动词如arrive, come, go, leave, start等,用现在进行时形式表示将来。

I am leaving for Beijing tomorrow.

考点三:“祈使句 + and / or + 句子”,这种结构中and后面的句子谓语用一般将来时。

Use your head and you will find a way.

考点四:“be going to + 动词原形”,表示打算要做的事或可能要发生的事。

“be about to + 动词原形”表示按照预定计划或打算准备着手进行的动作。

“be to + 动词原形”表示必须、必然或计划将要做的事。

They are to be married in May.

8. 将来进行时

表示将来某个时间正在发生的动作,或按计划一定会发生的事情。

I’ll be doing my homework this time tomorrow. 明天这会我正在写作业。

The President will be meeting the foreign delegation at the airport.

Ⅳ动词时态标志词

1.一般现在时

(1) always, usually, often, sometimes

(2) every day, every morning, every Saturday, every time

(3) in the morning, on Saturdays

(4) once a week, three times a day, twice a year

2.一般过去时

1) yesterday, the day before yesterday, yesterday morning (evening, afternoon)

(2) last time, last Friday, last term, last month

(3) 一段时间+ago

(4) just now = a moment ago

(5)in 1989

(6)at the age of 5, one day, long long ago, once upon a time

(7) in the past

(8)the other day = a few days ago

3.现在进行时

(1)now. nowadays

(2)these days / at present

(3)Look. Listen.

4.过去进行时

(1)at that time.at that moment.this time yesterday evening

(2)以when引导的谓语动词是一般过去时的时间状语

5.一般将来时

(1) tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, tomorrow morning (evening, afternoon)

(2) next time, next Friday, next term, next month

(3) in +一段时间

in + 一段时间 ' s + time

(4) soon = right away = at once

(5) by the end of + 将来时间

6.过去将来时

(1)the next time/ Friday/ term/ month

(2)the following month (week…),

7..现在完成时

(1) already, yet, ever, never, just, before

(2) for + 一段时间,

since + 过去某一点时间 ;

since +从句 (一般过去式);

since + 一段时间 + ago

in / during the past / last + 一段时间

(3)recently ,lately

(4)so far

(5)over the years 在过去的几年中

8..过去完成时

(1).by, by the time (of), by the end of + 过去时间

(2)when. before. after…….+过去时间

(3)up till then (直到那时); up until last night(直到昨晚)等。

(4)already, just, ever, yet 等。

Ⅴ常用句型中的动词形式总结

①It is (high) time that 。。。后面的从句谓语动词要用过去式或用should加动词原形,但should不可省略。

It is time that the children went to bed.

It is high time that the children should go to bed.

② It [This] is the first time+that-结构中,that-从句通常用现在完成时: It’s the first time that she’s seen an elephant.

这是她第一次见到大象。

有时以上结构中的 first 也可换成 second,third,fourth 等;其中的time也可换成其他名词:

It’s the first month that he has lived here.

这是他第一个月住在这里。

若It was the first time that-结构中,that-从句通常用过去完成时,有时也用一般过去时 It was the first time this year that he hadn’t *hasn’t+ worked on a Saturday.

这是今年来他第一次在星期六不上班。

③主句(现在完成时)+ since + 从句(一般过去式)

I have been here since I was a boy .

④What if + 从句 ? 从句用一般过去式

What if he doesn't come tomorrow ?

⑤ would rather do sth than do sth.'宁愿做。。。。而不愿做。。。。” 表示主观愿望,即在两者之间选择前者。

⑥prefer doing sth to doing sth.

⑦ prefer to do sth rather than do sth

⑧If ...were / did ..., I would do ... 如果。。。。我将。。。

If I were you , I'd go to my mother for supper.

⑨Could / will you please (not ) do sth ?

Ⅵ更多电子资源

① QQ群:315980945

② http://club.topsage.com/forum-210-1.html 大家网中考论坛,各科资料都不少

③ http://soft.sparke.cn/resTypeList.aspx?TID=0&JID=2&④ http://zhongxue.hujiang.com/chuzhongyyjc/ 沪江英语教案【人教go for it版】

⑤ http://yun.baidu.com/share/link?shareid=430623834&uk=3594455535 百度网盘的分享,不是很多

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