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人教版新目标英语九年级 语法 词组 句型 重点全解

发布时间:2013-09-24 08:03:08  

人教版新目标英语九年级 语法 词组 句型 重点全解

一、知识点

1.Check in : 在旅馆的登记入住。 Check out: 在旅馆结账离开。 2.By: ①通过…..方式(途径)。例:I learn English by listening to tapes. ②在…..旁边。例:by the window/the door ③乘坐交通工具 例:by bus/car ④在……之前,到……为止。例:by October在10月前 ⑤被 例:English is spoken by many people. 3.how与what的区别: how通常对方式或程度提问,意思有:怎么样 如何,通常用来做状语、表语。 what通常对动作的发出者或接受者提问,意思为 什么,通常做宾语,主语。 ①How is your summer holiday? It?s OK.(how表示程度 做表语) ②How did you travel around the world? I travel by air. ③What do you learn at school? I learn English, math and many other subjects. ① What…think of…? How…like…? ② What…do with…? How…deal with…? ③ What…like about…? How…like…? ④ What?s the weather like today? How?s the weather today? ⑤ What to do? How to do it? e.g. What do you think of this book?=How do you like this book? I don?t know what I should do with the matter.=I don?t know how I should deal with it. What do you like about China?=How do you like China? I don?t know what to do next step?=I don?t know how to do it next step? ㊣ What good / bad weather it is today!(weather为不可数名词,其前不能加 a ) ㊣ What a fine / bad day it is today! (day为可数名词,其前要加 a ) 4. aloud, loud与loudly的用法 : 三个词都与"大声"或"响亮"有关。 ①aloud是副词,重点在出声能让人听见,但声音不一定很大, 常用在读书或说话上。通常放在动词之后。aloud没有比较级形式。 如: He read the story aloud to his son.他朗读那篇故事给他儿子听。 ②loud可作形容词或副词。用作副词时,常与speak, talk, laugh等动词连用,多用于比较级,须放在动词之后。如:

She told us to speak a little louder. 她让我们说大声一点。 ③loudly是副词,与loud同义,有时两者可替换使用,但往往 含有令人讨厌或打扰别人的意思,可位于动词之前或之后。如: He does not talk loudly or laugh loudly in public. 他不当众大声谈笑。 5. voice 指人的嗓音 也指鸟鸣。 sound 指人可以听到的各种声音。 noise 指噪音、吵闹声 6. find + 宾语 + 宾补(名词 形容词 介词短语 分词等) 例:I find him friendly. I found him working in the garden. We found him in bed. He found the window closed. We found her honest. 7. 常见的系动词有: ①是:am 、is、 are ②保持:keep、 stay ③ 转变:become、 get、 turn ④ ……起来 feel、 look、 smell、 taste、 sound 8. get + 宾语+宾补(形容词 过去分词 动词不定式) 使某种情况发生 例:Get the shoes clean. 把鞋擦干净 Get Mr. Green to come. 让格林先生进来 I want to get my bike repaired. 我想去修自行车 You can?t get him waiting. 你不能让他老等着 9. 动词不定式做定语 ①与所修饰的名词构成主谓关系 The next train to arrive was from New York. He is always the first to come. ②与所修饰的名词构成动宾关系 I have nothing to say. I need a pen to write with. I need some paper to write on. I don?t have a room to live in. 10. practice , fun 做名词为不可数名词 11. add 补充说 又说 12. join 加入某团体 并成为其中一员 attend 出席参加会议或讲座 join in与take part in指参加到某项活动中去。 13.all、 both、 always以及every复合词与not连用构成部分否定。其完全否定为:all---none, both---neither, everything---nothing, everybody---nobody. 14. be afraid of doing sth. / sth.害怕 be afraid of being alone be afraid to do sth.害怕 be afraid that恐怕担心,表示委婉语气 15.either:①放在否定句末表示“也” ②两者中的“任一” ③either…or…或者…或者.…引导主语部分,谓语动词按照就近原则

16.complete完成,是个较正式的词,后不能接动名词 finish指日常事物的完成 17.a,an 与序数词连用表示“又一”,“再一”。 例:Please give me a second apple. There comes a fifth girl. 18.have trouble/difficult/problem (in) doing….. 干…..遇到麻烦,困难 19.unless 除非,如果不,等于“if not”本身就表示否定,引导条件状语从句,主句为将来时,条件状语从句用一般现在时表示将来。 例:My baby sister doesn?t cry unless she?s hungry. =My baby sister doesn?t cry if she isn?t hungry. Unless you take more care, you?ll have an accident. 如果你不多加小心的话,你会出事的。 20.instead: adv. 代替,更换。 例:We have no coffee, would you like tea instead? 我们没有咖啡了,改喝茶好吗? It will take days by car, so let?s fly instead. 开车去要好几天呢,咱们还是坐飞机吧。 Tom was ill, so I went instead.汤姆病了,所以换了我去。 instead of doing sth. 作为某人或某事物的替换 例:Let?s play cards instead of watching TV. We sometimes eat rice instead of potatoes. Give me the red one instead of the green one. 21.spoken 口头的,口语的。spoken English 口头英语 speaking 讲话的,说某种语言的。Speaking skills讲英语的能力 22. 提建议的句子: ①What/ how about +doing sth.? 如:What/ How about going shopping? ②Why don?t you + do sth.? 如:Why don?t you go shopping? ③Why not + do sth. ? 如:Why not go shopping? ④Let?s + do sth. 如: Let?s go shopping ⑤Shall we/ I + do sth.? 如:Shall we/ I go shopping? 23. a lot 许多 常用于句末 如:I eat a lot. 我吃了许多。 24. too…to 太…而不能 常用的句型 too+adj./adv. + to do sth. 如:I?m too tired to say anything. 我太累了,什么都不想说。 25. not …at all 一点也不 根本不 如: I like milk very much. I don?t like coffee at all. 我非常喜欢牛奶。我一点也不喜欢咖啡。 not经常可以和助动词结合在一起,at all 则放在句尾 26.be / get excited about sth.=== be / get excited about doing sth. === be excited to do sth. 对…感兴奋 如: I am / get excited about going to Beijing.=== I am excited to go to Beijing. 我对去北京感到兴奋。 27. ① end up doing sth 终止做某事,结束做某事 如:

The party ended up singing. 晚会以唱歌而结束。 ② end up with sth. 以…结束 如: The party ended up with her singing. 晚会以她的歌唱而告终。 28. first of all 首先 . to begin with 一开始 later on 后来、随 29. also 也、而且(用于肯定句)常在句子的中间 either 也(用于否定句)常在句末 too 也 (用于肯定句) 常在句末=as well 30. make mistakes 犯错 mistake sb. for …把……错认为…… make mistakes (in) doing sth. 在干某事方面出错 by mistake 错误地;由于搞错 mistake---mistook----mistaken 如:I often make mistakes. 我经常犯错。 I mistook him for his brother.我错把他认成了他的哥哥。 make a mistake 犯一个错误 如: I have made a mistake. 我已经犯了一个错误。 31. laugh at sb. 笑话;取笑(某人) 如:Don?t laugh at me!不要取笑我! 32. take notes 做笔记,做记录 33. enjoy doing sth . 喜欢做…乐意做… 如: She enjoys playing football. 她喜欢踢足球。 enjoy oneself 过得愉快 如:He enjoyed himself. 他过得愉快。 34. native speaker 说本族语的人 35. one of +(the+ 形容词比较级)+名词复数形式 …其中之一 如: She is one of the most popular teachers. 她是最受欢迎的教师之一。 36. It?s +形容词+(for sb. ) to do sth. (对于某人来说)做某事… 如:It?s difficult (for me ) to study English.对于我来说学习英语太难了。 句中的it 是形式主语,真正的主语是to study English 37. practice doing 练习做某事 如: She often practice speaking English. 她经常练习说英语。 38. decide to do sth. 决定做某事 如: LiLei has decided to go to BeiJing . 李雷已经决定去北京。 39. deal with 处理 如:I dealt with a lot of problem. 40. worry about sb./ sth. 担心某人/ 某事 如:Mother worried about his son just now. 妈妈刚才担心他的儿子。 41. be angry with sb. 对某人生气 如: I was angry with her. 我对她生气。 42. perhaps === maybe 也许 43. go by (时间) 过去 如: Two years went by. 两年过去了。 44. see sb. / sth. doing 看见某人正在做某事 强调正在发生

see sb. / sth. do 看见某人在做某事 如: 如: She saw him drawing a picture in the classroom.她看见他正在教室里画画。 45. each other 彼此 46. regard… as … 把…看作为…. 如: The boys regarded Anna as a fool. 这些男孩把安娜看成傻瓜。 47. too many 许多 修饰可数名词 如:too many girls too much 许多 修饰不可数名词 如:too much milk much too 太 修饰形容词 如:much too beautiful 48. change… into… 将…变为… 如:The magician changed the pen into a book. 这个魔术师将这本书变为一本书。 49. with the help of sb. == with one?s help 在某人的帮助下 如:with the help of LiLei == with LiLei?s help 在李雷的帮助下 50. compare … to … 把…与…相比 如:Compare you to Anna, you are lucky.你和安娜相比,你是幸运的。 二、短语: 1.by making flashcards 通过做单词抽认卡 2. ask…for help 向某人求助 3.read aloud 朗读 4.that way (=in that way) 通过那种方式 5.improve my speaking skills 提高我的会话技巧 6.for example (=for instance)例如 7.have fun 玩得高兴 8.have conversations with friends 与朋友对话 9.get excited 高兴,激动 10.end up speaking in Chinese 以说汉语结束对话 11.do a survey about… 做有关…的调查 12.keep an English notebook 记英语笔记 13.spoken English (= oral English) 英语口语 14.make mistakes 犯错误 15.get the pronunciation right 使发音准确 16.practise speaking English 练习说英语 17.first of all 首先 18.begin with 以…开始19.later on随后 20.in class在课堂上 21.laught at 嘲笑 22.take notes 记笔记23.enjoy doing 喜欢干… 24.write down 写下,记下 25.look up (v + adv) 查找,查询 26.native speakers 说本族话的人 27.make up 编造,虚构,化妆,打扮 28.around the world 全世界 29.deal with 对待,处理,解决 30.worry about (be worried about) 担心,担忧 31.be angry with 生某人的气 32.stay angry 生气33.go by 消逝 34. regard…as… 把…当做…35.complain about/of 抱怨36.

change…into… 把…变成… (= turn into) 37.with the help of 在…的帮助下 38. compare…to (with)… 把…和…作比较 39.think of (think about) 想起,想到 40.physical problems身体上的问题 41.break off 中断,突然终止 42. not…at all 根本不,全然不 三、句子 1.How do you study for a test? 你怎样为考试做准备? 2.I have learned a lot that way. 用那种方法,我已经学到了很多东西。 3.It?s too hard to understand the voice. 听懂那些声音太难了。 4.Memorizing the words of pop songs also helped a little. 记流行歌曲的词也起作用。 5. Wei Ming feels differently. 卫明有不同的感受。 6.He finds watching movies frustrating. 他觉得看电影让人感到沮丧. 7.She added that having conversations with friends was not helpful at all. 她又说和朋友对话根本没用。 8.I don?t have a partner to practice English with. 我没有搭档一起练习英语。 9.Later on, I realized that it doesn?t matter if you don?t understand every word.随后,我认识到听不懂每个词并没有关系。 10.It?s amazing how much this helped. 我惊异于这些方法竟如此有用。 11.My teacher is very impressed. 给老师留下了深刻的印象。 12.She had trouble making complete sentences. 她很难造出完整的句子。 13.What do you think you are doing? 你在做什么? 14.Most people speak English as a second language. 英语对于大多数人来说是第二语言。 15.How do we deal with our problem? 我们怎样处理我们的问题? 16.It is our duty to try our best to deal with each challenge in our education with the help of our teachers. 在老师的帮助下尽我们最大的努力来应对挑战是我们的责任。 He can?t walk or even speak.他无法走路,甚至无法说话 Unit 2 一、知识点 1. used to 过去常常做某事,暗指现在已经不存在的动作或状态. 后跟动词原形. used to do sth. There used to be ….(反意疑问句)didn?t there? 否定形式为: didn?t use to 或 usedn?t to 疑问形式为: Did…use to…? 或 Used…to…? be/get used to doing sth.习惯于, to 为介词. 2. wear 表示状态. =be in +颜色的词 put on 表示动作.

dress + 人 给某人穿衣服.dress sb. / oneself have on表示状态(不用于进行时态) 3. on the swim team on 是…的成员,在…供职. 4. Don?t you remember me? 否定疑问句.(考点) Yes, I do. 不, 我记得. No, I don?t 是的, 我不记得了. 5. 反意疑问句: ① 陈述部分的主语为 this, that, 疑问部分主语用it; 陈述部分主语用 these, those, 疑问部分用they 做主语. 例: This is a new story, isn?t it? Those are your parents, aren?t they? ② 陈述部分是 there be 结构, 疑问部分仍用 there 例: There was a man named Paul, wasn?t there? ③ I am 后的疑问句, 用aren?t I 例: I am in Class 2, aren?t I? ④ 陈述部分与含有 not, no, never, few, little, hardly, seldom, neither, none 等词时,疑问部分用肯定. 例: Few people liked this movie, didn?t they? 但陈述句中若带有否定前缀或后缀的单词时, 这个句子仍视为肯定, 后面仍用否定. 例: Your sister is unhappy, isn?t she? ⑤ 陈述部分的主语若为不定式或 V-ing 短语, 疑问部分主语用it. 例: To spend so much money on clothes is unnecessary, isn?t it? ⑥ 陈述句中主语是 nobody, no one, everyone, everybody 等指人的不定代词时,疑问部分用they做主语; 若陈述部分主语是 something, anything, noting, everything 等指事物的不定代词时, 疑问部分用it 做主语. 例: Nobody says one word about the accident, do they? Everything seems perfect, doesn?t it? ⑦ 当主语是第一人称I时, 若谓动为think, believe, guess 等词时, 且其后跟宾丛,这时疑问句部分的人称, 时态要与宾语从句保持一致, 同时还要考虑否定转移. 例: I don?t think he can finish the work in time, can he? ⑧ 前面是祈使句, 后用 will you? (let?s 开头时, 后用shall we?) 6. be terrified of 害怕的程度比 be afraid of 深. 7. miss: ① 思念, 想念 例: I really miss the old days. ② 错过, 未中, 未赶上, 未找到. 例: It?s a pity that you miss the bus. The boy shot at the goal, but missed. 8. no more (用在句中)=not…any more (用在句尾) 指次数; no longer (用在句中)=not…any longer (用在句尾) 指时间. 9. right: ① adj. 正确的, 右边的② n. 右方, 权利③ adv. 直接地. 10. It seems that Yu Mei has changed a lot. = Yu Mei seems to have changed a lot. 11. afford + n. /pron. afford + to do 常与can, be able to 连用.

例: Can you afford a new car? The film couldn?t afford to pay such large salaries. 12. as well as 连词, 不但…而且… 强调前者. (若引导主语, 谓动与前者在人称和数上一致 例: Living things need air and light as well as water. 生命不仅需要水, 还需要空气和阳光. I as well as they am ready to help you. 不仅是他们, 我也愿意帮助你. 13. alone = by oneself 独自一人. lonely 孤独的, 寂寞的. 14. in the last/past + 一段时间 during the last/past + 一段时间 与现在完成时连用. 15. die (v.) dead (adj.) death (n.) dying (垂死的) 16. play the piano 弹钢琴 17. ①be/ become interested in sth. 对…感兴趣 ②be interested in doing sth. 对做…感兴趣 ③show great interest in 在……方面产生极大的兴趣 ④a place of interest 一处名胜 some places of interest 如:He is interested in math, but he isn?t interested in speaking English. 他对数学感兴趣,但是他对说英语不感兴趣。 ⑤ interested adj. 感兴趣的,指人对某事物感兴趣,往往主语是人 ⑥ interesting adj.有趣的,指某事物/某人具有趣味,主语往往是物 ⑦ an interesting book / man 18. 害怕… be terrified of sth. 如:I am terrified of the dog. be terrified of doing sth. 如:I am terrified of speaking. 19. on 副词,表示(电灯、电视、机械等)在运转中/打开, 其反义词off. with the light on 灯开着 20. walk to somewhere 步行到某处 walk to school 步行到学校 21.spend 动词,表示“花费金钱、时间” ①spend…on sth. 在某事上花费(金钱、时间) ②spend…doing sth. 花费(金钱、时间)去做某事 如: He spends too much time on clothes. 他花费太多的时间在衣着 He spend 3 months building the bridge.他花费了三个月去建这座桥。 pay for 花费 如:I pay 10 yuan for the book. 我花了10元买这本书。 take动词 有“花费”的意思 常用的结构有: It take(s) sb. … to do sth. 如:It takes me a day to read the book. 22. chat with sb. 与某人闲聊 如:I like to chat with him. 我喜欢和他聊天。 23. worry about sb./ sth. 担心某人/某事 worry 是动词 be worried about sb./sth. 担心某人/某事 worried 是形

容词 如:Don?t worry about him. 不用担心他。 Mother is worried about her son. 妈妈担心他的儿子。 24. all the time 一直、始终 25. take sb. to + 地方 送/带某人去某个地方 如: A person took him to the hospital. 一个人把他送到了医院。 Lui took me home. 刘把我送回了家。(home 的前面不能用to) 26. hardly adv. 几乎不、没有 hard 困难的;猛烈地 hardly ever 很少 hardly 修饰动词时,通常放在助动词、情态动词之后,实义 动词之前 助动词/情态动词+hardly hardly + 实义动词 如: I can hardly understand them. 我几乎不能够明白他们。 I hardly have time to do it. 我几乎没有时间去做了。 It rains hard outside, I could hardly go out. 27. in the last few years. 在过去的几年内 常与完成时连用 如: I have lived in China in the last few years. 在过去的几年内我在中国住。 28. be different from 与…不同 29. how to swim 怎样游泳 不定式与疑问词连用:动词不定式可以和what, which, how, where, when 等引导的疑问句连用,构成不定工短语。如: The question is when to start. 问题是什么时候开始。 I don?t know where to go. 我不知道去哪。 30. make sb./ sth. + 形容词 make you happy make sb./ sth. + 动词原形 make him laugh 31. move to +地方 搬到某地 如:I moved to Beijing last year. 32.It seems that +从句 看起来好像…… 如: It seems that he has changed a lot. 看起来他好像变了许多。 33. help sb. with sth. 帮某人某事 help sb. (to ) do sth. 帮某人做某事 She helped me with English. 她帮助我学英语。 She helped me (to) study English。 她帮助我学习英语。 34. fifteen-year-old 作形容词 15岁的 fifteen-year-olds 作名词指15岁的人 fifteen years old 指年龄 15岁 如: a fifteen-year-old boy 一个15岁的男孩 Fifteen-year-olds like to sing. 15岁的人喜欢唱歌。 I am fifteen years old . 我是15岁。 35.支付不起… can?t /couldn?t afford to do sth. can?t / couldn?t afford sth. 如:I can?t/couldn?t afford to buy the car.

I can?t/couldn?t afford the car. 我买不起这个辆小车。 36. as + 形容词./副词+as sb. could/can 尽某人的…能力 如: Zhou run as fast as her could/can. 她尽她最快的能力去跑。 37. get into trouble with 遇到麻烦 38. in the end 最后 39. make a decision 下决定 下决心 40. to one?s surprise 令某人惊讶 如: to their surprise 令他们惊讶 to LiLei?s surprise令李雷惊讶 41. take pride in sth. 以…而自豪 如: His father always take pride in him. 他的爸爸总是以他而自豪 42. pay attention to sth. 对…注意,留心 如: You must pay attention to your friend. 你应该多注意你的朋友。 43. be able to do sth. 能做某事 如: She is able to do it. 她能够做到。 44. give up doing sth. 放弃做某事 如: My father has given up smoking. 我爸爸已经放弃吸烟了。 复合句与简单句的转化: ① when ------ at the age of …② so…that…----- too… to…. / enough to … ③ so that…------ in order to do sth.④ because…----- because of…⑤ if ….----- without / with… ⑥ if…----- 祈使句+ and / or + 简单句 ⑦ 宾语从句----特殊疑问词+动词不定式⑧ be afraid be sure that +从句---- 动词不定式 be sorry ⑨ It seems / seemed that sb….------ sb. seems / seemed to do sth. ⑩ Sb. hopes / hoped that ….-------sb. hopes / hoped to do sth. 二、 短语 1. be more interested in 对…更感兴趣.2. on the swim team 游泳队的队员. 3. be terrified of 害怕.4. gym class 体操课.5. worry about. 担心. 6. all the time 一直, 总是7. chat with 与…闲聊8. hardly ever 几乎从不 9. walk to school = go to school on foot take the bus to school = go to school by bus 10. as well as 不仅…而且 11. get into trouble 遇到麻烦12. make a decision 做出决定 13. to one?s surprise 使某人吃惊的是14. take pride in 为…感到骄傲 15. pay attention to 留心, 注意16. consist of 由…组成/构成. be made up of 由…组成/构成.17. instead of 代替, 而

不是 18. in the end 最后, 终于19. play the piano 弹钢琴 三、句子 1.I used to be afraid of the dark. 我以前害怕黑暗. 2.I go to sleep with my bedroom light on. 我开着卧室的灯睡觉. 3.I used to spend a lot of time playing games with my friends. 以前我常常花很多时间和我的朋友们玩游戏. 4.I hardly ever have time for concerts. 我几乎没有时间去听音乐会. 5.My life has changed a lot in the last few years. 6.It will make you stressed out. 那会使你紧张的. 7.It seems that Yu Mei has changed a lot. 玉梅似乎变化很大. Unit 3 一、知识点 ①英语有两种语态:主动语态和补动语态 主动语态表示是动作的执行者 被动语态表示主语是动作的承受者 Cats eat fish. (主动语态)猫吃鱼。 Fish is eaten by cats. (被动语态)鱼被猫吃。 ②被动语态的构成 由“助动词be +及物动词的过去分词”构成 助动词be 有人称、数和时态的变化,其变化规则与be 作为连系动词时完全一样。 时态 被动语态结构 例句 一般现在 时 am are +过去分词 is English is spoken in many countries. 一般过去 时 was +过去分词 were + 过去分词 This bridge was built in 1989. 情 态 动 词 can/should may +be+过去分词 must/…… The work must be done right now. ③被动语态的用法 当我们不知道谁是动作的执行者,或者没有必要指出谁是动作的执行者,或者只需强调动作的承受者时,要用被动语态。 2. allow sb. to do sth. 允许某人做某事(主动语态)如: Mother allows me to watch TV every night. 妈妈允许我每晚看电视。 be allowed to do sth. 被允许做某事(被动语态)如: LiLy is allowed to go to Qinzhou. 莉莉被允许去钦州。 3. get their ears pierced 穿耳洞 让/使(别人)做某事 get sth. done(过去分词) have sth. done 如: I get my car repaired. == I have my car repaired. 我让别人修好我的车 I want to have my hair cut. 我要理发.

4. enough 足够 形容词+enough 如:beautiful enough 足够漂亮 enough+名词 如:enough food 足够食物 enough to 足够…去做… 如: I have enough money to go to Beijing. 我有足够的钱去北京。 She is old enough to go to school.她够大去读书了。 5. stop doing sth. 停止做某事 Please stop speaking.请停止说话。 stop to do sth. 停止下来去做某事 Please stop to speak. 请停下来说话。 6. 看起来好像…sb. seem to do sth. = It seems that +从句 He seems to feel very sad. It seems that he feels very sad. 他看起来好像很伤心。 7.倒装句: 由so+助动词(be/do/will/have)/情态动词+主语 意为:…也是一样 Neither/Nor + be动词/助动词/情态动词+主语(前为否定) 表示与前面所述事实一致. She is a student. So am I. 她是一个学生,我也是。 She went to school just now. So did I . 她刚才去学校了,我也是 She has finished the work. So have I . 她已经完成了工作,我也完成了。 She will go to school. So will he. 她将去学校,他也是。 Tom can?t swim. Neither can John. 8. yet 仍然,还 常用在否定句或疑问句当中 可与although/though连用 9. stay up 熬夜如:I often stay up until 12:00pm.我经常熬夜到12点。 10. clean up 打扫 整理 如: I have cleaned up the bedroom. 我已经打扫完了卧室。 11. 程度副词: always总是 usually经常 sometimes有时 never从不 如:I am always/usually/sometimes/never late for school. 我总是/经常/有时/从不上学迟到。 12. 曾经做某事: Do you ever get to school late? Yes, I do. No, I don?t. Have you ever got to school late? Yes, I have. No, I haven?t. 13. go shopping(去购物), go fishing(去钓鱼) go swimming(去游泳), go boating(去划船) go hiking(去登山), go trekking(去徒步) 14. .be strict with+人. be strict in+事物. 例: The head teacher is strict with his students He is strict in the work. 15. take the test 参加考试 pass the test 通过考试 fail a test 考试失败 16. the other day前几天,不久前的一天.(用于过去时)

every other day = every two days 每隔一天(每两天) 17. agree 同意 反义词 disagree不同意 动词 agreement 同意 反义词 disagreement 不同意 名词 18. keep sb/ sth. +形容词 使某人/某物保持…. 如: We should keep our city clean.(cleaningⅹ)我们应该保持我们的城市干净。 Don?t keep me waiting for a long time.别让我等得太久。 19. both…and… +动词复数形式 如: Both Jim and Li Ming play bastketball. 20. learn (sth.) from sb. 向谁学习(什么) 如: Jim learnt English from his English teacher. 吉姆向他的英语老师学习英语 21. have an opportunity to do sth. 有机会做某事 have a chance of doing sth. 有机会做某事 如:I have an opportunity to go to Beijing. I have a chance of going to Beijing. 22. at present 目前 23. at least 最少 at most 最多 24. 花费 take ,cost, spend , pay It take (sb.) time to do sth. It took (me) 10days to read the book. sth. cost (sb.) …… The book cost (me) 100yuan. sb. spend … on sth. She spent 10days on this book. sb. spend …doing sth. She spent 10days reading this book. sb. pay … for sth. She paid 10yuan for this book. 25. have +时间段+off 放假,休息如:have 2 days off off 不工作,不上班,不上学,不值班. 例: I think I?ll take the afternoon off. 我想下午歇班. She is off today. 她今天休息. I have three days off next week. 下周我有三天假. They haven?t had a day off since last week. 从上周来,他们没休息过一天. 26. reply to 答复某人 如:She replayed to MrGreen. 27. agree with sth. 同意某事 如:I agree with that idea. agree to sb. 同意某人的意见 如:I agree to LiLei. 28. get in the way of 碍事,妨碍 如: Her social life got in the way of her studies. 她的社会生活妨碍了她的学习。 29. success n. succeed v. successful adj. successfully adv. 30. think about 与think of 的区别 ①当两者译为:认为、想起、记着时,两者可互用 I often think about/ of that day. 我经常想起那天。 ②think about 还有“考虑”之意,think of 想到、想出时两者不能互用 At last, he thought of a good idea. 最后他想出了一个好主意。 We are thinking about going Qinzhou. 我们正在考虑去钦

州。 31. 对… 热衷, 对…兴趣 be serious about doing 如:She is serious about dancing. 她对跳舞热衷。 be serious about sth. 如:She is serious about him. 她对他感兴趣。 32. practice doing 练习做某事 She often practice speaking English. 33. care about sb. 关心某人 如:Mother often care about her son. 34. also 也 用于句中 either也 用于否定句且用于句末 too=as well 也 用于肯定句且用于句末 I am also a student. 我也是一个学生 I am a student too. 我也是一个学生。 I am not a student either. 我也不是一个学生。 35.allow sb to do sth 允许某人做… allow doing sth 允许做… 36.stupid silly foolish 三个词都有“蠢”的意思.但略有不同.stupid 程度最强,指智力 理解力 学习能力差. silly 指头脑简单,傻头傻脑,使人觉得可笑,带有感情色彩. foolish 尤其在口语中广泛使用. 例: He is stupid in learning math. 他学习数学很笨. Stop asking such silly questions. 别再问这样傻的问题了. You are foolish to throw away such a good chance. 你真蠢,丢掉这样一个好机会. 37.He doesn?t seem to have many friends. =It seems that he doesn?t have many friends. =He seems not to have many friends. 38.clean (v.) 打扫,清理 clean up 比较彻底地打扫,清理 clean out 打扫,清理地最彻底. 39.concentrate on… 全神贯注做… 例: He decided to concentrate on physics because he failed the exam. This company concentrates on China market. 这家公司把重点放在中国市场上. 40. more…than…①与其说…不如说…; 比…更… 例: The man is more stupid than nervous. 与其说那人紧张,倒不如说他愚蠢. ②在这一结构中,more做adj. 修饰名词,表示“比…多” 例:I have more books than you. 我的书比你的多. 41.volunteer ① n. 自愿者. ② v. volunteer to do sth. 自愿做… 例: We all volunteered to help in the old people?s home. 我们都志愿到敬老院帮忙. 42. get in the way (of)... 妨碍... 例: He never gets in others? way. 他从不妨碍别人.

The bikes over there will get in the way of others. 自行车放在那里会妨碍别人的. 43. success (n.) successful (adj.) succeed (v.) 44. only 处于句首,并后跟状语时,全句需要倒装. 例: Only then did he understand it. 只有到那时,他才明白. Only in this way can we learn English well. 只有这样我们才能把英语学好. Only when she came home, did he learn the news. 当她到家时,他才得知了这消息. 45. care about 关心,在乎,在意. 例: No one cares about others nowadays. 现在没人关心别人. I don?t care about what he does. 我并不在意他干什么. 二、短语 1. be allowed to do sth 被允许干 allow sb to do sth 允许某人干 allow doing sth 允许干… 2. sixteen-year-olds = sixteen-year-old boys and girls 16岁的孩子 3. part-time jobs 兼职工作 4. a driver?s license 驾照5. on weekends 在周末 6. at that age 在那个年龄段7. on school nights 在上学期间的每个晚上 8. stay up 熬夜9. clean up (相当与及物动词) 清扫 10. fail (in) a test 考试不及格 11. take the test 参加考试 12. the other day 前几13. all my classmates 我所有的同学 14. concentrate on 全神贯注于15. be good for 对…有益 16. in groups 成群的,按组的 17. get noisy 吵闹(系表结构) 18. learn from 向某人学习19. at present 目前,现在 20. have an opportunity to do sth 有做…的机会 21.English-English dictionary 英英词典 22. at least 至少 23.eight hours? sleep a night 每晚8小时的睡眠 24. an old people?s home 敬老院 25. take time to do sth 花费时间干… 26. primary schools 小学 27. have…off 放假,休息28. reply to 回答,答复 29. get in the way of 妨碍30. a professional athlete 职业运动员 31. achieve one?s dreams 实现梦想32. think about 思考,考虑 33. in the end 最后,终于34. be serious about 对…热忠/极感兴趣 35. spend…on + n. spend …(in) + v-ing 在…上花费时间/金钱 36. care about 关心,担心,在乎 37. agree with 同意… 三.句子 1. I don?t think twelve-year-olds should be allowed to get their

ears pierced. 我认为不应该允许12岁的孩子穿耳孔. 2.They talk instead of doing homework. 他们聊天而不是做作业. 3.He is allowed to stay up until 11:00 pm. 允许他们熬到晚上11点. 4.We should be allowed to take time to do things like that more often. 我们应该被允许更加经常的花些时间多做这类事情. 5.What school rules do you think should be changed? 你认为学校的哪些制度应该改一改了? 6.The two pairs of jeans both look good on me. 这两条牛仔裤穿在我身上都适合. 7.The classroom is a real mess. 教室太脏了. 8.Should I be allowed to make my own decisions? 9.Only then will I have a chance of achieving my dream. 只有这样我才能实现我的梦想. 10.They should be allowed to practice their hobbies as much as they want. 应该允许他们对业余爱好想练多长时间就练多长时间. 11.We have nothing against running. 我们没有理由反对他跑步. Unit 4 一、知识点 1. if 引导的非真实性条件状语从句 即 虚拟语气 通过动词形式的变化来表示说话人对发生的动作或存在的状态 所持的态度或看法的动词形式称为语气,虚拟语气表示说话人所说的 话不是事实,而是一种祝愿,建议或是与事实相反的假设等。 If 引导的条件状语从句分为真实和非真实条件句,非真实条件 句应用虚拟语气。如果要表示与现在或将来事实相反时,其虚拟语气结构为: 句 型 条件从句 主 句 谓语动词形式 动词过去式(be动词一律用were) would+动词原形 即:(从句)if +主语+动词过去式(be 动词用were), 一般过去时 (主句) 主语+would+动词原形 过去将来时 如:If I had time, I would go for a walk. 如果我有时间,我就会去散步。(事实上我现在没有时间) If I were you, I would take an umbrella. 假如我是你的话,我会带上雨伞。(事实上我不是你) I would say no if someone asked me to be in a movie. 假如有人请我当电影演员,我会表示拒绝。(事实上瑞没有

人请我当电影演员) 2. pretend to do sth. 假装做某事 I pretended to sleep just now. pretend to be doing sth. 假装正在干某事 The students pretended to be writing when the teacher came in. pretend +从句 假装… I pretended that I fell asleep. 3. be late for 迟到 如: I am late for work/ school/ class/ party. 4. a few 与 a little 的区别,few 与 little 的区别 ? a few 一些 修饰可数名词 a little 一些 修饰不可数名词 两者表肯定意义 如:He has a few friends. 他有一些朋友。 There is a little sugar in the bottle. 在瓶子里有一些糖。 ? few 少数的 修饰可数名词 little 少数的 修饰不可数名词 但两者表否定意义 如:He has few friends. 他没有几个朋友。 There is little sugar in the bottle.在瓶子里没有多少糖。 5. hundred, thousand , million, billion (十亿)词前面有数词或several 一词时要不能加s ,反之,则要加s 并与of 连用, 表示数量很 多 如:several hundred/ thousand/ million/ billion people 几百/千/百万/十亿人 hundreds of trees 上百棵树 8. what if + 从句 如果…怎么办 , 要是… 又怎么样 如: What if she doesn?t come? 要是她不来怎么办? What if LiLei knows? 如果李雷知道了怎么办? 9. add sth. to sth. 添加…到… 如: I added some sugar to water. 我把糖添加到水里。 10. 系动词与形容词连用 get nervous 变得紧张 feel shy 觉得害羞 look friendly 看起来友好 11. too +形/副+to do sth. 太…而不能 如: I?m too tired to stand. 我太累了而不能站。 12. help with sth. 如:They help with this problem. help sb. do. 如:They help you relax. 他们帮助你放松 13. in public 在公共场所 如: Don?t smoke in public. 请不要在公共场所吸烟。 14. energetic adj. 活力的 如:She is a energetic girl. 她是一个活力的女孩。 energy n. 活力 如:She has lots of energies. 她有活力。 15. ask sb. to do 叫…做某事 ask sb. not to do sth.叫…不要做某事 tell sb. to do 告诉…做某事 tell sb. not to do sth. 告诉…不要做某事 如:Teacher asked me to clean the classroom. Teacher asked me not to clean the classroom. 16. start doing == start to do. 开始做某事 如:

He started speaking/ to speak. 他开始说话。 17. borrow sth. from sb. 从某人那里借来某物 如: I borrowed a book from Lily. 我从莉莉那里借来一本书。 18.wait for sb.等某人 如:I am wait for him. 我正在等他。 19. introduce sb. to sb. 把某人介绍给某人 如: I introduced Lily to Anna. 我把莉莉介绍给安娜。 20. invite sb. to do 邀请某人做某事 如: Lily invited me to go to her home for supper. 莉莉邀请我去她家吃晚饭。 21. have dinner/ supper 吃晚饭 have lunch/ breakfast 吃午餐、吃早餐 22. plenty of 修饰不可数名词,也可以修饰可数名词 许多 如: They have plenty of food/ apples. 他们有许多的食物/苹果。 23. 给某人某物 give sth. to sb. 如: give an apple to me give sb. sth. give me an apple 给我一个苹果 24. get along (with)=get on (with) ①进行,进展 The business is getting along very well. 生意进展的很顺利。 How are you getting along with your English study? 你的英语学习进展的怎么样了? ②相处 Do you get along with your boss?= Do you and your boss get along? 你跟老板合得来吗? I?m getting along very well with my classmates. 我和同学们相处得很好。 25. would rather … than … (= would … rather than)宁愿,而不愿。 前后连接两个动词原形,否定形式为:would rather not do sth ①would rather … than … = prefer … to … 但prefer … to … 若连接两个动词,动词应为v-ing 形式。 He would rather jog than play football. =He prefers jogging to playing football. ②would rather 常单独使用,表示“宁愿做…” He would rather watch TV at home. ③rather than = instead of 而不是(连接两个并列成分,前后对称)。 I?d prefer to go to in summer rather than in winter. I decided to write rather than telephone. I like going out with you rather than with him. She enjoys listening rather than speaking. 25. in fact 事实上 26. let sb. down 让某人失望 如: Don?t let your mother down. 不要让你的妈妈失望。 27. come up with sth. 提出 想出 如:He came up with a good idea. 他提出了一个好主意。

catch up with sb. 追上 赶上 如:Lily caught up with Anna. 莉莉赶上了安娜。 28. have experience doing 在做某事有经验 如: I have experience teaching Chinese. 我在教英语方面有经验。 29. come out 出版,出来 如:The magazine comes out once a week. 这种杂志每周出一次。 30. by accident 偶然地,无意之中 如: Last week I cut my finger by accident. 上个星期我不小心割到自己的手指。 31. hurry to do 匆忙… I hurry to call the police. 32. more than=over 超过 34. offer 提供 offer sb sth 给××…… offer to sb sth 主动提出干…… 35. ①give sb sth=give sth to sb 类似的词还有:pass、lend、show、write、send等 ②buy sb sth=buy sth for sb 类似的词还有:make、draw、cook等 36.look for寻找find找到、发现 find out指经过观察、探索、调查等弄清楚、弄明白。 discover 指发现那些客观存在而不为人所知的实情。如科学上的重大发现。 37.bring 带来 take 带走 fetch 去并拿来 38.talk to/with sb 同××说话。 tell 告诉, 分辨,辨别。 speak to sb 同××说话,做及物动词,后跟语言。 say 后跟名词、代词及宾语从句做宾语,着重强调说话内容。 39.What if …… 如果……将会怎么样?(引导条件状语从句、疑问句) What if she doesn?t come? 她要是不来怎么办? What if your parent don?t agree? 如果你的父母不同意怎么办? What if you should fall sick? 如果你生病了怎么办? 40.What does/do ×× look like? 问相貌。 What?s ×× like? 问“品质性格”。 41.give a speech 做演讲 have a speech听演讲 give a report 做报告 have a report 听报告 42.permission (n.) 允许,许可 permit (v.) 允许 without permission 未经许可 43.plenty of 充足的,相当多的。修饰可数或不可数名词,只能用于肯定句。否定、疑问句中用 enough. 44.not……in the slightest=not……at all 根本不 45.a little = a bit 修饰形容词、副词 a little = a bit of 修饰不可数名词 46.the rest 其余的,可指代可数或不可数名词。The other(s) 只能指代可数名词 宾语从句 :宾语从句在复合句中作主句的宾语。

由连接词+ 主语+ 谓语 构成 常由下面的一些词引导: ㈠由that 引导 表示陈述意义 that 可省略 He says (that) he is at home. 他说他在家里。 ㈡由if , whether 引导表示一般疑问意义(带有是否、已否、对否等) I don?t know if / whether Wei Hua likes fish. 我不知道韦华是否喜欢鱼。 ㈢由 连接代词、连接副词(疑问词) 引导 表示特殊疑问意义 Do you know what he wants to buy? 你知道他想要买什么吗? ㈣从句时态要与主句一致 当主句是一般现在时,从句根据情况使用任何时态 He says (that ) he is at home. 他说他在家里。 I don?t know (that) she is singing now. 我不知道她正在唱歌。 She wants to know if I have finished my homework. 她想要知道我是否已经完成了我的作业。 Do you know when he will be back? 你知道他将会什么时候回来? 当主句是一般过去时,从句应使用过去某时态(一般过去时,过去进行时,过去将来时,过去完成时) He said (that) he was at home. 他说他在家里。 I didn?t know that she was singing now. 我不知道她正在唱歌。 She wanted to know if I had finished m homework. 她想要知道我是否已经完成了我的作业。 Did you know when he would be back? 你知道他将会什么时候回来? 二、短语 1、give it to charity 把它捐给慈善机构 2、medical research 医学研究 3、What if …… 如果…怎么样? 4、get nervous 紧张 5、take a big exam 参加大考 6、help with 有助于 7、in public 在公共场合 8、hardly ever 几乎不9、the whole school 全校 10、without permission 为经许可11、be(make) friends with 与…交朋友 12、ask one?s permission 请求××的允许13、introduce…to… 把…介绍给… 14、invite…to do… 邀请…干…15、social situations 社会环境 16、not… in the slightest 根本不,一点也不 17、right away 立刻,马上 18、all day 全天19、be friendly to 对…友好 20、at lunch time 在午饭时间21、a bit shy 有点害羞 22、English speech contest 英语演讲比赛23、represent the class 代表班级 24、come top 名列第一(前茅)25、let … down 使…失

望 26、come up with 提出、想出27、be sure of + n./pron. be sure to do 相信… be sure +that 从句 28、the rest of the students 其余的学生29、have a lot of experience (in) doing sth 在做某事方面有经验30、deal with 对付,处理 31、come out 出版32、give advice on… 在…方面提出意见、建议 33、by accident 偶然地,无意之中34、hurry to do sth 匆匆忙忙干… 35、an internet friend 网友 三、句子 1.He doesn?t know if he should bring a present. 他不知道是否该带礼物。 2.You shouldn?t worry about what other people say. 你不应该考虑别人说什么。 3.What will you do if you had a million dollars? 如果你有一百万美元,你会干什么? 4.If I were you, I ?d take a small present. 如果我是你,我会带一个小礼物。 5.I?m too tired to do well.我太累了,没考好。 6.Dogs can be a lot of trouble.狗会带来很多麻烦。 7.What are you like? 你是什么样的人? 8.I?d invite him/her to have dinner at my house. 我会邀请他(她)到我家吃饭。 9.You enjoy the company of other people.你喜欢别人的陪伴。 10. I feel nervous talking in front of many people. 我在众人面前讲话时感到紧张。 11.She always comes top in the school exams. 她在学校的考试中总是名列前茅。 12.She doesn?t want to let her friends down.她不愿让朋友失望。 13.If I were you, I?ll get out of here.如果我是你,我会离开这里。 虚拟语气 一、词的语气 指我们平常说的说话人说话的口气。(在英语中,语气除了指语调以外,最主要的是通过动词发生变化而表示不同语气) 英语中的语气分为三类: 陈述语气(用于陈述句、疑问句、感叹句) 祈使语气(用于祈使句) 虚拟语气(用于条件状语从句、宾语从句等) 二、虚拟语气 如果所说的不是事实,而是一种假设、愿望、建议或是一种实现不了的空想,就用虚拟语气。 三、虚拟语气在非真实条件状语从句中的用法 1、真实条件状语从句与非真实条件状语从句 eg If he doesn?t hurry up, he will miss the bus.( 真实条件状语) If he was free, he asked me to tell stories.(真实条件状语)

If I were you, I would go at once.(非真实条件状语从句) If there was no air, people would die.(非真实条件状语从句) 2、虚拟语气在非真实条件状语从句中的用法及动词形式 ① 表示与现在事实相反的情况 If I were you, I?d take an umbrella.如果我是你,我会带把伞。 If I knew his telephone number, I would tell you. 如果我知道他的电话号码,我就会告诉你。(事实:不知道) If there were no air or water, there would be no living things on the earth. 如果没有水和空气,地球上就不会有生物。(事实:地球上既有空气也有水) If I had any money with me, I could lend you some. 如果我带钱了,我就会借给你些。(事实:没带钱) If he studied harder, he might pass the exam.如果他在努力些,就能通过考试了。(事实:学习不用功) ②表示与过去事实相反的情况 从句谓语动词形式 主句谓语动词形式 Had+过去分词 Should/would/could/might+have+过去分词 从句 例句 主句 ①were If+主语 ② did ③were to do (①通常与一个表示时间状语连用)其 中were to do可能性最小, should+动词原形。 If it rained tomorrow our picnic would be put off. 假如那天下雨,我们的郊游就推迟。 主句+should/would /might /could+动词原形 (条件)从句谓语动词形式 主句谓语动词形式 谓语动词用过去式(be用were) should/would/could/might+动词原形 eg If I had got there earlier, I should/could have met her. 如果我早到那儿,我就会见到她。(事实:去晚了) If he had taken my advice, he would not have made such a mistake. 如果他听我的劝告的话,就不会犯这样的错误了。(事实:没有听我的话) ③表示对将来情况的主观推测(可能相反或可能性很小) eg: If he would come here tomorrow, I should/would talk to him. 如果他哪天来这儿的话,我就跟他谈谈。(事实:来的可能性很小) If there were a heavy snow next Sunday, we would not go skating. 如果下周日下大雪,我们就不能去滑冰了,(事实:不知

能否下雪) If she were to be there next Monday, I would tell her about the matter. 如果她下周一来这儿的话,我就会告诉她这件事得始末。 四、虚拟语气的其他用法 1、虚拟语气用在wish 后的宾语从句 a、表示与现在事实相反的愿望,谓语动词用过去式 eg: I wish I had your brains.我希望我有你那样的头脑。(事实:我根本比不上你) b、表示过去事实相反的愿望,谓语动词:had+v-ed eg: I wish I had known the truth of the matter.我希望我原来知道这件事的真相。(事实:原来不知道) c、表示将来难以实现的愿望 谓语动词:should/would + 动词原形 eg: I wish I should have a chance again.很难再有这样的机会了。(事实:很难再有这样的机会了) ②虚拟语气用在suggest(建议)、insist(坚持)、demand(要求)、order(命令)等动词后的宾语从句中。 在这种用法中,无论主句谓语动词为何种时态,从句的谓语动词都用:“should + 动 词原形”或只用“动词原形”。 如 He suggested He insisted He demand that we (should) take the teacher?s advice He ordered Unit 5 一、知识点: 1.情态动词must, may , might, could, may , can?t表示推测含义与用法后面都接动词原形,都可以表示对现在情况的揣测和推断但他们 含义有所不同 must 一定 肯定 (100%的可能性) may, might, could有可能,也许 (20%-80%的可能性) can?t 不可能,不会 (可能性几乎为零) The dictionary must be mine. It has my name on it. The CD might/could/may belong to Tony because he likes listening to pop music. The hair band can?t be Bob?s. After all, he is boy! 2. whose 谁的 疑问词 作定语 后面接名词 如:Whose book is this? This is Lily?s. 3. belong to 属于 如: That English book belongs to me.(不能用名词性的物主代词) 4. 当play 指弹奏乐器时,常在乐器前用定冠词 如: play the guitar play the piano play the violin 当play 指进行球类运动时,则不用定冠词 如: play football play basketball play baseball 5. if引导的条件状语从句,主句用一般将来时, 从句用一般现在时代替将来时 如:

If you don?t hurry up, you?ll be late.如果你不快点,你将会迟到 6. if you have any idea== if you know 如果你知道 7. on 关于(学术,科目) 8. try to do sth. 尝试做某事 如: I try to climb the tree. 我尝试爬树。 9. because of , because because of + 名词/代词/名词性短语 because + 从句 如: I do it because I like it. 我做这件事是因为我喜欢。 I had to move because of my job. 因为工作的原因我得搬家。 10. own v.-owner n. listen v.-listener n. learn v.-learner n. 11. catch a bus 赶公车 12. neighbor 邻居 指人 neighborhood 邻居 指地区也可指附近地区的人 13. local 当地的 如:local teacher 当地的教师 14. noise n. 噪音 是个可数名词 noises 15. call the police 报警 如:Quick! Call the police! 快!叫警察! 16. anything strange 一些奇怪的东西 当形容词修饰something, anything, nothing, everything等不定代词时,放在这些词的后面 17. there be sb./ sth. doing 如: There is a cat eating fish. There must be something visiting our home. 18. escape from …从哪里逃跑出来 如: He escaped from the burning building. 他从燃烧的大概中逃出来。 19. an ocean of + 名词 极多的,用不尽的 如:an ocean of energy. 20. unhappy 不高兴的 反义词 happy 高兴的 21. final adj. 最后的 finally adv. 最后地 22. dishonest 不诚实的 反义词 honest 诚实的。 23. get on 上车 get off 下车 24. use up 用光、用完 如:They have used up all the money. 他们已经用完了所有的钱。 25. attempt to do 试图 如: The boys attempted to leave for Beijing. 男孩子们试图想去北京。 26. wake 动词 唤醒 常用的词组:wake up 意为醒来 如: Please wake me up at 8 o?clock. 请在8点钟叫醒我。 27. look for 寻找 指过程 find 找 指结果 如: I am looking for a pen. 我正在找一支笔。(指找的过程) I found my pen just now. 我刚刚找到了我的笔。(指找的结果)

28. hear 听 指听的结果 listen 听 指听的过程 如: Did you hear ? 你听到了吗?(指听的结果,听或没听到) I often listen to the music. 我经常听音乐。(指听的过程) 29. try one?s best to do sth. 尽某人的最大努力去做某事 如: He tried his best to run. 他尽他的最大努力去跑。 30. 名词所有格 名词所有格的构成有两种形式 ①是在名词后面加 ?s 或是以s结尾 的名词,只在名词的后面加 ? 如:Ann?s book 安的书, our teachers? office我们老师们的办公室 注:双方共有的所有格,只在后面一个名词加?s, 如: Lily and Lucy?s father 莉莉和露西的爸爸(她们的爸爸是同一个人) ②有…of …介词短语表示无生命东西的所有格 如: a picture of my family 我家人的相片 有时也有?s表示无生命的东西的所有格 如: today?s newspaper, the city?s name 31、happen指偶然的发生; take place用于计划好的事情或自然的发生;(二者无被动语态) happen to do sth碰巧干某事. happen to sb.某人发生了什么事 32、raise [reiz] 及物动词 举起、提高 ;募捐 用外力升起,如升旗 rise(不及物动词)上升。自然升起,如价格上涨,日出等。 Raise the money for charity. Raise the Five-red-star flag 33、hope to do sth;hope that从句。 wish to do sth;wish sb to do sth;wish that从句。 34、however与but: (1)从语义上看,but所表示的是很明显的对比、转折。 (2)从语法上看,but是并列连词,however是个副词。 (3)从语序上看,but总位于所引导的句首,however可放在句首、句中、句尾。 (4)从标点上看,but之后没有逗号,however之前、之后短语用逗号隔开。 在完成时态 ?由have/ has + 过去分词 ?表示过去发生或已经完成的某一动作对现在造成的影响或结果 常与already, just , yet , ever, never 连用 Have you finished your work yet?你完成了你的工作了吗? Yes, I have. I have just finished it. 是的。我刚刚完成了。 I have already finished it . 我已经完成了。 Have you ever been to China? 你曾经去过中国吗? No, I have never been there. 没有,我从来也没有去过。

?①表示过去已经开始,持续到现在的动作 或状态和表示过去某一时刻延续到现在(包括现在在内)的一段时间的状态连用如:(for + 时间段,since + 时间点,或过去某一动作, 以及how long ) ②注: 非延续性动词在现在完成 时态中不能和for, since 引导的表示一段时间的状语的肯定句连用。 应转为相应的延续性动词 如: buy---- have die---- be dead join ---- be in borrow----- keep leave---- be away I have bought a pen.------ I have had a pen for 2 weeks. The dog has died.------- The dog has been dead since last week. ?①have (has) been to + 地点 去过某地 已经回来 ②have (has) gone to + 地点 去了某地 没有回来 ③have been in + 地点 一直呆在某地 没有离开过 如: She has been to Shanghai. 她去过上海。(已经回来) She has gone to Shanghai. 她去了上海。(没有回来) She has been in Shanghai for 2 days.她呆上海两天了。(没有离开过上海) 二、短语: 1、be long to属于 2、listen to classical music听古典音乐 3、at school上学、求学、在学校 4、go to the concert去听音乐会 5、have any/some idea知道 have no idea不知道6、a math test on algebra有关代数的数学考试 7、the final exam期末考试 8、because of因为 9、a present for his mother送给她妈妈的礼物 10、run for exercise跑步锻炼 11、wear a suit穿西装12、make a movie拍电影13、in our neighborhood在我们附近、在我们小区14、have fun玩耍、取闹15、his or her own idea她(他)自己的看法16、late night深夜17、an ocean of许许多多、无穷无尽的18、be care of=look out当心、小心19、pretend to do sth假装干…20、use up用完、用光 三、句子: 1、If you have any idea where might be please call me. 如果你知道它可能在哪,请打电话给我。 2、It?s crucial that I study for it because it counts 30%to the final exam. 关键是我必须学,因为它占期末考试的30%。 3、What do you think “anxious” means? 你认为“anxious”是什么意思? 4、He could be running for exercise.他可能是跑步锻炼身体。 5、He might be running to catch a bus.他可能是在跑着赶公共汽车。 6、Why do you think the man is running?你觉得那个男的为什么跑? 7、No more mystery in Bell Tower neighborhood. 钟塔附近不再有神秘的事了。 Unit 6 一、 知识点

1.prefer v.更喜爱,更喜欢,相当于like……better,其过去式、过去分词为preferred,常用于以下结构: (1)prefer+名词、代词I preferred music. Which do you prefer? (2)prefer+动词不定式“宁愿干……” She prefers to live among the working people. (3) prefer+v-ing I prefer living abroad. (4)prefer+动词不定式复合结构: 常见的搭配有: ①prefer……to……喜欢……而不喜欢……(to为介词) She prefers apples to bananas. ②prefer doing to doing(to为介词) He prefers running to walking. ③prefer to do …… rather than do sth.宁愿干……而不愿干…… They prefer to play games rather than watch TV. 2.gentle: ①轻柔,温和(往往指音乐、嗓音或风) ②温柔的,文雅的(往往指人的性格) 3.remind……of……使某人回想起或意识到某人、某事 She reminded me of her sister. The pictures remind me of my school days. 4.表示“也”的用法: also 用在句中,too 用在句末,as well 多用于口语,用在句末,这三个表达都用在肯定句。either “也” 用在否定句尾 5. What do you think of …? =How do you like…? 6.as 的用法: ①用作连词“按照” Please do it again as I told you. ②连词,当……的时候,着重强调两个动词同时发生 She sang as she worked. ③表示原因,“因为,由于”比较口语化,语气也较弱,所表示的原因比较明显。 As I didn?t know the way, I asked the policeman. ④as…as… 和……一样 7.over the years多年来 ,往往与现在完成时连用 8.though 不做副词“可是,不过,然而”放在句尾 9. be sure of +n. / pron. /短语 be sure that 从句 }相信,对……有把握 be sure to do 务必……一定…… make sure 确保,核实,查收,弄清楚 10.one of the+最高级+复数名词,最……之一 11.过去分词作定语,表示被动或完成 12. on display=on show 13.interest:①n.兴趣,趣味;②v.使感兴趣 He interested me in football.他使我对足球感兴趣。 I?ve got a lot of books that might interest you.我有许多可能使你感兴趣的书。 14.class 等级,级别,阶级

15. whatever=no matter what 16.suggest:①建议,后跟宾语从句,用虚拟语气; ②表示,暗示,后跟宾语从句,不用虚拟语气。 17. energy (n.)=energetic (adj.) 18.honest 该词是元音发音开头,前面的不定冠词用“an”. 19.先行词若为地点或时间时,后面的关系词用关系代词还是关系副词,要看关系词在定语从句中作什么成分。若关系词作定语从句的主语、宾语或定语,用关系代词;若关系词作状语,则用关系副词。 20. along with 伴随… 同… 一道 I will go along with you. 我同你一道去。 I sing along with music. 我伴随着音乐唱歌。 21. dance to sth. 随着…跳舞 She likes dancing to the music. 她喜欢随着音乐而跳舞。 22. different kinds of 各种各样different kinds of clothes 各种各样的衣服 23. music n. 音乐 musician n. 音乐家 musical 24. take … to … 带…去…. 如: My father often takes me to the park. 我的爸爸经常带我去公园。 Please take this box to my office. 请拿这个盒子到我的办公室。 25. be important to sb. 对…重要 be important for sb. to do. 做某事对某人很重要 26. though == although 作连词 虽然,尽管 放在句子中间/句首,不能和but 连用 Though it was very late, he went on working. 虽然很晚了,但他还在工作 Mr. Smith , though he was young, did it very well. 史密斯先生虽然年轻,却做得很好。 27. energy n. 活力 energetic adj. 有活力的 28. most of … …的大多数 29. keep healthy 保持健康 30. get together 聚在一起 31. be bad for sth. 对…有坏处的 be bad for doing sth. 做…有坏处 32. take care of === look after 照顾 关心 如: She often takes care of / looks after her son. 33 stay away from 远离… 如: Stay away from me , I have a cold. 请远离我,我得了感冒 34. to be honest 老实说 如: To be honest I really like flowers. 老实说我真的很喜欢花。 35. dislike 不喜欢 反义词 like 喜欢 36. fisherman 渔夫 复数形式 fishermen 37. photography n. 摄影 photograph n. 照片相片 photographer n. 摄影师 38. be in agreement 意见一致 常与介词on /about连用如: They are in agreement on that question. 他们对那个问题意见一致。

39. mainly adv. 主要地 首要地 main adj. 主要的 二.短语 1.expect to do sth.期望干……expect sb. to do sth期望某人干…… 2.catch up with追上,赶上3.different kinds of music各种不同的音乐4.quiet and gentle songs轻柔的歌曲 5. take…to… 带……到……6. remind…of…使某人想起或意识到…… 7.her own songs她自己的歌曲8.be important to对……重要 9.Yellow River黄河10.Hong Tao?s latest movie洪涛最近的电影 11.over the years多年来12.be sure to do sth.务必干……一定干…… 13.one of the best known Chinese photographers世界上最有名的中国摄影家之一14.on display展览,展出 15.come and go来来往往16.can?t stand不能忍受 17.look for寻找18.feel sick感到恶心,不舒服 19.have a great time玩得高兴,过得愉快20.to be honest说实话 21.be lucky to do幸运的是……22.my six-month English course我6个月的英语课23.most of my friends我的大部分朋友 24.go for去找某人,想法得到某事物25.stay healthy保持健康 26.French fries薯条27.stay away from与……保持距离 28.be in agreement意见一致(后跟短语、句子)29.barbecued meat烤肉 30.a tag question反意疑问句31.be bad for对……有害 三.句子 1.I love singers who write their own music.我喜欢自己创作曲子的歌手。 2.We prefer music that has great lyrics.我们更喜欢歌词很棒的曲子。 3.What do you dislike about this CD.你不喜欢这张CD的什么? 4.What does it remind you of?它使你想起了什么? 5.The music reminds me of Brazilian dance music.这首曲子使我想起了巴西舞曲。 6.It does have a few good features, though. 然而,它的确也有一些好的方面。 7.She really has something for everyone. 每个人的确都能从她的作品中领悟到一些东西。 8.Whatever you do, don?t miss this exhibition. 无论怎样,你都不能错过这次展出。 9.As the name suggests, the band has a lot of energy. 正如乐队名字所暗示的那样,这支乐队很有活力。 10. Some people say they are boring, but others say they are great. 11.If I were you, I?d eat nuts instead.如果我是你,我会改吃坚果。 Unit7 一、知识点: 1. tired 累的 tiring 令人疲惫的 bored 讨厌 boring 令人厌烦/讨厌的 excited 兴奋的 exciting 令人兴奋/激动的

amazed 惊讶的 amazing 令人惊讶的 2. education n. 教育 educational 有教育意义的 3. 想要做…:would like to do 想要…:would like sth. 常用的句型有: What would you like to do? 你想要做什么? I would like to visit GuiLin. 我想去参观桂林。 What would you like ? 你想要什么? I would like some tea. 我想来些茶。 Would you like to go to my party? 你来不来参加我的晚会? (表邀请) Yes, I?d love/ like to . No, thanks. Would you like some tea or coffee? 你是要点茶还是咖啡? Yes, I?d love/ like. No. thanks. Where would you like to visit/ go? 你想去哪呢?(本单元的重点句型) 4. go on vacation 去度假 go on a trip 去旅行 go on a picnic 去野炊 5. hope to do 希望做某事 I hope to go to Beijing. 我希望去北京。 hope (that) + 从句 希望…. I hope that I can go to Beijing.我希望我能去北京。 I hope (that) she can pass the test.我希望她能通过考试。 6. I love places where the people are friendly. 我喜欢人们友好的地方。 where 关系副词,引导定语从句 where引导定语从句修饰表示地点的先行词如:the place, the city等 That is the school where I studied 10 years ago. 那就是我10年前所就读的学校。 7. 不定代词 参看课本P141 注:形容词必须放在不定代词、不定副词的后面 8. consider doing考虑做某事 I am considering changing my job. 我正在考虑换工作。 9. cost (sb.) 钱、时间 The book cost me 10 yuan 这本书花了我10元。 10. in general 一般来说, 大体上, 通常 11. be supposed to do 应该做…. === should 如: Scientists are supposed to know a lot. 科学家们应该知道更多。 12. take a trip 去旅行 13. provide sb. with sth 供应某人某物=== provide sth for sb. 如:They provide us with water. They provide water for us. 14. how far 问路程 多远(20 kilometers , five munites? walk) how old 问年龄 多少岁(13 years old) how long 问时间 多久;多长(since, for) how often 问频率 多久一次(sometimes, often, 3 times a

day, every day) 15. be away 离开 如: I was away 2days ago. 我两天前离开了。 I will be away for a few days. 我将离开一些天。 16. inexpensive adj. 不贵的 反义词 expensive adj. 贵的 17. let sb. do 让某人做某事 Let me help you.让我帮你吧。 let sb. not do 让某人不要做某Let us not laugh. 让我们不要笑了。 18. in the future 将来 She will a good mother in the future. 在将来她将会是一个好妈妈。 19. 用to 表示 “的”有: answers to question 问题的答案 the key to the door 这扇门的钥匙 20. as soon as possible 尽可能的快 21. continue doing == go on doing 继续做某事 如: She continued singing. == She went on singing. 她继续唱歌。 22. according to 根据 23. be willing to do 愿意做某事 如: I am willing to help you. 我愿意帮你。 24. on the other hands 另一方面 25. hold on to sth. 保持,不要放弃 Please hold on to my hand. 不要放开我的手。 26. come true 实现 如: My dream have come true. 我的梦实现了。 27.through 穿过 含有“in”的意思 across 横过 含有“on”的意思 28. Some day=someday 只指将来某一天 one day 既可指将来某一天,也可指过去某一天。 28. Plan 计划打算(1) plan to do sth We are planning to visit London this summer /Do plan to stay late? (2) 跟名词或者代词 Have you planned your trip? We have been planning this visit for months. (3) plan for 为…做计划He planned for a picnic if the next day were fine. (4) plan on 打算有(做某事)She had not planned on so many guests. They are planning on an/for an outing. 29.强调句型:It is(was)…that (who ,whom)… (1) 强调句型可用来强调各种句子成分 (2) 强调句中的连词who,whom只用来指代人,that 即可以指代人也可以指代物被强调部分是时间,地点等仍用that (3)that,whom, who 后的句中的谓语与原句保持一致 (4)强调句中只有it is ,it was 两种时态形式, 如:I am right ------It is I who(that) am right. 又如:They will have a meeting tomorrow.

It is they who(that) will have a meeting tomorrow. It′s a meeting that they will have tomorrow. It′s tomorrow that they will have a meeting. 30.在英语中,有although 不能有but;有because 不能有so 二 、短语 1.go on vacation 去度假 2.trek through the jungle 徒步穿越丛林3.some day 有朝一日 4.one of the liveliest cities 最有活力的城市之一5.be supposed to do sth. 应该干。 6.pack light clothes 穿薄衣服7.take a trip 去旅行8.provide sb with sth = provide sth for sb 为了某人提供某物9.be away 离开,远离 10.the answer to the question 问题的答案 11.according to 根据。按照。 12.work as tour guides 做导游的工作 13.dream of 梦想,想到 14.less realistic dreams 不现实的梦想15.be willing to do sth. 愿意干。16.achieve one?s dreams 实现梦想17.sail across the pacific 横渡太平洋18.hold on to保持,不要放弃(卖掉)19.take it easy 从容 轻松 不紧张 20.Niagara Falls 尼亚加拉大瀑布21.Eiffel Tower 艾菲尔铁塔 22.Notre Dame Cathedral 巴黎圣母院23.this time of year 一年中的这个时候24.in general 通常 ,大体上, 一般而言 三、句子 1.where would you like to go on vacation? I?d like to trek through the jungle. 2.l like places where the weather is always warm. 3.I like to go somewhere relaxing 我喜欢去休闲的地方 4.For your next vacation, why not consider visiting Paris? 你下次度假为什么不考虑去巴黎? 5.Traveling around Paris by taxi can cost a lot of money. 乘坐出租车游览巴黎要花费很多钱 6.So unless you speak French yourself, it?s best to travel with someone who can translate things for you. 因此,除非你自己会讲法语,否则最好与一个能为你翻译的人一起去。 7. We?d like to be away for three weeks. 我们大约要去三个星期. 8.The person has a lot of money to spend on the vacation. 度假中这个人有很多钱可以花. 9.I hope you can provide me with some information about the kinds of vacations that your firm can offer 我希望能给我提供一些贵公司能经营的旅游项目的信息. 10.Could you please give me some suggestions for vacation spots? 你能给我一些有关度假地的建议吗? 11.You need to pack some warm clothes if you go there. 你如果去那里,需要带一些暖和的衣服。 12.I?d love to sail across the Pacific. 我想横渡太平洋。 Unit 8

一.知识点: 短语动词小结 常见短语动词结构有下面几种: 1.动词+副词 如:give up 放弃 turn off 关掉 stay up 熬夜 这种结构有时相当于及物动词,如果其宾语是代词,就必须放在动 词和副词之间,如果是名词,则既可插在动词和副词之间,也可放 在短语动词后。 2. 动词+介词 如:listen of 听 look at 看 belong to 属于 这种结构相当于及物动词,后面跟宾语。 3. 动词+副词+介词 如:come up with 提出,想出 run out of 用完,耗尽 4. 动词+名词(介词) 如:take part in参加 catch hold of 抓住 1.cheer (sb.) up 使(某人)高兴、振作 如:cheer me up 使我高兴 clean up 打扫 clean-up n. 打扫 2. homeless adj. 无家可归的 a homeless boy 一个无家可归的男孩home n. 家 4. sick adj. 生病的 作表语、定语 ill adj. 生病的 作表语 ,不能作定语 5. volunteer to do v. 志愿效劳、主动贡献 volunteer n. 志愿者 6. come up with 提出 想出 === think up 想出 catch up with 赶上 追上 7. put off doing 推迟做某事 put on 穿上 (指过程) put up 张贴 8. write down 写下 记下 9. call up 打电话 make a telephone call 打电话 10. set up 成立 建立 The new hospital was set up in 2000. 这座医院是在2000年成立的。 11. each 每个 各自的 强调第一个人或事物的个别情况 常与of 连用 every 每个每一个的一切的则有“全体”的意思不能与of 连用 12. put …to use 把… 投入使用,利用 They put the new machine to use. 他们把新机器投入使用 13. help sb. (to) do 帮助某人做某事 help him (to) study help sb. with sth. 帮助某人做某事 help him with English help do 帮助做某事 help study 14. plan to do 计划做某事 plan + 从句 I plan to go to Beijing. === I plan (that) I will go to Beijing. 我计划去北京。 15. spend … doing 花费…做… I spent a day visiting Beijing. 我花了一天的时间去参观北京。

spend… on sth. 花费…在… I spent 3 years on English. 16.not only … but (also) … 不但… 而且… 用来连接两个并列的成分 (1)引导以 not only …but (also)… 开头的句子往往引起部分倒装。 因此 ?Not only do I feel good but (also)…. 是倒装句。也是说得要 把前面的句子中的助动词或者是情态动词放在主语的前面。如: ①Not only can I do it but (also) I can do best. 我不仅能做到而且做得最好。 ?Not only…but (also)… 接两主语时,谓语动词随后面的主语人称和数的变化 也就是就近原则 如: ①Not only Lily but (also) you like cat. 不仅莉莉而且你也喜欢猫。 ②Not only you but (also) Lily likes cat. 不仅你而且莉莉喜欢猫。 常见的就近原则的结构有: ①Neither… nor…即不…也不… (两者都不)Neither you nor I like him. 我和你都不喜欢他。 ②Either… or… 不是…就是… (两者中的一个)Either Lily or you are a student. ③Not only …but (also)… ④There be 17. join 参加 (指参加团体、组织) 如:join the Party 入党 take part in 参加 (指参加活动) 如: take part in sports meeting 参加运动会 18. run out 与 run out of ①run out (become used up). 其主语往往为物。如时间,食物,金钱,油等,本 身就含有被动意义。 His money soon ran out. 他的钱很快就花光了。 My patience has completely run out. 我没有一点耐心了。 Our time is running out. 我们剩下的时间不多了。 ②run out of 主语为人,表示主动含义。 He is always running out of money before pay day. 他总是在发工资的日子还没有到就把钱花完了。 两者在一定条件下可以互换 如:The petrol is running out. 汽油快用完了 = We are running out of petrol. 我们快把汽油用完了。 Our time is running out. 我们剩下的时间不多了。= We are running out of time 19. take after (在外貌、性格等方面)与(父母等)相像 be similar to 与..相像 take after 相像 look after 照顾 take care of 照顾 20. work out v. + adj. ①结局,结果为 The strategies that he came up with worked out fine. 他提出的这个策略效果很好。

②算出,制订出,消耗完(精力等) He never seems to be worked out. 他好像永远不会疲乏似的。 He worked out a plan. 他制订了一个计划。 I have worked out our total expenses. 我已经算出了我们总的费用。 21. hang out 闲荡 闲逛 I like to hang out at mall with my friends. 我喜欢和我的朋友一起去购物中心闲荡。 22. be able to do 能 会 be unable to do 不能不会 23. thank you for doing 谢谢做某事 如: thank you for helping me 谢谢做帮助我 24. for sure 确实如此,毫无疑问 You don?t have money. That?s for sure. 你没有钱,这是毫无疑问的。 25. fill… with… 使…充满… 用…填充… She filled the bowl with water. 她用水填满碗。 26. like prep. 像… 27. help sb. out 帮助…做事,解决难题(摆脱困境) I can?t work out this math problem. Please help me out. 我不能算出这道数学问题,请你帮我解决。 28. train n. 火车 train v. 训练 train sb. to do. 训练某人做某事 She trains her dog to fetch things. 她训练她的狗去取东西。 29. at once == right away 立刻 马上 如: Do it at once. 马上去做。 I?ll go there at once/ right away. 我马上去那里。 30. one day 有一天 (指将来/过去) some day 有一天(指将来) 如: One day I went to Beijing. 有一天我去了北京。 Some day I?ll go to Beijing. 有一天我将去北京。 31. specially adv. 特意地 专门地 特别地 special adj. 特别的 32. donation n. 捐赠物 donate v. 捐赠 赠送 33. part of speech 词性 词类 34. disabled adj. 肢体有残疾的 disable v. 不能 35. hand out 分发 hand out bananas give out 分发 give out sth to sb. 分….给某人 give up doing 放弃… give up smoking 放弃吸烟 give away 赠送 捐赠 give away sth. to …. give away money to kids give sb. sth. 给某人某东西 give me money 给我钱 give sth. to sb. 给某人某东西 give money to me 给我线 36. volunteer ①可数名词 “志愿者” ②adj. 自愿的 vi. volunteer to do sth They are the Chinese People?s Volunteers. 他们是中国人民志愿军。 I volunteer to help you. 我自愿帮助你。

37. no longer = not … any longer 指时间上不再延续。 no more = not … any more 指动作上不再延续。 二.短语 1.clean up 清扫 2.give out 分发,发放3.cheer up=make…happier 使...高兴,使...振作 4.after school study program 课外学习班5.come up with=think up 提出,想出 6.put off 推迟7.write down 写下,记下 8.put up 张贴9.hand out 分发,发放 10.call up 打电话11.ser up=establish 建立 12.be home to sb 是某人的家园13.volunteer one?s time to do sth 自愿花时间干...14.put…to use… 把...投入使用 15.elementary school 小学16.plan to do sth 计划干...打算干 17.coach a football team for kids 训练少年足球队18.start a Chinese History club 开办一个中国史俱乐部19.run out of 用完,耗尽 20.take after 在性格或长相方面与父母相象21.fix up 修理 22.give away 捐赠 23.be similar to 与...相似24.ask for 索要 25.a call-in center for parents 家长热线26.hang out 闲荡 27.put up signs asking for singing jobs 张贴寻求唱歌工作的广告 28.run out of money for singing lessons 学唱歌的钱用完了29.disabled people 残疾人 30.for sure 确实如此,毫无疑问31.fill…with... 用...填充... be full of 装满了... 32.help...out 帮助...做事,解决难题(摆脱困境)33.a specially trained dog 一只经过特殊训练的34.train sb to do sth 训练某人干... 35.fetch my book 把我的书拿来 三.句子 1.We can?t put off making a plan. Clean-up Day is only two weeks from now. 我们不能推迟制订计划,清洁日离现在只有两周了。 2.She puts this love to good use by working in the after-school care centre at her local elementary school. 她在当地的一所小学的课后辅导中心工作,使这个爱好得到较好的利用 3.Not only do I feel good about helping other people, but I get to spend time doing what I love to do. 帮助别人不但自己感到快乐,而且我开始花时间做自己喜欢做的事了。 4.The three students plan to set up a student volunteer project at heir school. 这三个学生计划在他们校开展一个学生志愿者项目。 5.He also put up some sign asking for old bikes.他还贴了一些需求旧自行车的告。 6.The strategies that he came up with worked out fine. 几米想出的这个办法很效。 7.He did a radio interview. 他接受了电台的采访。 8.We need to come up with a plan. 我们需要指定一个计划。 9.You could help clean up the city parks. 你可以帮助打扫城市公园。

10.He now has sixteen bikes to fix up and give away to children who don?t have bikes. 他现在有16辆要修理的自行车,并准备把这些修好的自行车赠送给那些没有自行车的孩子。 Unit9 1. 被动语态 (1). 被动语态表示句子的主语是谓语动词所表示的动作承受者。 (2). 被动语态基本结构:be+及物动词的过去分词 (如果是不用物动词,其过去分词应带有相应的介词) (3). 被动语态中的be 是助动词,有人称、数和时态的变化。 一般现在时被动语态为:am/is/are+过去分词 一般过去时被动语态为:was/were+ 过去分词 与情态动词连用的被动语态:情态动词+ be + 过去分词 (4). 被动语态中动作的发出者或执行者做介词by的宾语,放在句 末,by 表示“由,被”的意思 如何理解被动语态? 为取胜更清晰、更深刻地理解被动语态的含义,可以将主动语态和被动语态的句子结构进行比较。 主动语态: 主语+ 谓语动词 + 宾语 + 其他成分 被动语态: 主语+ be +过去分词 + by +宾语 +其他成分 如: Many people speak English. 被动语态 English is spoken by many people. 2. 本单元要掌握的句型 见课本P69 中的Grammar Focus 3. invent v. 发明 inventor n. 发明家 invention n. 发明 可数名词 4. be used for doing用来做…(是被动语态) 如: Pens are used for writing. 笔是用来写的。 Pens aren?t used for eating. 笔不是用来吃的。 5. 给某人某样东西 give sth. to sb. 如:I gave a pen to him. 我给他一支笔。 give sb. sth. I gave him a pen. 我给他一支笔。 6. all day 整天 7. salty adj. 咸的 salt n. 盐 8. by mistake 错误地 如: I took the umbrella by mistake. 我不小心拿错了雨伞。 9. make sb./sth. +形容词 使…怎么样 It made me happy. 它使我高兴 make sb./sth. +名词 让…做… It made me laugh. 它让我发笑 10. by accident 意外 偶然 I met her by accident at bus stop. 我在公共汽车站意外地见到了她。 11. not…until… 直到…才做… 如:

I didn?t go to bed until I finished my work. 我直到完成我的工作才去睡觉。 12. according to +名词 根据… 如: according to an legend according to this article根据这篇文章 根据一个神话 13. over an open fire 野饮 14. leaf n. 叶子 复数形式 leaves 15. nearby adj. 附近的 如: the nearby river 16. fall into 落入 掉进 如:The leaf fell into the river. 叶子落入了河里。fall down 摔倒 如:She fell down from her bike. 她从她自行车摔倒了。 17. quite 非常 adv. 与冠词a连用时,冠词a必须放在它的后面 如: quite a beautiful girl 一个漂亮的女孩 very 非常 adv. 与冠词a连用时,冠词a必须放在它的前面 如: a very beautiful girl 一个漂亮女孩 注:当不与冠词a 连用时,两者可以互用如: I am very happy.=== I am quite happy. 我非常高兴。 18. in the way 这样 19. pleased adj. 表示外部因素引起人发自内心的欣慰和愉快 pleasant adj. 愉快高兴指天气、时间、旅行令人高兴愉快 please v. 使高兴 使同意 20. battery—operated adj. 电池控制的是名词+动词的运动分词构成的合成形容词 21. in the sixth century 在第6世纪 22. travel around 周游 23. more than === over 超过 如: more than 300 == over 300 超过300 24. including prep. 介词 包括 可以与名词和动名词连用 如: Six people, including a baby, were hurt. 6个人包括一个小孩受伤了。 25. have been played 被上演 是现在完成时的被动语态 现在完成时的被动语态的结构:have /has been +过去分词 26. be born 出生 He was born in Canada. 他在加拿大出生 27. safety n. 安全 safe adj. 安全的 28. knock into 撞上(某人) 29. divide sth. into … 将…划分成.. 通常指将一个整体分成几个对应相对的部分 如: Let?s divide ourselves into 4groups. 让我们把我们自己划成4组。 30. since then 自从那以后 常与完成时 态连用 如: Since then, I have left Beijing. 自从那以后,我已经离开了北京。 Unit10 1. 过去完成时 (1) 构成:由助动词had + 过去分词 构成

否定式:had not + 过去分词 缩写形式:hadn?t (2) 用法:过去完成时表示在过去某一时间或动作之前已经发生或完成了的动作。 (3) 它所表示的时间是“过去的过去”。 ①表示过去某一时间可用by, before 等构成的短语来表示 ②也可以用when, before, after 等引导的时间状语从句来表示 ③还可以通过宾语从句或通过上下文暗示。 When I got there, you had already eaten you meal. 当我到达那里时,你已经开始了。 By the time he got here, the bus had left. 到他到达这里时,汽车已经离开了 2. by the time 直到…时候 指从过去某一点到从句所示的时间为止的一段时间 如: By the time we got to his house, he had finished supper. 在我们到达他就已经吃完了晚饭。 3. 英语中表示“把某物遗忘在某处”常用 leave + 地点 ,而不是forget+地点 如:Unluckily, I left my book at home不幸的是,我把书忘在家里了。 4. close v. 关 adv. 接近地靠近地 closed adj. 关的 5. come out 出来 6. on time 按时 准时 既不早也不迟 in time 及时指在时限到来之前 7. luckily adv. 幸运地 lucky adj. 幸运的 luck n. 好运 8. give sb. a ride 让某搭便车 如: He often gives me a ride to school. 他经常让我搭便车去学校。 9.only just 刚刚好、恰好 10. go off (闹钟)闹响 The alarm went off just now. 刚才警钟响了。 11. break down 坏掉 12. fool n. 傻子 呆子 v. 愚弄欺骗如: He is a fool. 他是一个呆子。 We can?t fool our teach. 我们不能欺骗我们的教师。(动词) 13. show up 出现 出席 She didn?t show up last night. 昨晚她没有出现 14. invite sb. to do sth. 邀请某人做某做事 如: My friend invited me to watch TV. 我的朋友邀请我看电视。 15. set off 激起 出发 set up 建立 16. ①so … that 如此…以致于 引导结果状语从句,so后面接形容词、副词. ②so that作“为了”时,引导目的状语从句,从句常出现情态动词, 作结果状语从句时,从句中一般不用情态动词 。 如:She got up early so that she could catch the bus. 为了能赶上车,她起得很早。(目的状语从句) She was so sad that she couldn?t say a word. 她悲伤得一句话也说不出来。(结果状语从句)

17. flee from 从…逃跑 避开 如:They fled from their home. 他们从他们的家里逃了出来。 18. thrill v . 使人非常激动,使人非常紧张 thrilled adj. 指某人感到激动或感到紧张 thrilling adj. 指某事物使人心情激动 19. get married 结婚 20. convince v. 使信服 convincing adj. 令人信服的 21. land v. 着落 22. be late for 迟到 23. a piece of 一片/块/张 如: a piece of paper/ bread 一张纸/ 一块面包 重点短语: 1.到…时候by the time +…(句子)…从过去某一点到从句所示时间为止的一段时间,即从句用过去时,主句用过去完成时。 2.(闹钟)闹响go off 3.跑掉;迅速离开run off 4.损坏break down (突然)中断break off 5.(在)愚人节(on) April Fool's Day 6.激起;引 起set off 7.一片,一块a piece of 8.按时on time 及时in time Section A 1.从…离开去…leave (from)…for … 把某物遗忘在某地leave sth. +介宾短语(表地点的) 忘记某人/某事forget sb /sth. 忘记去作…forget to do … 忘记已作了…forget doing … 2.在洗沐浴get in the shower 3.开始作…start/begin to do …(前后不同的事)start/begin doing …(前后相同的事) 4.我上学从未迟到,但昨天我差点迟到.I 've never been late for school ,but yesterday I came very close. 5.等待(某人)作…wait (for sb )to do … 6.出来;开花come out 实现come ture 从旁而过come by 来自…come/be from… 7.我必须抓紧了.I had to really rush. 8.飞快冲了个 澡take/have a quick shower 9.给/让某人搭便车give/get sb. a ride =give /get a ride to sb. 10.我恰好赶上上课.I only just made it to my class.(此时,指"约定"之意) SectionB 1.给某人穿衣服dress sb. 穿(…)衣服 be /get dressed (in +衣服) 化装;打扮dress up 2.熬夜stay /sit up (late) 3.给某人看某物show sb .sth.=show sth .to sb. 带某人参观…show sb.around sth. 卖弄…show off…

出席,露面show up 展览 be on show =be on display 4.化妆舞会a costume party 5.在地球着陆land on the earth 6.由演员奥森?威尔斯主 持的广播节目a radio program by actor Orsom Welles 7.遍及全国across the whole country =all over the whole country 8.从…逃跑;避开…flee from…=run away from…(flee过去式为fled ) 9.将有…the re will be ….(一般将来时) there would be …(过去将来时) 10.买尽可能多的意大利面条buy as much spaghetti as they could /possible 11.让某人嫁过某人ask sb .to marry sb. 结婚get married 和…结婚 get /be married with …=marry … 12.停止作…stop doing … 停下某事来作…stop to do … 13.在开学 第一天on the first day of school 14.(向某人)打招呼say hello (to sb.) 15.醒来wake up 叫…醒来wake sb. up 16. 有一个很愉快的结局have a very happy ending 17.失去了他的女朋友和他的观众lose both his girlfriend and his show Unit11 1.宾语从句 宾语从句在复合句中作主句的宾语。 ①由连接词+ 主语+ 谓语 构成 常由下面的一些连接词引导: ②由that 引导 表示陈述意义 that 可省略 He says (that) he is at home. 他说他在家里。 ③由if , whether 引导 表示一般疑问意义(带有是否、已否、对否等) I don?t know if / whether Wei Hua likes fish. 我不知道韦华是否喜欢鱼。 ④由连接代词、连接副词(疑问词) 引导 表示特殊疑问意义 Do you know what he wants to buy? 你知道他想要买什么吗? ⑤从句时态要与主句一致 当主句是一般现在时,从句根据情况使用任何时态 He says (that ) he is at home. 他说他在家里。 I don?t know (that) she is singing now. 我不知道她正在唱歌。 She wants to know if I have finished my homework. 她想要知道我是否已经完成了我的作业。 Do you know when he will be back? 你知道他将会什么时候回来? 当主句是一般过去时,从句应使用过去某时态

(一般过去时,过去进行时,过去将来时,过去完成时) He said (that) he was at home. 他说他在家里。 I didn?t know that she was singing now. 我不知道她正在唱歌。 She wanted to know if I had finished m homework. 她想要知道我是否已经完成了我的作业。 Did you know when he would be back? 你知道他将会什么时候回来? 2. get v. 得到、买、到达 3. make a telephone call 打电话 4. save money 省钱、存钱 5. ①问路常用的句子: Do you know where …is ? Can you tell me how can I get to …? Could you tell me how to get to …? ②Can/Could/Will/Would you please tell me sth. 表示十分客气地询问事情 ③Could you tell me how to get to the park? 请你告诉我怎么才能去邮局好吗?中的how to get to the park 是疑问词与动词不定式连用,用作宾语,但不是宾语从句,可是 相当于how I can get to the park(宾语从句)如: I don?t know how to solve the problem. == I don?t know how I can solve the problem.我不知道如何解决这个问题 Can you tell me when to leave? == Can you tell me when I ill leave? 你能告诉我什么时候离开? 6. 日常交际用语: take the elevator / escalator to the … floor.乘电梯/自动扶梯到…楼 turn left / right === take a left / right 向左/ 右转 go past 经过 go straight 向前直走 7. next to 旁边、紧接着 如:Lily is next to Ann. 莉莉就在安的旁边。 8. between … and… 在…和…之间 如: Lily is between Ann and Tom. 莉莉就在安和汤姆的之间。 9. decide to do 决定做… She decided to go to have lunch. 她决定去吃午餐。 decide v. decision n. make a decision 做个决定 10. Is that a good place to hang out? 那是不是一个闲荡的好地方? 中的to hang out修饰前面名词place,不定式作定语. 如:There are something to eat. 这有吃的东西。中的to eat修饰代词something,作定语. 11. kind of +adj./ adv. 译为“有点、一点” 如: She is kind of shy. 她有点害羞。

12. expensive 贵的 反义词 inexpensive 不贵的 13. crowded 拥挤的 反义词 uncrowded 不拥挤的 14. take a vacation == go on a vacation 去度假 15. dress up 打扮 dress up as 打扮成.. 如:He wanted to dress up as Father Christmas.他想要打扮成圣诞老人。 16. on the beach 在海滩上 的介词用 on 17. politely adv. 有礼貌地 polite adj. 有礼貌的 18. depend on sth / doing / 从句 根据、依靠、依赖、决定于 Living things depend on the sunlight.生物对阳光有依赖性。 We can?t depend on his answer. 我们不能根据他的回答。 That depends on how you did it. 那决定于你怎样做这件事。 19. prefer动词 更喜欢 宁愿 常用的结构有: prefer sth. 更喜欢某事 I prefer English. 我更喜欢英语。 prefer doing/ to do 宁愿做某事 I prefer sitting/ to sit.我宁愿坐着。 prefer sth to sth. 同…相比更喜欢… I prefer dogs to cats. 与猫相比我更喜欢狗。 prefer doing to doing 宁愿做某事而不愿做某事 I prefer walking to sitting. 我宁愿走路也不愿坐着 prefer to do rather than do 宁愿做某事而不愿做某事 I prefer to work rather than be free. 我宁愿工作而不愿闲着。 20. on the other hand 另一方面 21.把…借给某人lend sb. sth. = lend sth.to sb. 如: Lily lent me her book. == Lily lent her book to me .莉莉把她的书借给了我。 22. such as 23. I?m sorry to do sth. 对做某事我觉得很抱歉、伤心。 24. in a way 在某种程度说 25. in order to do 为了做… 表目的 如: He got up early in order to catch the first bus. 他起早床,是为了赶上头班公共汽车。 26. 等级/同级比较:as…as , not as/so…as ①as + 形容词/ 副词原级 + as 表示“和…一样的…”“…和…一样的…” 如: He works as hard as we. 他工作和我们同样努力。 ②否定式:not as + 形容词/ 副词原级 + as == not so + 形容词/ 副词原级 + as He doesn?t work as / so hard as we. 他工作没有我们那样努力。 27. hand in 上交 Unit12 1. be supposed to do . 应该 如: We are supposed to stop smoking. 我们应该停止吸烟。 知识拓展 表示应该的词有:should, ought to ,be supposed

to 2. shake hands 握手 shake 本意是“摇动、震动” 3. You should have asked what you were supposed to wear. 你本应该问清楚怎么样穿才得体。中的“should have asked”是 “情态动词+现在完成时”表示过去本应该做某事,事实上没有做 如:She should have gone to Beijing. 她本应该去了北京。(没有去) 4. be relaxed about sth. 对某事随意、不严格 如: They are relaxed about the time. 他们对时间很随意。 5. pretty adv. 相当,很=very She is pretty friendly. 她相当友好。 adj. 美丽的 She is a pretty girl.她是一个美丽的女孩。 6. make plans to do == plan to do. 打算做某事 如: She has made plans to go to Beijing.==She has planed to go to Beijing. 7. drop by 访问 看望 拜访 串门 We just dropped by our friends? homes.我们刚刚去朋友家串门。 8. on time 按时 9. after all 毕竟 终究 如:You see I was right after all.你看,毕竟还是我对了。 10. invite sb. to do sth. 邀请某人做某事 如: Lily invited me to have dinner.莉莉请我吃晚饭。 11. without 没有 12. around the world == all over the world 全世界 13. pick up 捡起 挑选 如:He picked up his hat. 他捡起他的帽子。 14. start doing == start to do 开始做某事 如 He started reading.== He started to read. 他开始读。 15. point at 指向 16. stick v. 剌 截 n. 棒,棍 chopstick 筷子 是由chop(砍)+stick(棒)合成,通常用复数形式:chopsticks 17. go out of one?s way to do 特意,专门做某事 如: He went out of his way to make me happy. 他特意使我高兴。 18. make mistakes 犯错误(复数)make a mistake 犯错误(一个) 19. be different from 与…不同 如: Chinese food is different from theirs. 中国菜与他们的不同. 20. get/be used to sth. 习惯于… get/be used to doing 习惯于… be used to do 被用于做… be used for doing 被用于做… used to do 过去常常做… 如:

I wash clothes everyday. But I?m used to it.我每天都洗衣服,但我习惯了 I am used to washing clothes. 我习惯于洗衣服了。 The knives are used to cut things. 小刀被用来切东西。 The knives are used for cutting things. 小刀被用来切东西。 She used to watch TV after school. 她过去放学后常常看电视。 21. 我发现要记住每一样事是困难的。 I find it difficult to remember everything. 形式宾语 真正宾语 常见的形式宾语有:find / think + it/them +形容词 to do sth. 如: I think it hard to study English. 22. cut up 切开 切碎 如:Let?s cut up the water melon. 让我们切开这个西瓜吧。 23. make a toast 敬酒 24. crowd v.挤满 其形容词和过去式及过去分词都是:crowded 25. set n. 一套 v. 设置 26. can?t stop doing 忍不住做某事 I can?t stop laughing. 我忍不住笑 27. make faces 做鬼脸 28. face to face 面对面 29. learn…by oneself 自学 如: I learn English by my self. 我自学英语。 Unit 13---Unit15 疑难点 一、疑点难点破解 1. You have to be careful.你得小心。 疑点:be careful“小心,当心” 如:Be careful while crossing the road.过马路要小心。 难点:be careful后常跟of短语。与它同义的有look out。 如:Aren?t you a bit too careful of your health?你对个人的健康难道不是有点过于小心了吗? Look out!There?s danger ahead.当心!前面有危险。 2. At times an ad can lead you to buy something you don?t need at all.有时广告可能导致你买你根本不需要的东西。 疑点:at times= sometime,是副词性短语,表示事物发生的频率。 如:He is late for school at times.他有时上学迟到。 难点:1)对含有at times的短语进行提问时,用How soon. 如:How soon does he go to school late?At times. 2)句中lead意为“使得、导致”,常用于短语lead sb. to do sth.“导致某人做某事” 如:What leads you to think so? 3.Soft lighting makes people look good,but it make food look bad.柔和的光线使人的脸色看上去很好看,但使食物看起来很难看。 疑点:look good/bad意思为“外表的颜色看起来好看/难看”

如:The traffic accident made him look bad. 难点:look fine/ well指看起来身体健康 如:You look better today than yesterday.你今天看上去比昨天好多了。 3. It makes me want to join a clean-up campaign.这让我想加入一次清扫大运动。 疑点:注意join的用法:(1)join加入军队,政党,组织等,成为其中一员。 如:The next year he joined the union.第二年他加入了工会。 (2)join加入某人,并一起进行某项活动。 如:She joined her husband in his study.她与她的丈夫一块从事他的研究。 难点:与join意思相近的短语take part in也表示“参加……”,take an active part in积极参加。它侧重于参加某项活动或运动。 如:Do you take an active part in sports?你积极参加体育活动吗? 4. For instance,they can help you to compare two different products so that you can buy the one you really need. 例如,他们能够帮你比较两种不同的产品,以至于你能买到你真正需要的那个。 疑点:for instance相当于for example 意思为“例如” 如:He likes all kinds of sports, for instance he likes playing soccer very much. 难点:句中的compare意为“比较,对照”,可以构成短语compare...with...把……与……相比,compare...to...把……比作…… If we compare French schools with British schools,we will find many differences. 如果我们把法国的学校与英国的学校相比,会发现许多不同之处。 如:The poet compares the woman he loves to a rose. 这位诗人把他所钟情的女人比作玫瑰花。 5. If you think flowers are too feminine a gift for a man to receive,you can consider giving a plant instead. 如果你认为鲜花对一位男士来说太女性化而不好接受,你可以考虑送一种植物。 疑点:consider doing sth. 考虑做某事 如:I?m considering changing my job.我正在考虑换工作。 难点:consider还可以加that从句,表示“考虑到…”;还可以组成短语consider sb. +n/adj,表示“把…看作/认为…” 如:If you consider that she?s only been studying English for six months,she speaks it well. 如果考虑到她学英语才六个月,那么她讲英语讲得的确不错了。 Do you consider her suitable for the job?你认为她做这工作合适吗?

二、重点讲解

1. Rainy days make me sad.雨天使人沮丧。 make的用法 (1)make+n.make food 做饭make a plane做飞机make the bed 铺床 make money 赚钱 make sb./sth.+adj.使某人(感到),使……处于某种状态 (2)make的宾语之后可跟名词、形容词、分词来充当宾语的补足语 1)名词作make的宾语补足语 The party made her a good teacher.党把她培养成为一名好教师. 2)形容词作make的宾语补足语 如:Soccer makes me crazy.足球使我疯狂。 The soft music makes Tina sleepy.轻柔的音乐使Tina快睡着了。 Waiting for her made me angry.我很生气一直等着她。 可用到的形容词有:happy,pleased,surprised,angry,annoyed,sad,upset,unhappy,worried,anxious,excited,relaxed,stressed out,tense,calm,scared,comfortable,sick… 3)分词作make的宾语补足语 如: I made myself understood by all the students. You must make yourself respected. (3). make sb./sth.+do…使某人做某事(不能带不定式符号to) 如:Wars make the peace go away.战争使和平远离。 注意:当make用于被动语态时,必须带不定式符号to. 如:We were made to work all night.我们被迫日夜工作。 (4). make it习惯用语,及时赶到,到达目的地 如:I just made it to my class.(Unit 9)我恰好赶到班级。(arrived in time) (5). make of /from./out of make of 原材料制成成品后,原材料未经任何化学变化,仍保持原有性质. 如:The chair is made of wood. make from当原材料制成成品后,经过了化学变化,失去了原有性质. (6). make up of 常用于被动结构:be made up of…相当于consist of…(由……组成) make up from 由…..所制造 如:A car is made up of many different parts. She wore a necklace made up from gold coins.她戴着一串由金币制成的项链. 2.…but don?t really tell you anything about the quality of the product.但没有真正告诉你有关产品质量的任何问题。 tell sb. about sth.“告诉某人有关某事”,tell sb. sth.“告诉某人某事”。 如:The granny told us about a thief breaking into her house. Tell me where you live.告诉我你住在哪儿。? 3. They also have to know how to make money.他们还必

须知道如何赚钱。 (1)know how to do 其中的不定式带有疑问词。 know what to do 知道做什么。这一句式可以改为复合句,上句也可为: They also have to know how they can make money. 又如:Please tell me when we should leave. =Please tell me when to leave. 请告诉我什么时候离开。 (2)make money/earn money挣钱 如:His father makes /earns a lot of money as a pilot.他父亲当飞机驾驶员挣钱很多。 4. However,some advertising can be confusing or misleading. 然而,一些广告会混淆或误导你。 (1)confuse v.使迷惑;confusing adj令人迷惑的;confusedadj.迷惑的,糊涂的 如:Waking up in strange surroundings confused her.她醒来时看到一片陌生的环境,这把她搞糊涂了。 The instructions are very confusing and I can?t understand them.这些指示莫名其妙,我没有办法理解 He gets confused easily.他很容易被弄糊涂。 (2)mislead v.使某人想错/做错,误导;misleading adj.令人受误导的 如:a misleading description/advertisement误导人的描述(广告) 5. Be sure to follow your host?s suggestions.务必要遵从主人的暗示或提议。 (1)be sure to别忘了,记住 如:Be sure to turn everything off before you go to bed.别忘了睡觉之前关上各样东西。 (2)be sure to do一定会……的,必定会发生的。 如:It?s sure to rain. 必定会下雨。 (3)be sure of 对……有把握。 如:He?s sure of living to ninety.他对活到90岁很有信心。 三、语法展示 宾语补足语 1.宾语补足语和宾语一起称为复合宾语,可作宾语补足语的有:名词,代词,形容词,副词,分词,不定式,介词短语,名词从句。 如:(1)We call him Jim.我们叫他吉姆。 (2)Whom do you think of me? 你以为我是谁? (3)Please keep the room clean.请保持室内清洁。 (4)He found her out.他发现她出去了。 (5)She found the book interesting.她认为这本书很有意思。 (6)You?d better have your shoes mended.你还是请人把鞋补一补吧。 (7)Make yourselves at home.不要受拘束。

(8)We made him what he is.是我们使他成为现在这样。 2.宾语补足语的注意事项 1)作宾语补足语的形容词应放在宾语后,若放在前则变成了定语。 如:(1)We found the man honest.我们发现此人很诚实。(宾补) (2)We found the honest man.我们发现了这个诚实的人。(定语) 2)在动词elect,choose,make之后用作补语的名词,若是表示“身份,职位”则不带冠词。如:They elected Li Lei monitor last week.上周他们选李雷当班长。 3)有些动词后通常跟“to be+名词或形容词短语”作补语,但to be常省去。这些动词有:think,consider,believe,imagine,suppose,see,find,feel,etc.。 如:He thinks himself (to be) a clever man. 他认为自己很聪明。 4)复合宾语可变为宾语从句。 如:We think her a nice woman.→We think that she is a nice woman.我们认为她是个很好的人。 5)动词let,make,have及感官动词后用不带to的不定式作补语,若变为被动语态,应将to加上。 如:I saw tears come into her eyes.→Tears were seen to come into her eyes.我看到她眼里含着泪。 6)感官动词后跟不带to的不定式或现在分词作补语,其区别在于不定式强调事实经过或动作已完成,而现在分词则强调当时情景或动作正在进行。请比较。 如:I like to hear her sing.我喜欢听她唱歌。 I heard her singing last night.昨晚我听到她在唱歌。 一、疑点难点破解 1. Have you turned off your radio?你关掉收音机了吗? 疑点:turn off表示“切断、关上”之意,用于指切断电源、关上水管等。它的反义词是turn on。当关掉的东西是代词时,把代词放在中间。 如:His mother told him to turn off TV and do his homework.他母亲叫他关掉电视去做作业。 The tap is broken.If you want to save water,you must turn it off. 难点:与此相关的短语还有turn up“开大声”,turn down“关小点声”。用法同turn off/on. 如:It is too noisy. Please turn your radio down. I can?t hear clearly. Would you please turn the tape up? 2.In the past twelve months they?ve had three major concerts and made a hit CD.在过去的12个月里他们举行了3次大型演唱会,出了一盘火暴的CD。 疑点:for/in the past/last twelve months/years/days/etc.常与现在完成时态连用。 如:(1)For the past few days he has been ill.几天来他一直生病。 (2)She has been ill for the last three days.这三个星期他

在生病。 (3)In the past three years we have learned two thousand English words. 3年来我们学了2000个英语单词。 难点:用于肯定句时,和以上短语连用的动词必须是延续性动作。 如:He has had(而不是bought)the book for three years.他已经买这本书三年了。 You have kept(不用borrow) the book for two weeks.你已经借这本书两个星期了。 3. This program started in 1980 and so far has brought thousands of overseas Chinese students to China to look for their families?roots.这个项目是1980年开始的,到目前为止已经帮助了几千名海外中国学生来中国寻根。 疑点:so far意为“到目前为止”,相当于till now/up to now,可用于句首或句末,用作状语,表示范围、程度或距离,通常作为现在完成时的时间状语出现。 如:I have read many foreign stories so far. 难点:so far as 意为“就…而论”、“到…程度”,表示程度、距离等。 如:So far as I know,he has been to Beijing many times.据我所知,他已去过北京许多次了。 4. I agree with you. 我同意你的看法。 疑点:agree with sb./sb.?s idea/ sb.?s view同意某人,同意某人的观点、想法、主意。 如:My mother doesn?t agree with my father and me.我妈妈不同意我和爸爸的想法。 难点:agree还有许多的用法 (1)用于简短回答中“同意”或“赞成”。如:Chocolate is good for your health. Do you agree? Yes,I agree./No,I don?t agree. (2)agree to do sth同意去做某事。如:I agree to ask someone for help.我同意向别人求助。 (3)agree to sth赞成某个建议、安排等。如:He agreed to your suggestion.他赞成你的建议。 (4)agree on sth. 在……方面达成一致。如:We agree on a price for the car.我们就车价达成一致意见。 (5)agree that+从句。如:Tom?s mother agree that he went on with his study. 5.You have probably never heard of Amy Winterbourne.你大概从未听说过Amy Winterbourne. 疑点:hear of/about听说,接名词、代词或动名词。如:I have never heard of the story before. 难点:1)hear表示听说时,后面接宾语从句。 如:I heard that his father died yesterday. 2)hear from=get/receive a letter from意为“收到…的信”,“得到…的消息”from后面加表示人的名词或代词 如:How often do you hear from your father?你每隔多久收到你父亲的来信?

6. The walls are made from old glass bottles that are glued together.墙是由胶合在一起的旧玻璃瓶做成的。 疑点:be made from 意思是“由… 制成”,但制成品不能看出原材料。 如:Paper is made from wood.纸是由木头制成的。 难点:be made还可以构成其他词组,注意区分。 (1)be made of意为“由…原材料制成”,主语为制成品,而且能看出原材料,of后面接表示原材料的名词。如:This jacket is made of cotton.这件上衣是棉花做的。 (2)be made in表示某一产品在某地生产或制造,in后面跟表示地点的名词。 如:Trains are made in Zhuzhou.火车是株洲制造的。 (3)be made by意为“由(谁)制造的”,by后面接动作的执行者。如:The desk was made by his brother.这张桌子是他弟弟做的。 二、重点讲解 1. Have you packed yet?你打包了吗? (1)这是一个现在完成时的句型,它是在两个时间上,一是过去,一是现在。它的动作发生在过去,但对现在有影响或结果,而这种影响和结果是说话人的兴趣所在,所以常常后面不用时间状语。Have/has+动词的过去分词,是它的基本结构。 如:Someone has broken the door.有人把门打破了。(结果,门仍破着) (2)pack包装,把……装箱pack sth(up)into…整理行装 如:Pack clothes into a truck.把衣服装进衣箱内。 pack into塞进,挤进。如:The children packed into the cinemas on a wet day.在雨天,孩子们挤进电影院。 2. I have not cleaned out the refrigerator yet.我还没把冰箱清除干净。 clean sth out打扫某物之内部,扫除某物的尘土等。如:It is time for you to clean your bedroom.现在该你打扫你的卧室的时候了。 clean sth up清除罪犯和不道德分子,整顿(某物)。 如:The mayor has decided to clean up the city.市长已决定要整顿市政。 clean sth down清扫,擦干净。如:Clean down the walls.把墙上的尘土扫下。 3. I have not done any of these things yet Because my grandfather came to chat to me.那些事情我一样也还没做,因为我祖父来和我聊天。 (1)because连词,因为。如:I did it because they asked me to do it.我做这事是因为他们要我做。 (2)because所表达的原因是不知道的,如要表达明显的理由,或被认为是知道的,就用as,for,或so。如:As it is raining,you had better take a taxi.=It is raining,so you had better take a taxi.既然下雨,你最好坐出租车来。 (3)because of 后面加名词或名词短语。 如:Because of his bad legs,he could not walk so fast as

the others.因为他的腿有毛病,他不能和别人一样走得快。 4.Be sure not to miss them if they come to a city near you-if you can get tickets.如果他们到了一个离你近的城市,务必不要错过,如果你能得到票的话。 be sure to do务必,一定要。如:Be sure to tell me when you arrive home.到家后务必要告诉我一声。 ★注意动词不定式to do的否定形式,要直接在to do前加not。如:Be sure not to wake up the sleeping boy.一定不要吵醒在睡觉的孩子。 5. I feel like I have done something that wasn?t important to me before.我想我做了些原先对我并不重要的一些事情。 feel like+ doing sth.想要,欲要。如:I don?t feel like eating a big meal now.我现在不想吃大餐。 6. They provide homes for many endangered animals,and help to educate the public about caring for them.我们为濒危动物们提供住所,并教育公众照顾他们。 provide sth for sb /provide sb with sth把某物提供给某人。如:These letters should provide us with all the information we need.这些信应该为我们提供所需的全部信息。 三、语法展示 (一)特殊副词的用法 现在完成时态我们在前面的一、二个单元中已讲述过,所以本单元只讲现在完成时态与几个副词的关系。 1. ever, never ever“曾经”,表示从过去到目前为止的时间,用于现在完成时态的疑问和含有最高级的从句中,否定句中常用never代替ever,在反意疑问句中,附加问句用肯定。 如:(1)Have you ever been to Hefei?你曾去过合肥吗? (2)This is the most interesting film that I have ever seen.这是我曾看过的电影中最有趣的一部。 (3)He has never been to the Great Wall,has he?他从未去过长城,是吗? 2. still,just still“仍然,还”,强调过去开始的情况或动作仍在继续,指时间,强调延续;just“刚刚,刚才”,多与现在完成时连用。注意要与just now区别开,just now指过去的时间,常与过去时连用。 如:(1)Has your sister still lived here?你妹妹仍然住在这儿吗? (2)I have just finished lunch.我刚吃过中饭。 (3)I saw her mother just now.我刚才看见了她母亲。 3. before,ago 两者都可作副词用,before表示过去时间的以前,可独立使用,泛指“以前”,可用于现在完成时态或一般过去时态。ago不能独立使用,要置于时间段的词组之后,只能用于过去时态,表示从现在算起以前的时间。但可以用在情态动词加完成时态结构中,表示现在对过去发生的事情的推测。此外与since连用,构成since…ago用于现在完成时态。 如:(1)She has seen the film before. 她以前看过这部电

影。 (2)Mary saw Jim a week ago.玛丽一周前见过吉姆。 (3)A lot of new things have happened since ten years ago.自十年前以来发生了很多新鲜事。 4. since,for since:“自从”,表示的是一个时间点,可用作介词,也可作连词。用作介词时,后接指时间点的名词或短语;用作连词时,后跟一个时间状语从句,但其前的谓语动词或主句的谓语动词须用现在完成时。for构成的短语在现在完成时里,表示时间的长度,后须跟“一段时间”,不可跟“时间点”。 如:(1)He has worked at that factory since he came to the city.他到这城市以来一直在这家工厂工作。 (2)I have studied English for three years. 我学习英语已有三年了。 (二)have been to 与have gone to 的区别 (1)have been to表示“已经去过某地”,现在已经不在所去的地方了 如:He has been to America twice.他已经去过美国两次了。 (2)have gone to表示“去了某地”,并未回来,最起码不在当地。 He is not here. He has gone to America.他不在这里,他去美国了。 Unit 13---Unit15单元重难点句子讲解 1. I?d rather go to the Blue Lagoon Restaurant... 我宁愿去Blue Lagoon餐厅,…… would rather意为“宁愿……”,表示句子主语的愿望、选择,后接省去to的不定式。 He?d rather join you in the English Group. 他宁愿加入到你的英语小组中来。 Which would you rather have, bread or rice? 面包和米饭,你更喜欢哪一个? 如果表示“宁愿(可)……也不愿……”则用句型would rather...than...。在would rather和than后面所连接的两个对比部分一般要一致。 The brave soldier would rather die than give in.那个勇敢的士兵宁死不屈。 He?d rather work than play. 他宁愿工作也不愿玩。 They preferred to die of hunger rather than take his bread. 他们宁愿饿死也不愿接受他的面包。 2. Loud music makes me happy. (P103)嘈杂的音乐使我很开心。 Loud music always makes me want to dance. (P103)嘈杂的音乐总是使我想去跳舞。 这两句是动词make的使役用法,make me后分别接了形容词和不定式短语。make的这种用法常见于以下结构: ◎ make+名词(代词)+省略to的动词不定式 My parents often make me do some other homework. 我父母

常让我做些其他的作业。 特别提示 这一结构中的不定式短语在主动结构中是宾语补足语,必须省去to,变为被动结构时,不定式短语作主语补足语,这时必须带to。 She was made to work for the night shift. 她不得不上夜班。 ◎make+名词/代词+-ed分词短语 What made them so frightened?什么使他们这样害怕? Can you make yourself understood in English?你能用英语把意思表达清楚吗? ◎make+名词/代词+介词短语或名词短语 She made him her assistant. 她委派他做自己的助手。 Sit down and make yourselves at home, everyone.大家请坐,不要拘束。 ◎make+名词(代词)+形容词或形容词短语。 The good news made us happy. 这条好消息使我们很高兴。 3. ... small restaurants can serve many people every day. (P104)……小饭店每天就可以多接待些顾客。 句中的serve 有“服侍,侍候,招待”等意思,常用于以下结构中: ◎ serve+宾语 They were busy serving the day?s last buyers.他们正忙着接待这天的最后一批顾客。 Nobody can serve two masters. 一人不能侍奉二主。 ◎ serve sb sth, 或serve sth to sb Mrs Turner served us a very good dinner. =Mrs Turner served a very good dinner to us. 特纳太太招待我们吃了一顿丰盛的晚餐。 ◎ serve sb with sth We served them with beer and wine. 我们用啤酒和红酒招待他们。 4. However, some advertising can be confusing or misleading. (P106)可是,一些广告可能会混淆黑白或误导消费。 confusing与misleading是两个现在分词,相当于形容词,意思分别是“感到混消的”和“误导的”,在句中作表语,主语通常是表示物的名词或代词,如本句中的用法;也可以用作定语,既可修饰表示人的名词或代词,也可以修饰表示物的名词或代词。 They can be some confusing or misleading advertisements. 它们可能是一些混淆黑白或误导消费的广告。 What he said made us confusing.他说的话令我们感到困惑。 5. At times an ad can lead you to buy something you don?t need at all.(P106) 有时,一则广告会诱导你去买你根本就不需要的东西。 at times意为“有时,不时”,与sometimes同义。两者在句中的位置较灵活,可位于句首,句中或句末。 At times I make mistakes when I speak English. 我说英语时有时会出错。 They went to town at times during the cold winter.在寒冷的冬

天,他们有时候进城去。 Sometimes they walk to school. 有时候,他们步行上学。 He sometimes plays football with his friends. 他有时和朋友一起踢足球。 6. To start with, it was raining, and rainy days make me sad. (P107)起初,天在下雨,雨天使我心情很不好。 ◎ start with作“首先”解时,只用于动词不定式,在句中常常以插入语的形式出现。 To start with, the computer room must be kept very clean. 首先,计算机工作室必须保持清洁。 Our group had five members, to start with.刚开始,我们小组只有五个人。 ◎ start with可表示“从……开始”;“先从某事做起”,与begin...with是同义词组。反义词组是end with“以……结束”。 He started/began with the aim of injuring others only to end up by ruining himself.他本想损害别人,结果只害了自己。 The meeting ended with a speech given by the chairman.会议以主席的讲话结束。 He wanted to start/begin with the smallest country and end with the largest one. 他打算先去最小的国家,最后去最大的国家。 ◎ start单独使用时,意为“开始”,可用作及物动词或不及物动词。用作及物动词时,其后跟名词、代词,也可跟动词不定式或动名词形式。begin是start的同义词,两者在用法上没有很大差别,只是start侧重动作的突然开始。 As soon as we got there, it started raining.我们一到那儿就下雨了。 When did we start/begin this lesson?我们是什么时候开始讲这一课的? 7. ...some people would rather just give money.(P108)……有些宁愿只给钱。 句中的would rather是would rather...than...的省略形式,意为“宁愿……而不……”,表示主观愿望。使用这一结构,要注意两个比较的部分对等。 You would also rather stay at home and read a good book than go to a party. 你宁愿待在家里看一本好书也不愿去参加舞会。 I would rather have the small one than the big one.我宁愿要小的,不要大的。 特别提示: 比较的部分如果是动词,than后应是动词原形。 8. I prefer to receive a gift... (P108)我宁愿接受一件……礼物。 prefer表示选择时,可用两种句型。 (1)prefer+名词或动名词+to+名词或动名词。 They prefer red to blue.与蓝色相比,他们更喜欢红色。 I preferred doing something to doing nothing.我喜欢做点什么,而不喜欢闲着。 (2)prefer+不定式或名词+rather than+不带to的动词不定

式。 He preferred to walk there rather than go by bus. 他喜欢走着去那儿,不喜欢乘公共汽车。 She prefers to read rather than sit idle.她喜欢读书而不愿闲坐着。 Unit 14 1. Sorry I couldn?t get back to you sooner. (P112)很抱歉我没能尽快给你回复。 这是在E-mail message回复中的常用语,句中“get back to sb”的意思是“以后再答复”。 I can?t give you a definite answer now but I?ll get back to you about it soon. 我现在不能给你一个明确的回答,但我很快会给你答复的。 2. In the past twelve months, they?ve had three major concerts and made a hit CD. 在过去的十二个月里,他们举办了三场较大的音乐会,出版了一张很受欢迎的CD唱片。 (1)“in the past+时间段”常用于完成时的句子中,表示“在过去的……时间里”,past是形容词,可以用last来替换,而past/last的后面通常要使用“数字+名词”的结构。 In the past/last two years, she has studied English very hard. 在过去的两年里,她一直在努力地学英语。 (2)短语make a hit表示“大获成功”、“(演出等)大受欢迎;受到赞扬”等,hit是名词,表示成功而风行一时的事物,如电影,歌曲,演出等。 Zhou Jielun has just made a hit CD. 周杰伦刚出版了一盘轰动一时的CD。 His song was a great hit. 他的歌曲轰动一时。 He made a great hit in teaching. 他曾在教学上获得了巨大的成功。 3. And then they?re going to go on a world tour in which they will perform in ten different cities. (P114)然后,他们将去世界各地旅行并在十个城市巡回演出。 ...in which they will perform in ten different cities是定语从句,先行词是tour,在关系代词which前介词in通常的位置是在动词perform的后面。本句为了避免与in two different cities短语中的in重复,将perform后的第一个in前置。句中perform 主要指扮演角色,演奏某种乐器,演出某一节目,侧重能力,技巧,效果,可用 作及物动词和不及物动词。 The magician performed wonderful tricks. 魔术师表演了精彩的魔术。 He performs perfectly on the piano. 他的钢琴演奏太棒了。 4. Be sure not to miss them if they come to a city near you — if you can get tickets, that is. (P114)如果他们来到你附近的城市,千万不要错过——当然,如果你能弄到票的话。 (1)句中的that is表示“确切地;换句话说;也就是”,用来表达一个准确的说法,即对前面的内容加以准确地说明。 She?s a housewife — when she?s not teaching English, that is. 她是个家庭主妇——是指她不教英语的时候。

(2)句中miss是“错过”,后接名词、代词或v-ing形式,不可接不定式。 They missed the train by two minutes.他们差两分钟没赶上火车。 I came late and missed seeing the beginning of the movie. 我来晚了,没有看见电影的开始部分。 miss还可表示“丢失”、“失去”,与lose同义。 5. ...but we really hope to have a number one hit some day. (P114)……但是我们真的希望有朝一日我们制作出能卖得最好的一首歌。 some day意为“将来某一日”,等于someday,与one day是近义词。some day/someday只表示将来,不表示过去。而one day用在过去时的句子里是“有一天”的意思,用在将来时的句子里是“将有一天”,与some day/someday可互换。 He will be a scientist some day.总有一天他会成为科学家。 I hope to see you one day/someday.我希望有一天会看到你。 One day last summer they made a trip to the country. 去年夏天某日他们到乡间旅行。 试译:你一定要有一天来看我。 You must come one day to see me. You must come some day to see me. You must come to see me someday. 他有一天来看了我。 误:He came some day to see me. 正:He came one day to see me. 6. ...as a part of the “In Search of Roots” summer camp program. (P116)……作为“寻根”夏令营活动的一部分。 in search for是固定短语,for 后面的名词同样必须是“寻找的目标”,不是“搜寻的对象”。search前常出现a 或one?s等词对search加以限定或修饰,这个短语也常作目的状语。 The soldiers were sent in a search for the missing aircraft. 士兵们被派去搜寻失踪的飞机。 So far, they have been unlucky in their search for gold and have no money at all. 到现在为止,他们寻找金子的运气一直不好,而且他们身上也没钱了。 知识拓展 search的基本用法 (1)search的动词用法。 ◎ search不与介词或副词搭配时是及物动词,表示“搜查”的意思,其后通常接处所或人物名词,表示搜查的对象。 He even searched my home without any reason. 他甚至毫无理由地搜查了我的家。 I?ve searched my memory, but can?t remember that man?s name. 我苦思良久,仍然记不起那人的名字。 They searched every part of the building. 他们对全楼进行了搜查。 ◎ search用不及物动词,后面接介词for 和after,构成及

物性动词短语,两者是“搜寻,寻找”的意思,表示花费极大的气力去搜寻某个特定的目标,常含有对立或不对立的意味,两者可以通用,只不过search for 更常见些。 For a whole day they searched for/after the lost child. 他们找了一天这个丢失的孩子。 7. ...and so far has brought thousands of overseas Chinese students... (P116) ……到目前为止,它带来了成千上万的海外华裔学生…… so far 意思是“到目前为止”,常用于完成时,表示动作从过去开始一直延续到现在,强调到目前为止的情况,可位于句首,也可位于句末。 So far, no man has traveled farther than the moon. 到现在为止,还没有人到过比月球更远的地方。 How many travelers have been to Disneyland so far? 到现在为止有多少旅客到过迪斯尼乐园? So far we haven?t got any news from them. 到目前为止,我们还没有得到他们的任何消息。 8. Most, like Robert, can hardly speak any Chinese, and have never been to China before. (P116) 像罗伯特一样,大多数人几乎都不会说中文,而且以前从来没有到过中国。 (1)hardly是一个否定副词,表示“几乎不,简直不”,相当于almost not,含有否定的意义,故在句中不能另加否定词。切莫将hardly误认为是由hard+ly构成的副词。此外,hardly 位于句首时,要用倒装语序。 I hardly know what to say. 我简直不知道说什么好。 Hardly can I move this heavy desk. 我简直移不动这张重桌子。 — Can you catch what I said?你能听懂我说的话吗? — Sorry, I can hardly understand it.对不起,我几乎听不懂。 (2)have been后面接to表示某人“去过某地,现在已经回来了”,可用于各种人称。 Have you ever been to Shanghai? 你曾经去过上海吗? He has been to America twice. 他到美国去过两次。 have gone to与have been in的用法 have gone 表示某人“去某地了”,不论是在途中还是到了目的地,重点是强调这个人已经不在说话人所在的地方了,常用于第三人称;have been in,则表示一直“呆在某个地方”,常与表示一段时间状语连用。 Henry has gone to London. 亨利到伦敦去了。 They have been in Beijing for two weeks. 他们在北京已经有两个星期了。 10. Thanks to In Search of Roots... (P116)多亏“寻根”…… 【知识归纳】thanks, thanks to与thanks for的用法 ◎ thanks是名词thank的复数形式,意为“感谢”。表示“感谢”之意,可以说: Thanks a lot. Many thanks. A thousand thanks. ◎ thanks to是介词词组,后面可以接名词或代词,意为“多

亏”;“由于”,在句中作原因状语。 Thanks to the old man, we found the lost child at last. 多亏那个老人,我们最后找到了失踪的孩子。 ◎ thanks for用于对别人已做的事表示感谢,后接名词,代词,或v-ing形式。 Thanks for sending me such a nice present.谢谢你寄来这么好的礼品。 A thousand thanks for your help.非常感谢你的帮助。 Unit 15 1. In 1972, it was discovered that they are endangered.(P119) 1972年,人们发现它们已经濒于灭绝。 was discovered是一般过去时的被动语态,discover“发现”,近义词为find和invent。 discover, invent与find ◎discover指发现过去所不知道的东西,新奇或意外的东西。 Coal was first discovered and used in China. 中国首先发现并使用了煤。 Columbus discovered America on the 12th of October, 1492. 1492年10月12日,哥伦布发现了美洲。 ◎invent意为“发明”,即创造出以前从未存在过的东西。 Edison invented the electric lamp.爱迪生发明了电灯。 Radio had just been invented then.那时无线电刚刚发明出来。 ◎find意为“找到”,侧重于找到过去丢失的人或物,但有时也表示凭经验或偶然发现了一种东西。 Today, corn is found all over the world.今天,全世界都有了玉米。 She found him a very good pupil.她发现他是个非常好的学生。 ◎有时find和discover可以互相替代,意思相同。 His notebook was found/discovered in the desk. 他的笔记本是在课桌里找到的。 2. Some of the swamps have become polluted. (P119)一些沼泽地受到了污染。 have become polluted 中的become是连系动词,polluted是过去分词。这种“系动词+过去分词”结构,意思上也接近被动语态。 The slodier got wounded(接近were wounded)in the battle. 这几名战士在这场战斗中受了伤。 A few minutes later, the ground became/was covered with snow. 几分钟后地上尽是雪。 3. They provide homes for many endangered animals... (P120)他们为许多濒临灭绝的动物提供家园…… provide是及物动词,意为“提供”,“供给”。表示“提供……人……物件”是provide...with...;“提供……给……人”是provide...for...。 The school provides us with all the materials we need. 学校提供我们所需要的一切资料。

We are provided with everything we need for work. 我们被提供了工作所需要的一切。 The school provides all the books we need for us. 学校为我们提供我们需要的书籍。 ◎ provide for是“供养”的意思。 He has a large family to provide for. 他要养活一个大家庭。 4. ...and help to educate the public about caring for them. (P120)……并且帮助教育公众关爱它们。 care for表示“喜欢”,“关心”之意,后接名词或v-ing形式作宾语,take care of也有这个意思。 He cared nothing for skating. 他对滑冰没有兴趣。 In our class, we care for each other. 在我们班上,我们相互关心。 Maria takes good care of everybody. 玛丽亚很关心大家。 care for还可以表示“照顾”,“照料”,相当于take care of或look after。 At night he fed and cared for the cattle. 夜里他照料牲口,给牲口喂食。 You must care for yourselves. =You must look after yourselves. 你们要照顾好自己。 The children are well cared for in the nurseries. =The children are taken good care of in the nurseries. 孩子们在托儿所受到很好的照顾。 5. turn off the shower while you are washing your hair. (P121)洗头的时候关掉淋浴。 (1)turn off表示“关掉”,用在关掉收音机,煤气,自来水等场合。与其相关的几个短语是turn on“打开”,turn down“关小”,turn up“开大”。 (2)句中while与when是同义词,都可以用从属连词,引导状语从句表示时间,意思都是“当(在)……的时候”,但二者之间是有区别的。 while与when的用法 ◎ when的含义是at or during the time that,既可用于指一点时间(从句的谓语动词需用终止性动词),也可用于指一段时间(从句的谓语动词用延续性动词),从句与主句里面的谓语动词所表示的动作或状态能同时发生,或一先一后发生。 He wants to help people when they are ill. 他想在人们生病的时候帮助他们。 When he got to Shanghai, the ship had already set off. 他到达上海时,轮船已经开走了。 ◎ while的含义是during the time that,只能用于指一段时间(从句的谓语动词必须是延续性的),从句与主句里面的谓语动词所表示的动作只能同时发生,不能一先一后发生。 While I was reading, my mother was washing clothes. 我读书时,妈妈在洗衣服。 ◎这两个词还可以用作并列连词。when表示“在那时”或“这时突然”,相当于and just at that time的意思,用来连接两个

并列分句,有时when分句之前有逗号把前后两个分句分开。 I stayed till sunset, when it began to rain. 我一直呆到太阳下山,这时天开始下雨了。 ◎ while意为“而”,“却”,表示对照关系。 Some like collecting stamps, while others like planting flowers. 有些人喜欢集邮,而有些人却喜欢种花。 6. You have probably never heard of Amy Winterbourne. (P122) 你可能从来没有听说过Amy Winterbourne。 【知识归纳】hear, hear from, hear of与hear that clause的用法: (1)hear单独使用表示“听见”,“听到”,常用的结构有: ◎ hear sb/sth“听到某人或某物的声音”。 I can?t hear you at all. 我根本就听不到你的声音。 Haven?t you heard anything? 难道你没有听到什么声音? ◎ hear sb do sth“听到某人做某事”。 I often hear Li Ping read English in the morning. 我经常在早晨听到李平读英语。 ◎ hear sb doing sth“听到某人正在做某事”。 I heard him singing in the next room.我听见他正在隔壁房间里唱歌。 特别提示 hear sb do sth指听到整个行动或整个事件;而hear sb doing sth是指听到了行动的一部分,有正在发生的意思。试比较: I heard the boy go down the stairs.我听到这个男孩走下楼去。 I heard the boy going down the stairs我听到这个男孩下楼的声音。 (2)hear from意为“收到……的信”;“得到……消息”。 How often do you hear from your father? 你每隔多久收到你父亲的信? Have you still not heard from him? 你还没有收到他的信吗? I haven?t heard from him since he telephoned. 自从他打电话以来,我一直没有他的消息。 特别提示 hear from的宾语是表示人的名词或代词,而不是表示信件的名词。 纠错: 我们好几个星期未收到他的信了。 误:We haven?t heard from his letter for weeks. 正:We haven?t heard from him for weeks. 正:We haven?t got a letter from him for weeks. (3)hear of意为“听说”,后面接名词,代词或动名词。 I?ve never heard of that before.我以前从未听说过那件事。 She disappeared and was never heard of again. 她不知去向了,再未听到她的消息。 (4)hear接从句,是“听说”的意思。 One day, the Smiths heard that there was a good doctor in a town not far away. 一天,史密斯一家听说不远的镇里有一位好医生。

I hear that one of the pandas has a baby. 我听说其中一只熊猫生了个熊猫宝宝。 7. She is a most unusual woman. (P122)她是一个十分不寻常的女性。 【知识归纳】a most, the most与most的用法 (1)a most的用法。在“a most+形容词+名词”结构中,most是副词,意为“很,非常”,相当于very,用来修饰它后面的形容词,本句就是这一用法。 Guilin is a most beautiful city.桂林是座非常美丽的城市。 This is a most interesting story.这是一个非常有趣的故事。 (2)the most 的用法 ◎在“the most+形容词+名词”结构中,most 是副词,表示程度,意为“最”,与其后的形容词一起构成形容词的最高级。 He is one of the most famous writers in China. 他是中国最著名的作家之一。 This is the most difficult (one) of the three. 这是这三者中最难的。 ◎在“动词+the most”结构中,most 也是副词,其作用和意思是“最”其位置通常在动词后。 They like English the most. 他们最喜欢英语。 (3)most 通常有三种用法 ◎在“most+副词或形容词”结构中,most 是副词,意为“很,非常,十分”。 I shall most certainly go there. 我十分肯定会到那里去。 ◎在“most+名词”结构中,most 是形容词,意为“大部分的,大多数”或“最多的”。 Most students like English. 大多数学生喜欢英语。 Who has (the) most books among you?你们中谁的书最多? 8. The walls are made from old glass bottles that are glued together. (P122) 墙是由旧玻璃瓶粘在一起建成的。 be made from/of意为“由……(原料)制成”,后面一般接物质名词。接from则表示某物品制成后,已看不出原材料是什么,原材料在制作过程中已起了化学变化;接of表示某物品制成后,仍可看得出原材料,其原料在制作过程中仅起了物理变化。 Nylon is made from air, coal and water.尼龙是由空气,煤和水加工制成的。 Wine is made from grapes. 葡萄酒是由葡萄制成的。 The desk is made of wood. 这桌子是由木头做的。 The shoes are made of cloth.这鞋子是用布做的。 知识拓展 ◎ be made up of表示某物或某组织由一种种成分或一个个成员组成。 The world is made up of matter.世界是由物质构成的。 A TV set is made up of hundreds of different parts. 电视机是由数百个不同的零件组装成的。 ◎ be made into意为“把……做成……”,主语在意义上为原材料,介词宾语在意义上为制成品。 Bamboo is also made into paper.竹子也可以用来造纸。

◎be made in意思是“在……(地点)制造”,介词in后接产地。 This kind of computer is made in the USA.这种电脑是美国制造的。 This printing machine was made in Beijing.这台印刷机是北京生产的。 ◎be made by意思是“由……制造”,介词by后跟动作的执行者。 This model ship is made by Uncle Wang. 这个轮船模型是由王叔叔制作的。 9. Amy recently won an award from the Help Save Our Planet Society. (P122)艾米最近获得了“救助地球”协会的奖励。 (1)recently 表示“最近”,既可以用于表示一段时间,也可以表示一点时间,多用于完成时态。 Have you hear from Michael recently?你最近接到迈克尔的来信吗? Recently he has made quite a few mistakes. 最近他出了不少错。 (2)won a award中award是 “奖”的意思,相关词语有prize,reward和scholarship,这几个词都与“奖”有关。 (3)句中的win表示“赢”奖的意思。 At the national amateur song-writing contest, he won a first-class award. 在全国业余作曲比赛中,他获得了一等奖。 win可表示“赢得比赛,战斗”等,宾语一般是比赛,竞赛,战争等名词,与beat近义。 知识拓展 win与beat的用法 两者在表示“赢”,“胜”的意思时,后面所接的宾语有所不同。“赢比赛或一场战斗”用win;“赢某人”是beat。 We won the match months ago. 几个月前,我们赢得那场比赛。 Which side won the battle? 这一战谁打胜了? But still we weren?t sure we could beat them. 但是我们还不能肯定我们能打赢他们。 Dick beat John and won the game. 狄克打败了约翰,赢得了比赛。

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