Match the two sentences
1.I’m reading a book. The book is about Bill Gates. I’m reading a book that/which is about Bill Gates. _______________________________________
2.He is a teacher. The teacher teaches us Chinese. He is a teacher who/ that teaches us Chinese. _______________________________________ 3.I don’t like the man. He is smoking. I don’t like the man who is smoking. ____________________________________ 4.Where is the picture? You bought it last week. Where is the picture that you bought last week? _______________________________________
结构： 先行词 + 关系词 + 句子
The man ___ who lives next to us is a ______ ________________ 定语从句 先行词 关系词 policeman.
关系代词: that, which, who, whom,whose
关系副词: when, where, why
关系代词： 指物：that which 指人：who (主/宾格) that whom（宾格）
如果先行词是表示物的名词或代词，关系 代词应用that、which. (作主语或宾语)
which / that 作主语. (不能省)
This is a dream. The dream will never come true. This is a dream which
/ that never come true.
The dog has been found. The dog was lost. The dog which was lost has been found. Practise: 1. This is the house which is for sale. 2. The book which is lying on the floor is mine.
which / that 作宾语 ： （可省略） This is the card. I’ve just received the card. This is the card which ( / that I’ve ) just received. （作宾语） Practise:
1. This is the mistake which /that I always make.
2. I still keep the letters which she wrote to me.
3. I lost the pen which my father bought me.
关系代词who, that, whom引导的定语从 句:
如果先行词是表示人的名词或代词， 关系代词应用who, that (作主语或宾语) whom (作宾语)
who / that 作主语. (不能省) This is the film star. The film star is very popular in China. This is the film star who China. (作主语) / that is very popular in
1. The boy who broke the window is called Roy. 2. Do you know the man who spoke at the meeting yesterday? 3. The girl who is watering the flowers is my cousin.
who / whom / that 作宾语：( 可省略) The man is a famous writer.
He described the man just now.
The man ( who/ whom/ that ) he described just now is a famous writer. (作宾语） 1. The boy who(m) I ‘m looking for is my friend. 2. The thief has been sent to prison. The police caught the thief last night. The thief whom the police caught last night has been sent to prison.
小结： ? that－ 既可指人，也可指物，作主语，不能 省略；作宾语，可以省略。 ? which－指物，作主语，不能省略；作宾语， 可以省略. ? who－ 指人，作主语，不能省略；作宾语， ?可以省略,
（常用whom） 注:当关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,定语从句 的谓语动词形式由先行词定。
有时只能用 that , 不用 which, 常见的情况有六种： 1. 当先行词是 all, any, few, little, none, anything, everything, nothing , everybody, nobody, everyone, no one 或被它们修饰时。 That’s all that I know.
Is there anything that I can do for you?
He answered few questions that the teacher asked.
2. 当先行词被形容词最高级或序数词修饰时 That is the most interesting book that I have ever read.
The first thing that I should do is to review my lessons.
3. 当先行词有the very, the only, the same等修 饰时。 That’s the only thing that I can do now.
These are the very words that he used.
4. 当主句以 who 或 which开头时，定语从句的 关系词用 that, 而不用 which 或 who. Who is the girl that spoke to you just now? Which is the pen that you lost ?
The man and his dog that I always meet are standing by the gate.
whose 作定语,表示所属关系。 The boy is my classmate. The boy’s father is a policeman.
The boy whose father is a policeman is my classmate.
A child _____ parents are dead is called an orphan( 孤儿). A. who B. whose C. who’s D. which
It’s an invention which /that is used for keeping off the rain .
Gone with the wind
It’s a book that/which was written by Margaret Mitchell.
It’s the Wall that /which was built by Chinese people.
It’s an animal that/which….
It’s an animal that / which has big nose.
Exercise 1 :用关系代词填空
1. The boy ____________ who / that is playing ping-pong is my classmate. 2. The e-mail ___________ which/ that I received yesterday was from my sister. who / that 3. I hate people ______________ talk much but do little. which / that my father bought last 4. The car _____________ month is very beautiful.
whose hair is white is his grandfather. 5. The man ______ whose 6. Is there a student _________ father is a business man? which 7. This is the house in ________ we have lived for 10 years. 8.I’ve never heard of the people and things ________ that you talked about just now.
1. My father and his teacher talked a lot about that they couldn’t the persons and things ______ remember. that 2. Say all ________ you know.
3. Is there anything ______ that I can do for you?
当先行词是something, anything, nothing, all 等词时，关系代词只能用that.
4.This is the first play ________ that I have seen since I came here.
5. This is the best novel _______ that I have read. 当先行词被序数词，最高级等词修饰时，关系 代词只能用that.
6.Who is the girl _______is that standing under the tree?
that we used last Sunday. 7. Which is the machine ____
， 而中心词指人或物时，关系代词只能用 that.
关系副词： when/ where/why
When = 介词 + which
She will never forget the day.
She was married on that day. She will never forget the day when (=on which) she was married. It was the year.
The World War I broke out in the year.
It was the year when (= in which) the World War I broke out.
where 作地点状语 where = 介词 + which
I want to know the place.
I was born there.
I want to know the place where (= in which) I was born. The table where (= at which ) she is sitting is a new one.
why 作原因状语, 其先行词常常是the reason.
why = for which
That is the reason why(= for which) I’m late. I know the reason why he said it.
? 1.October 1,1949 is the day _____ the PRC was founded. A. which B. when C. that D. on that
? 2.Is that the reason _____ you are for the plan. which B. what C. why D. for that
? 3. Is this the place ______ you were born? ? A. which B.where C.what D.that
判断关系代词与关系副词 方法一： 用关系代词，还是关系副词完 全取决于从句中的谓语动词。及物动词后 面无宾语，就必须要求用关系代词；而不 及物动词则要求用关系副词。例如： This is the mountain village where I stayed last year. 这是我去年呆过的山村。 I'll never forget the days when I worked together with you.我永远不会忘 记与你共事的日子。
判断改错： （错） This is the mountain village where I visited last year. （错） I will never forget the days when I spent in the countryside. （对） This is the mountain village （which） I visited last year. （对） I'll never forget the days （which） I spent in the countryside. 习惯上总把表地点或时间的名词与关系 副词 where, when联系在一起。此两题错在 关系词的误用上。
方法二： 准确判断先行词在定语从句中的成 分（主、谓、宾、定、状），也能正确选择出 关系代词/关系副词。 D you visited a few 例1. Is this museum ___ days age?A. where B. that C. on which D. the one A the exhibition 例2. Is this the museum ____ was held. A. where B. that C. on which D. the one
例1变为肯定句 This museum is ___ you visited a few days ago. 在句1中，所缺部分为宾语，而where, that, on which都不能起到 宾语的作用，只有the one既做了主句的表语，又可做从句的宾 语，可以省略关系代词，所以应选D。 例2变为肯定句： This is the museum ___ the exhibition was held. 句2中, 主、谓、宾俱全，从句部分为句子的状语表地点，既可 用副词where，又因 in the museum词组，可用介词in + which 引导地点状语。而此题中，介词on 用的不对，所以选A。
关系词的选择依据在从句中所做的成分，先行词在 从句中做主、定、宾语时，选择关系代词（who, whom, that, which, whose）； 先行词在从句中
做状语时，应选择关系副词 （ where 地点状语， when 时间状语，why 原因状语） 。
? 1. Is this the place ______ you were born? ? A. which B.where C.what D.that
? 2. Is this the place ______ some German friends visited last year? ? A. which B.where C.what D. why
? 3.The house _______ the famous writer wrote his works is a museum now. ? A. which B.where C.what D.that
? 4.The house _______ the famous writer bought many years ago is a museum now. ? A. that B.where C.what D. why
? 5.He told her the reason____ why he is unhappy, but she doesn’t believe the reason ______ he gives her. ? A. why; why ? B. why; which ? C. that; why ? D. which; why