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人教版新目标八年级上册英语语法总结

发布时间:2014-02-04 13:51:05  

新目标八年级英语上册语法复习 1) leave的用法 1.“leave+地点”表示“离开某地”。例如: When did you leave Shanghai? 你什么时候离开上海的? 2.“leave for+地点”表示“动身去某地”。例如: Next Friday, Alice is leaving for London. 下周五,爱丽斯要去伦敦了。 3.“leave+地点+for+地点”表示“离开某地去某 地”。例如: Why are you leaving Shanghai for Beijing? 你为什么要离开上海去北京?

? 2) 情态动词should“应该”学会使用 ? should作为情态动词用,常常表示意 外、惊奇、不能理解等,有“竟会”的意 思,例如: ? How should I know? 我怎么知道? ? Why should you be so late today? 你今 天为什么来得这么晚? should有时表示应当做或发生的事,例如: We should help each other.我们应当互相

帮助。 ? 我们在使用时要注意以下几点:

? 1. 用于表示“应该”或“不应该”的概念。此时常指 长辈教导或责备晚辈。 ? 例如: ? You should be here with clean hands. 你应该把 手洗干净了再来。 ? 2. 用于提出意见劝导别人。例如: ? You should go to the doctor if you feel ill. ? 如果你感觉不舒服,你最好去看医生。 ? 3. 用于表示可能性。should的这一用法是考试中 常常出现的考点之一。例如: ? We should arrive by supper time. 我们在晚饭前 就能到了。 ? She should be here any moment. 她随时都可能 来。

? 3) What...? 与 Which...? ? 1. what 与 which 都是疑问代词,都可以指人 或事物,但是what仅用来询问 ? 职业。如: What is your father? 你父亲是干什么的? ? 该句相当于: ? What does your father do? What is your father's job? ? Which 指代的是特定范围内的某一个人。如: ? ---Which is Peter? 哪个是皮特? ? ---The boy behind Mary. 玛丽背后的那个男孩。

? 2. What...? 是泛指,所指的事物没有范围的限 制;而 Which...? 是特指, ? 所指的事物有范围的限制。如: ? What color do you like best?(所有颜 色)你最喜爱什么颜色? ? Which color do you like best, blue, green or yellow? ? 你最喜爱哪一种颜色? (有特定的范围) ? 3. what 与 which 后都可以接单、复数名词 和不可数名词。如: ? Which pictures are from China? 哪 些图片来自中国?

? 4) 频度副词的位置 1.常见的频度副词有以下这些: always(总是,一直)usually(通常)often (常常,经常) ? sometimes(有时候)never(从不) ? 2.频度副词的位置: ? a.放在连系动词、助动词或情态动词后面。如: ? David is often arrives late for school.大卫上 学经常迟到。 ? b.放在行为动词前。如: ? We usually go to school at 7:10 every day. ? 我们每天经常在7:10去上学。

? c.有些频度副词可放在句首或句尾

,用来表示强 调。如: Sometimes I walk home, sometime I ride a bike. ? 有时我步行回家,有时我骑自行车。 ? 3.never放在句首时,主语、谓语动词要倒装。 如: ? Never have I been there.我从没到过那儿。

? 5) every day 与 everyday ? 1. every day 作状语,译为“每一天”。 如: ? We go to school at 7:10 every day. ? 我们每天7:10去上学。 ? I decide to read English every day. ? 我决定每天读英语。 ? 2. everyday 作定语,译为“日常的”。 ? She watches everyday English on TV after dinner. ? 她晚饭后在电视上看日常英语。

? ? ? ? ?

What's your everyday activity? 你的 日常活动是什么? 6) 什么是助动词 1.协助主要动词构成谓语动词词组的词叫助动词 (Auxiliary Verb)。被协助的 动词称作主要动词(Main Verb)。助动词自身 没有词义,不可单独使用, 例如: He doesn't like English. 他不喜欢英语。 (doesn't是助动词,无词义;like是主 要动词,有词义) 2.助动词协助主要动词完成以下功用,可以用来:

? a. 表示时态,例如: He is singing. 他在唱歌。 He has got married. 他已结婚。 b. 表示语态,例如: He was sent to England. 他被派往 英国。 c. 构成疑问句,例如: Do you like college life? 你喜欢大 学生活吗? Did you study English before you came here? ? 你来这儿之前学过英语吗? d. 与否定副词not合用,构成否定句,例如: I don't like him. 我不喜欢他。

? e. 加强语气,例如: Do come to the party tomorrow evening. 明天晚上一定来参加晚会。 He did know that. 他的确知道那件事。 ? 3.最常用的助动词有:be, have, do, shall, will, should, would ? 7) forget doing/to do与 remember doing/to do ? 1.forget to do忘记要去做某事(未做); forget doing忘记做过某事(已做) The light in the office is still on. He forgot to turn it off. 办公室的灯还在亮着,它忘记关了。 (没有做关灯的动作)

?

He forgot turning the light off. 他忘记他已经关了灯了。 ( 已做过关灯的动 作) Don't forget to come tomorrow. 别忘了明天来。 (to come动作未做) 典型例题 ---- The light in the office is still on. ---- Oh,I forgot___. A. turning it off B. turn it off ? C. to turn it off D. having turned it off 答案:C。由the light is still on 可知灯亮着,即 关灯的动作没有发生, ? 因此用forget to do sth.而forget doing sth 表示灯 已经关上了,而 ? 自己忘记了这一事实。此处不符合题意。

? 2.remember to do记得去做某事(未做); ? remember doing记得做过某事(已做) Remember to go to the post office after school. ? 记着放学后去趟邮局。 Don't you remember seeing the man before? ? 你不记得以前见过那个人吗? ? 8) It's for sb.和 It's of sb. ? 1.for sb. 常用于表示事物的

特征特点,表示客观形式 的形容词,如: ? easy, hard,difficult,interesting,impossible等:

It's very hard for him to study two languages. ? 对他来说学两门外语是很难的。

? 2.It?s +形容词 of sb的句型一般用表示人物 的性格,品德,表示主观感情或态度的形容 词, ? 如:good, kind, nice, clever, foolish, right。 ? It's very nice of you to help me. 你来帮 助我,你真是太好了。 3.for 与of 的辨别方法: ? 用介词后面的代词作主语,用介词前边的形 容词作表语,造个句子。如果道理上通顺用 of,不通则用for。如:

? 新目标英语在命题中有将对句子划线提问这一题型取消 的趋势,现在采取的作 ? 法是对一个句子进行自由提问。例如: ? 9) 对两个句子的提问 ? 句子:The boy in blue has three pens. ? 提问:1. Who has three pens? ? 2. Which boy has three pens? ? 3. What does the boy in blue have? ? 4. How many pens does the boy in blue have? ? 很显然,学生多了更多的回答角度,也体现了考试 的灵活性。再如:

?

句子:He usually goes to the park with his

friends at 8:00 on Sunday.

? ?

?
? ? ? ?

提问:1. Who usually goes to the park with his friends at 8:00 on Sunday? 2. Where does he usually go with his friends at 8:00 on Sunday? 3. What does he usually do with his friends at 8:00 on Sunday? 4. With whom does he usually go to the park at 8:00 on Sunday? 5. What time does he usually go to the park with his friends on Sunday? 6. When does he usually go to the park with his friends?

? 10) so、such与不定冠词的使用 ? 1.so与不定冠词a、an连用,结构为 “so+形容词+a/an+名词”。如: ? He is so funny a boy. ? Jim has so big a house. ? 2.such与不定冠词a、an连用,结构 为“such+a/an+形容词+名词”。如: ? It is such a nice day. ? That was such an interesting story.

? 11) 使用-ing分词的几种情况 ? 1.在进行时态中。如: He is watching TV in the room. They were dancing at nine o'clock last night. 2.在there be结构中。如: ? There is a boy swimming in the river. 3.在have fun/problems结构中。如: ? We have fun learning English this term. ? They had problems getting to the top of the mountain.

? 4.在介词后面。如: ? Thanks for helping me. ? Are you good at playing basketball? ? 5.在以下结构中: ? enjoy doing sth 乐于做某事 ? finish doing sth 完成做某事 ? feel like doing sth 想要做某事 ? stop doing sth 停止做某事 ? forget doing sth 忘记做过某事 ? go on doing sth 继续做某事 ? remember doing sth 记得做过某事 ? like doing sth 喜欢做某事

? keep sb doing sth 使某人一直做某事 ? find sb doing sth 发现某人做某事 ? see/hear/watch sb doing sth ? 看到/听到/观看某人做某事 ? try doing sth 试图做某事 ? need

doing sth 需要做某事 ? prefer doing sth 宁愿做某事 ? mind doing sth 介意做某事 miss doing sth 错过做某事practice doing sth 练习做某 be busy doing sth 忙于做某事 ? can't help doing sth禁不住做某事 ?

? 12) 英语中的“单数” ? 1.主语的第三人称单数形式,即可用“he, she, it”代替的。如: ? he,she, it,my friend, his teacher, our classroom, Tom, Mary's uncle ? 2.名词有单数名词和复数名词。如: ? man(单数)---men(复 数) banana(单数)---bananas(复数) ? 3.动词有原形,第三人称单数形式,-ing分 词,过去式,过去分词。如: ? go---goes---going---went---gone ? work---works---working---worked--worked ?

watch---watches---watching---watched--watched ? 当主语为第三人称单数的时候,谓语动词必须用 相应的第三人称单数形式。 ? 如: The boy wants to be a sales assistant. Our English teacher is from the US. Their daughter makes her breakfast all by herself. ? 13) 名词的复数构成的几种形式 名词复数的构成可分为规则变化和不规则变化两 种。 I 名词复数的规则变化 1.一般在名词词尾加-s。如:

? pear---pears hamburger---hamburgers desk---desks tree---trees 2.以字母-s, -sh, -ch, -x结尾的名词,词尾加-es。 如: class---classes dish---dishes watch---watches box---boxes 3.以字母-o结尾的某些名词,词尾加-es。如: potato---potatoes tomato---tomatoes Negro---Negroes hero---heroes ? 4.以辅音字母加-y结尾的名词,将-y变为-i,再加es。如: family---families dictionary---dictionaries

? 5.以字母-f或-fe结尾的名词,将-f或-fe变为-v, 再加-es。如: half---halves leaf---leaves thief---thieves knife---knivesself--selves wife---wives ? life---lives wolf---wolves shelf---shelves loaf---loaves ? 但是:scarf---scarves(fes) roof---roofs serf---serfs chief---chiefs

II 名词复数的不规则变化 1.将-oo改为--ee。如: foot---feet tooth---teeth 2.将-man改为-men。如: man---men woman---women policeman---policemen postman--postmen 3.添加词尾。如: child---children 4.单复数同形。如: ? sheep---sheep deer---deer fish---fish people---people 5.表示“某国人”的单、复数变化。
?

? 即“中日瑞不变英法变,其它国把-s加后面”。 如: ? Chinese---Chinese Japanese--Japanese Swiss---Swiss ? Englishman---Englishmen Frenchman--Frenchmen ? American---Americans Australian--Australians Canadian---Canadians Korean---Koreans Russian---Russians Indian---Indians6. 其它。如: ? mouse---mice ? apple tree---apple trees

? 14) 双写最后一个字母的-ing分词 初中阶段常见的有以下这些: 1.let→letting 让 hit→hitting打、撞 cut→cutting 切、割 get→getting取、得到 sit→sitting坐 forget→forgetting 忘记 put→putting放 set→setting设置 babysit→babysitting 临时受雇照顾

婴儿 ? 2.shop→shopping购物 trip→ tripping绊 ? stop→stopping停止 drop→dropping放弃 ? 3.travel→travel(l)ing 旅游 ? swim→swimming游泳 run→running跑步 dig→digging 挖、掘 begin→beginning 开始 prefer→preferring 宁 plan→planning 计划

? 15) 肯定句变否定句及疑问句要变化的一些词 ? 1.some变为any。如: ? There are some birds in the tree.→There aren't any birds in the tree. 但是,若在表示请邀请、请求的句子中,some可 以不变。如: Would you like some orange juic与此相关的一 些不定代词如something, somebody等也要进 行相应变化。 ? 2.and变为or。如: I have a knife and a ruler.→I don't have a knife or a ruler.

3.a lot of (=lots of)变为many或much。如: They have a lot of friends.(可数名词)→They don't have many friends. ? There is lots of orange in the bottle.(不可数 名词) →There isn't much orange in the bottle. 4.already变为yet。如: I have been there already.→I haven't been there yet. ? 16) in与after in 与 after 都可以表示时间,但二者有所区别。 1.in 经常用于将来时的句子中,以现在为起点, 表示将来一段时间。如:

? He will leave for Beijing in a week. 一周后他 会动身去北京。 ? 2.after 经常用于过去时的句子中,以过去 为起点,表示过去一段时间。如: ? He left for Beijing after a week. 一 周后他动身去了北京。 ? 不过,如果after后跟的是具体的时刻,它 也可用于将来时。如: ? We will finish the work after ten o'clock.十点后我们会完成工作的。

? 3.注意区分以下的in的用法。 I'll visit him in a week. 一周后我会去拜访他。 I'll visit him twice in a week. 一周内我会去拜 访他两次。 17) 不定冠词a与an的使用 1.a 用在以辅音音素开头的单词前。如: There is a "b" in the word "book". 单词book 中有个字母b。 类似的字母还有:c, d, g, j, k, p, q, t, u, v, w, y, z。 She has a small knife. 她有一把小刀。

? 2.an 用于以元音音素开头的单词前。如: There is an "i" in the word "onion". 单词onion中有个字母i。 类似的字母还有:a, e, f, h, l, m, n, o, r, s, x。 ? Do you have an umbrella?你有一把雨伞 吗? ? 3.以元音字母开头的单词前面不一定都用 an;以辅音字母开头的单词前面也不一定 都用a.如: a useful book a universe a one-letter word an hour an

? 18) 如何表达英语中的“穿、戴”? ? 英语中表示“穿、戴”的表达方法有好几种,常 见的有以下这些: 1、put on 主要表达“穿”的动作。如: He put on his coat.他穿上了他的外套。 You'd better put on your shoes.你最好穿上你的 鞋子。 2、wear 主要表示“穿、戴”的状态。如: The old man wears a pair of glasses.老人戴着 一副眼镜。 The girl is wearing a red skirt.那女孩穿着一条

红色的短裙

? 3、dress 可作及物动词,有“给......穿衣” 的意思,后接“人”,而不是 ? “衣服”。如: ? Please dress the children right now.请 立即给孩子们穿上衣服。 dress 也可作不及物动词,表示衣着的习惯。 如: ? The woman always dresses in green.那 位妇女总是穿绿色的衣服。

? 4、be in 表示穿着的状态。如: John is in white today.约翰今天穿白色的衣服。 The man in black is a football coach. ? 19) a little, a few 与 a bit (of) ? a little, a few 与 a bit (of) 都有“一些、少 量”的意义。他们的区别: 1. a little 意为“一些、少量”,后接不可数名 词。如: ? There is a little water in the bottle. 瓶子里有 一点水。 还可以接形容词。如: ? He is a little shy. 他有些害羞。

2. a few 意为“一些、少数”,后接复 数的可数名词。如: ? There are a few people in the room. 房间里有一些人。

? 3. a bit 意为“一点儿”,后接形容词。如: ? It's a bit cold. 有点冷。 ? a bit of 后接不可数名词。如: ? He has a bit of money. 他有一 点儿钱。 ?

? 4. a little和a few表肯定意义,little和few表否定 意义;如: ? There is a little soda in the glass. 杯子里有一 点儿汽水。 ? There is little soda in the glass. 杯子里几乎 没有汽水了。 I have a few Chinese friends. 我 有一些中国朋友。 ? Few people like him. 几乎没有人喜欢他。 5. a little = a bit of, 后接不可数名词; a little = a bit = a little bit = kind of, 后接形容词, 意为“有 ? 点儿”。

? 20) 关于like的用法 like 可以作动词,也可以作介词。 1、like 作动词,表示一般性的“爱好、喜欢”, 有泛指的含义。如: ? Do you like the color? 你喜爱这种颜色吗? like 后可接不定式(like to do sth),也词的ing分词(like doing ? sth),有时意思不尽相同。如: She likes eating apples.她喜爱吃苹果。(习惯) She likes to eat an apple.她喜爱吃一粒苹果。 (平常不喜欢吃) ike 与 would 连用,后接不定式,表示愿望或客 气的请求。如: Would you like a cup of tea? 您愿意喝杯茶吗

? “喜欢某人做某事”可以用结构“like sb to do sth/doing sth”。如: ? They all like me to sing/singing English songs. ? 他们都喜欢我唱英文歌。 2、like 作介词,可译成“像......”。如: She is friendly to us like a mother.她对我们友 好,就像母亲一样。 It looks like an orange.它看起来像个桔子。 3、区分以下句子: A. What does he look like? 他长相如何?(指一 个人的外貌特征)

B. What is he like? 他人怎么样? (指人 的性格特点) C. The boy like Peter is over there. (句指 外貌相似) D. A boy like Peter can't do it. (指性格 相似) ? 21) stop to do sth 与 stop doing sth ? 1. stop to do st

h 意为“停下来去做某 事”。如: The students stop to listen to their teacher. ? 学生们停下来去听他们老师讲话。

? 2. stop doing sth 意为“停止做某事”。如: The students stopped talking. 学生们停止了谈 话。 ? 与它们相反的句式是:go on to do sth “继续做 某事(与刚才一事不同)” ? 和 go on doing sth “继续做某事(与刚才同一 件事)”。如: ? He finishes his homework and goes on to study English. 他完成了作业,接着继续去念英语。 They went on playing games. 他们继续玩游戏。

? 22) tell, speak, say 与 talk ? 1. tell 意为“告诉、讲述”,指某人把某一件 事、一条信息传送给别人或讲 ? 述一件事。如: ? He tells me that he wants to be a teacher. ? 他告诉我说他想成为一位教师。 ? Father always tells interesting stories to us. ? 爸爸总是给我们讲有趣的故事。 ? tell sb sth 意为“告知某人某事”。如: ? He told me something about his past. 他告诉 我一些他的往事

? tell sb to do sth 意为“告诉某人去做某事”。 如: ? David told his son to do the homework. 大卫 要他的儿子去做作业。 2. speak 意为“说话、讲话”,后面主要接语言。 如: ? He can speak English and a little Chinese. ? 他能讲英语和一点汉语。 speak to 意为“和.....讲话、谈话”。如: Can I speak to Mr Zhang? 我能和张先生讲话 吗? speak of 意为“提到、说起”。如:

The book speaks of my hometown. 那本 书提到我的家乡。 ? 3. talk 意为“谈话、讲话”,如果只有一 方对另一方说话时,一般用 talk to; ? 如果双方或多方交谈,多用 with。如: Please talk to him right now. 请立即同他 谈话。 ? He is talking with his friend. 他在和朋 友交谈。 ? talk about 意为“谈论......”。如: ? They are talking about the movie. 他们

have a talk with 意为“与......交谈”。如: Can I have a talk with you? 我可以和你交 谈吗?
? ?
? ? ?

?

say to 意为“对......说”。如: He said to his students that they would have a test. 他对他的学生说他们将有一个测试。 It is said that... 意为“据说”。如: It is said that he could stay under the water for a long time. 据说他能呆在水里很长时间。

? 23) Excuse me! 与 I'm sorry! ? 1. Excuse me! 意为“打搅了!对不起!”,一 般是为了与陌生人搭话,或者要打断对方所说 (做)的事。如: ? Excuse me, is there a hotel in the neighborhood? ? 请问,附近有旅馆吗? ? Excuse me, could I say something? 打搅一 下,我能说一些吗? ? 2. I'm sorry! 意为“对不起!”,表示道歉。如: ? I'm sorry, Mr Zhang. I won't do it again. ? 对不起,张先生。我不会这么做了。

? 24) 表示时间的 in、on 与 at ? in, on 与 at

都可以和表示时间的词(组) 连用。 ? 1. in 表示时间的一段或较长的时间。如: ? in the morning 在上午 in May, 2004 在2004年五月 ? in a week 在一周之内(后) ? It's Sunday, I can finish it in two days. ? 现在是星期天,我能在两天后完成。 (星期二) ? Rome was not built in a day. 罗马不是 在一天内建起来的。

? 24) 表示时间的 in、on 与 at ? in, on 与 at 都可以和表示时间的词(组)连 用。 1. in 表示时间的一段或较长的时间。如: ? in the morning 在上午 in May, 2004 在2004年五月 ? in a week 在一周之内(后) ? It's Sunday, I can finish it in two days. 现在是星期天,我能在两天后完成。(星期二) Rome was not built in a day. 罗马不是在一 天内建起来的。

? 2. on 主要指在具体的一天。如: ? on Sunday 在星期天 on May Day 在“五一” 节 ? on a hot afternoon 在一个炎热的下午 ? He arrived in Beijing on April 26,2004. ? 他于2004年4月26日到达北京。 ? 3. at 表示时间的一点或比较短的时间。如: at 8:00 在八点 at noon 在中午 ? I always get up at 6:00 every morning. 我总 是每天早晨六点起床。 ? It's always warm at this time of year. 每年的 这个时候总是暖和的。

? 25) Other及其用法 ? Other 及其相近的词(组),如 others, the other, the others, another, ? any other 等,一直是中学生朋友们比较困 扰的问题,平常的考试、作业中经 ? 常出错。下面是它们的一些用法: ? 1、other 指其余的人或物,所有格是 other's,复数形式是 others;the other

? 指“两个人或物中的另一个”,其复数形 式是 the others;others相当于“other + 名词”,所以不能充当定语,修饰名词。 others指整体中去掉一部分后剩余的部分, 但不是全部的,即 some...others (一些... 其余的人...);the others 强调整体中除去 一部分后剩余的全部,即some...the others.

? 2、another泛指三个以上的不定数目中的“另 外一个”。由 an 和 other 合 ? 并构成,所以不能和冠词连用。another 修饰单 数名词,比如:another pencil. ? 3、any other 指除去本身以外的“任何其他的 人或物”,后面要用名词的单 ? 数形式。 ? 26) look 短语 ? 常见的look短语有以下这些: ? 1.look at 朝......看 (look at=have a look at) ? Please look at the map of China.请看中国地 图。

? 2.look for 寻找 The old man is looking for his dog. 老人在寻 找他的狗。 3.look like 看起来像 ? Nancy looks like her mother.南希看起来像她 母亲。 4.look the same 看上去一样 Li Ping and Li Jing look the same.李萍和李晶 看上去一样。 5.look up 查找

Please look up the word in the dictionary.请 在词典中查找这个单词。 6.look over 仔细检查 The doctor looked over Mary carefu

lly. 医 生仔细检查了玛丽。 ? 7.look after 照顾,照看 ? You must look after your old father. 你必 须照顾你的老父亲。8.look around 到处寻找、 查看 We looked around, but we found nothing strange. 我们四处查看,但是我们没有发现奇怪的东西。

? 27) too,also与either ? 1.too用于肯定句和疑问句,一般放在句尾, 其前常加逗号。如: ? We are in the same school, too. 我 们也在相同的学校。 ? Do you play soccer every day, too? 你也每天踢足球吗? ? 2.also用于肯定句和疑问句,一般位于实义 动词前、be动词后。如: ? Sandra is also a Korean student. Sandra 也是一个韩国学生。

? 3.either用于否定句,一般放在句末。如: ? They don't know the answer, either. 她们也不知道答案。 ? 4.as well as也有“也”的意思。如: ? We have great mushroom pizza as well as soda. ? He is a happy boy as well.

? 28) hard与hardly ? 1.hard既可作形容词,也可作副词。如: It's a hard (adj.) question. (=difficult) 这是一个难的问题。 ? The boy studies very hard (adv.). 那男 孩学习非常努力。 句子结构:It's hard for sb to do sth 做某 事对某人来说是难的。如: It's hard for him to finish the work. 完成 那项工作对他来说很难。

注意区分:hard work 困难的工作 ? work hard 努力工作 ? 3. hardly是频度副词,表示否定的意思。 (=almost not)通常用在形容词、 副词和动词之前。如:I can hardly see it. 我几乎看不到它。 ? 29) sometime,sometimes,some time与 some times ? 记忆:sometimes(有时)some times(好几 次)sometime(某一次)some time(一段)

? 口诀:有s是有时,有时分开好几次,无s是某时, 某时分开是一段。 ? 1.sometime是时间副词,指不确定的将来或过 去某一点时间(某时候或任何 ? 时候),不指一段时间。如: ? We'll go to Beijing sometime next month. ? 我们下个月某一时候会去北京。 ? 2.sometimes是频度副词,指“有时”、 “不时”的意思(=at times)。如: ? Sometimes I get up very late on Sunday morning. ? 有时候我在星期天早晨起得很晚。 ?

? 3.some time是名词词组,指一段时间(一 些时间或若干时间)。如: ? It took him some time to finish the book.她花了一些时间去完成作业。 ? 4.some times指“几次”。如: ? He met the woman some times last month. 上个月他见过那妇女几次。

? 30) exercise的一些用法 1.作不及物动词,译为“运动,锻炼”。如: David exercises every morning. 大卫每 天早晨进行锻炼。 2.作及物动词,译为“训练”。如: ? Swimming exercises the whole body. 游 泳能使身体得到全面的锻炼。 ? 3.作名词,译为“体育锻炼、运动、体操、练习 题”等。如: ? It's good to do eye exercises every day.

? 每天做眼保键操对眼睛有好处。

? Please do more exercise from now on. 从今以后请多做运动吧。 ? I have lots of homework to do tonight. 今晚我有很多的作业 要做。 ? 4.注意:exercise指具体运动或体操时 是可数名词,复数形式为exercises; ? 泛指运动时是不可数名词。

? 31) maybe与may be 1.maybe是副词,译为“也许、可能”,相当于 “perhaps”。如: Maybe he can answer the question. 也许他能回答那个问题。 ? He maybe is from the USA, too. ? 他可能也来自美国。 2.may be中的may为情态动词,译为“可能 是......”。如: ? He may be from the USA, too. ? 他可能也来自美国。 ? She may be our English teacher. ? 她可能是我们的英语老师。

? 32) same与different ? 1.same指“相同的”,前面通常要有一个 定冠词the,但是如果same前面已 ? 经有this,those等词,就不能再与the连 用了。如: ? We are in the same class. 我们在同一个班级。 ? 结构:the same as 与......一样 如: ? His mark is the same as mine. 他的分数和我的分数一样。

? 2.different译为“不同的”,其后的可数 名词应为复数形式。如: ? We are in different classes. 我们在不同的班级。 ? 结构:be different from 与......不同 如: ? This sweater is different from that one. 这件毛衣与那一件不同。 ? different的名词形式为difference, 复 数形式为differences。

? 33) 动词want的用法 ? 1. want sth. 想要某物 They want some help. 他们需要一些帮助。 2. want sb. to do sth. 想要某人去做某事 ? My father wants me to help him on the farm. 我父亲要我在农场上帮他。 3. want to do sth. 想要做某事 I want to study English in England. 我想要在英国学习英语。 4.want doing 需要... Your sweater wants washing. 你的运动衣 该洗了。

? 34) be good(bad) for、be good at的相关用法 1.be good for 对......有益 ? Doing morning exercises is good for your health. ? 做早操对你们的建康有益。 2.be good at 擅长于...... Li Ping is good at basketball. 李平擅长于篮球。 = Li Ping is good at playing basketball. 李平擅长于打篮球。

be good at = do well in 如: I'm good at math. = I do well in math.我擅 长于数学。 ? 3.be good to 对......好 ? Parents are always good to their children.

? 35) how many与how much ? 1.how many表示“多少”,对数量提问, 后面接可数名词的复数形式。如: ? There are four people in my family. ---How many people are in your family? 你家里有几个人? ? We have seven classes every day. ? ---How many classes do you have every day? 你们每天上几节课?

? 2.how much也是表示“多少”,但它对不 可数名词进行提问。如: ? There is some milk in the bottle. ---How much milk is there in the bottle? 瓶子里有多少牛奶

? 3.how much还可以对价格提问,表示“多 少钱”的意思。如: ? The yellow T-shirt is only 35 yuan. ---How much is the yellow T-shirt? 那 件黄色的T恤衫多少钱?

? 36) with的几个用法 1.with表“和、同、与”。如: Can you go to the park with me? 你能和我一起去公园吗? 2.with表“用、以、被”。如: Don?t write with the red pen. 不要用那支红色的钢笔写字。 3.with表“随着”。如: Climate varies with the time of the year 着时令的不同而不同。

4.with表“带有、有......的”。如: The girl with long hair is my classmate. 长头发的女孩是我的同学。 ? 5.with表“因为、由于”。如: ? They were angry with hard work. 他们因为艰难的工作而生气。 ? 6.一些with结构: ? play with 与......一起玩 ? be angry with 对......生气 talk with 与......交谈 get on well with与......相处融洽

? 37) a lot of(lots of)与many,much ? 1.a lot of意为“许多、大量”,相当于lots of.它 既可以修饰可数名词,又 ? 可以修饰不可数名词。如: I have a lot of friends in China. 我在中国有很多朋友。 ? The old man has lots of money. ? 那位老人有很多的钱。 ? 2.many意为“许多”.它用来修饰可数名词。如: ? Do you have many beautiful skirts? ? 你有很多漂亮的裙子吗?

3.much意为“大量”.它用来修饰不可数名词。如: ? There is much water in the lake. ? 湖里有大量的水。 ? 4.a lot of(=lots of)用在肯定句中,而many, much不受限制。如果将一 ? 个含有a lot of(=lots of)的肯定句改为否定句 或疑问句,要将它们 ? 改为many或much。如: We can see a lot of birds in the tree. ---We can't see many birds in the tree. 我们在 树上看不到很多鸟儿。 He wants lots of soda. ---Does he want much soda? 他需要许多汽水

? 38) help用法举例 ? help既可以作名词,也可以作动词。 1.help作名词,意为“帮助”。如: ? He needs some help.他需要一些帮 助。 2.help作动词,也是“帮助”的意思。 如: Can you help me? 你能帮帮我吗?

? help sb (to) do sth 帮助某人做某事 ? =help sb with sth 帮助某人做某事 ? 如:They want to help the boy carry the heavy box. =They want to help the boy with the heavy box. 他们想要帮助那位男孩搬那个重箱子。

? 40) ago与before ago与before都表示“......以前”,但用法有 所区别。 ? 1.ago意为“以前”,表示从此刻算起的若 干时间之前,常用于过去时的句子 ? 中。如:He took a photo a week ago. 他一周前照了一张相片。 2.before作为副词时表示: ? a.从过去某一时刻算起的若干时间以前, 用于过去完成时的句子中。如

? The boy had already seen the comedy before. 那男孩以前已经看过那部喜剧片了。 ? b.笼统的“以前”,用于一

般过去时或现 在完成时的句子中,一般单独使 ? 用,而ago不可以单独使用。如: ? He's read this novel before. 他 以前读过这部小说。

? 41) need的用法 ? 1.need作实义动词,意为“需要”。如: ? Do you need to stay at home? 你 要呆在家里吗? ? 2.need作情态动词,一般用于对must的否 定回答。如: ? ---Must he leave now? 他必须离开吗? ? ---No, he needn't. 不,他不必。

? 3.区分: ? a.need作实义动词。 ? He needs to go. ? He doesn't need to go. ? Does he need to go? ? Yes, he does./No, he doesn't. b.need作情态动词,一般不用于肯定句。 ? He needn't go. ? Need he go? ? Yes, he need./No, he needn't.

? 42) decide的几种句式 1.decide to do sth 决定去做某事 ? They decide to fly kite on weekend. 他们决定在周末去放风筝。 2.decide on doing sth 决定做某事 They decide on flying kites. 他们决定放风筝。

3.decide on sth 就某事决 定...... Betty decided on the red skirt. 贝蒂选定了那条红裙子。 ? 4. decide的名词形式为decision, ? 结构:make a decision,意为“做决定”。 如: ? He has made a decision. ? 他已经做一个决定了。
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? 43) too many,too much与much too ? 1.too many意为“太多”,用于修饰可数 名词的复数。如: ? There are too many students in our class. 我们班上有太多的学生。 2.too much意为“太多”,用于修饰不可数名词。 如: We have too much work to do. 我们有太多的工作要做。 ? 3.much too表示“太”,用来修饰形容词或副 词。如: The box is much too heavy, so I can't carry it.

? 44) can的用法 1.表示能力。如: We can carry the heavy box. 我们可 以搬得动箱子。Who can sing an English song? 谁会唱英文歌? 2.表示惊讶、不相信等态度,主要用于否定句 和疑问句中。如: ? Can it be true? 这会是真的吗? ? You can't be serious? 你不会当真吧?

? 3.表示允许,意思与may相近,主要用于 口语中。如: ? Can I smoke here? ? 我可以在这儿吸烟吗? ? Can I go with him? ? 我可以跟他一起去吗?

? 应掌握的句子: 1. How often do you exercise? 你(你们)多久 锻炼一次身体? ? How often + 助动词do(does或did) + 主语 + do sth.? 疑问词how often是问频率(多久一次), (在这里助动词do(does或did) 是起帮助构成疑 问的作用)与一般现在时或一般过去时连用,回 答一般是用表示频率的副词,如:once, twice, three times…, sometimes, often, quite, often, never, every day, once a week , twice a month , three times a month , three or four times a month 等。 ? 翻译:“你们多久到工厂去一次?”“每星期两 次。”

(“How often do you go to the factory?” “Twice a week. ”) “他们多长时间举办一次舞会?”“通常每两周举办

一次。” (“How often do they have a dancing party?” “Usually, once every other week.”) “他多久去购一次物?”“一个月一次。” (“How often does he go shopping?” “He goes shopping once a month.”) 2. “What do you usually do on weekends?” “ I usually play soccer.” “周末你通常做什么?”“我通常踢足球。” 第一个do为助动词, 在这起帮助构成疑问的作用;而第二 个do则是实义动词。

? as for...意思是“至于;关于”,常用于句首作 状语,其后跟名词、代词或动词的 ? -ing形式(即动名词)。如: ? As for him,I never want to see him here. 至于他,我永远不希望在这里见到。 ? As for the story,you'd better not believe it. 关于那故事,你最好不要相信。 ? 翻译:至于我自己,我现在不想 去。 ? (As for myself, I don?t want to go now. ) ? 至于那个人,我什么都不知 道。 (As for the man, I

? 5. Mom wants me to get up at 6:00 and play ping-pong with her . ? want to do sth. 意思是“想要做某事”; ? want sb. to do sth.意思是“想要某人做 某事”。如: ? Do you want to go to the movies with me?你想和我一起去看电影吗? ? The teacher doesn't want us to eat hamburgers.老师不想让我们吃汉堡包。 ? 6. She says it?s good for my health.

? be good for...表示“对……有益(有好处)”; 其反义为:be bad for...。(这里for 是 ? 介词,后跟名词、代词或动名词)如: ? It's good for us to do more reading. 多读书对 我们有好处。 ? Reading in bed is bad for your eyes.在床上读 书对你的眼睛有害。 ? 7. How many hours do you sleep every night? ? 8. I exercise every day , usually when I come home from school .

? 9. My eating habits are pretty good . 这里 pretty相当于very 。 ? 10. I try to eat a lot of vegetables , usually ten to eleven times a week . ? try to do sth.表示“ 尽力做某事 ” ,不包含是 否成功的意思而try doing sth.表示 ? “(用某一办法)试着去做某事”。如: ? You?d better try doing the experiment in another way. ? 你最好试试用另一种方法做这个试验。 ? 11. My healthy lifestyle helps me get good grades.

? help sb.(to) do sth.帮助某人做某事 ? 12. Good food and exercise help me to study better. ? 这里better是well的比较级,而不是good的比 较级 ? 13. Is her lifestyle the same as yours or different? ? =Is her lifestyle the same as your lifestyle or is her lifestyle different from yours? be the same as … / be different from … ? 14. What sports do you play ? ? 15. A lot of vegetables help you to keep in good health .

? keep in good health = keep healthy = stay healthy ? 16. You must try to eat less meat . ? try to do sth.表示“ 尽力做某事 ” ,不包 含是否成功的意思,less是little的比较级 ? 17. That sounds i

nteresting. ? 这是“主语+系动词+表语”结构的简单句。 sound(听起来),look(看起来), smell ? (闻起来),taste(尝起来),feel(觉 得),seem(好象),grow(变得),get

? 变得)等词在英语中可用作系动词,后跟 形容词作表语。如: ? It tastes good. 这味道好。 ? The music sounds very sweet. 这音乐听 起来很入耳。 ? The smoke grew heavier and heavier. 烟雾变得越来越浓了。 ? 新目标八年级英语上册第二单元复习 ? 应掌握的句子: ? 1. What?s the matter? I have a bad cold. 你怎么了?我得了重感冒。

? 2.Maybe you should see a dentist. 或 许你应该看牙医。 ? 3.I hope you feel better soon. 我希望 你很快好起来。 ? 4.Traditional Chinese doctors believe we need a balance of yin and yang to be healthy. 传统中医认为我们需要阴阳调 和以保持身体健康。
? 5.Eating Dangshen and Huangqi herbs is also good for this. ? 吃党参和黄芪等草本植物也对这有好处。

? 6.People who are too stressed out and angry may have too much yang. ? 太紧张易怒的人或许吃了太多的阳性食物。 ? 7.It?s easy to have a healthy lifestyle, and it?s important to eat a balanced diet. ? 有一个健康的生活方式很容易,饮食平衡是很 重要的。

? 8.When you are tired, you shouldn?t go out at night. 疲倦时,晚上你不该外出。 ? 9.I believe him, but I can?t believe in him. ? 他的话是真的,但是我不信任他这个人。 ? 10.I am not feeling very well at the moment. 这段时间我感觉不大好。 ? I?m tired and I have a lot of headaches. 我很 疲劳,而且经常头痛。 ? 11.I?m stressed out because my Mandarin isn?t improving.

? 我很容易紧张,因为普通话没有长进。 ? 12.I practice playing the piano every day.我每天练习弹钢琴。 ? 13.She had finished writing the letter when I went in. ? 我进去时,她已经写完信了。

? 14.The doctor asked him to give up smoking.医生叫他戒烟。 ? 15.Do you mind closing the window? 请把 窗户关上好吗? ? 16.Mary couldn?t help laughing at his jokes. 对于他的玩笑,玛莉忍不住笑了。 ? 17.They kept working though it was raining. 尽管天在下雨,他们仍坚持工作。

? 新目标八年级英语第三单元复习 ? 应该掌握的句子: ? 1.What are you doing for vacation? I?m babysitting my sister. ? 假期你要做什么?我要照顾我的妹妹。 ? 2.Who are you going with? I?m going with my parents. ? 你要和谁一起去?我要和父母一起去。

3.When is he going camping? He is going on the 12th of February, 2005. 4.I?m going to Tibet for a week. 我要去 西藏一周。
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5.What are you doing there? I?m going hiking in the mountains. ? 你在那里要做什么? 我要在山

区里远足。 ? 6.Show me your photos when we get back to school. ? 我们返回学校时,你把照片拿给我看。

? 翻译:我来把我的新照片拿给你看看。 ? 他长大时想当一名时装杂志的记者。 ? 7.Where are you going for vacation? I?m going to Hawaii for vacation. ? 你要去哪度假? 我要去夏威夷度假。 ? 8.I?m going to Hawaii for vacation in December, and I?m staying for three weeks. 我要在12月去夏威夷度假,在那里呆3个星期。 ? 9.What is it like there? 那里什么样子?

? 10. Can I ask you some questions about your vacation plans? ? 我可以问你一些有关你假期计划的问题吗?

? 11. He thought about going to Greece or Spain, but decided on Canada. 他考虑去希腊或西班牙,但是最后他决定去加拿 大。 ? 12. He is leaving the first week in June and staying until September. ? 他将在6月的第一个星期动身,一直呆到9月。

? 13. Please don?t forget to close the door when you leave. ? 14.She couldn?t wait to get home to see he parents. ? 八年级英语第四单元复习 ? 应掌握的句子: ? 1. How do you get to school? I walk to school.你是怎样到校的?我步行。 ? 2. How about the white shirt? 这件白 衬衫怎么样? ? 3. I usually walk but sometimes I take the bus.我通常步行,但有时坐公共汽车。

? 4. How long does it take you to get to school? It takes about 10 minutes to walk and 15 minutes by bus.你需要多长时间到校?步行大 约10分钟,乘汽车15分钟。 ? 5. How far is it from his home to school? About 10 kilometers. ? 从他家到学校有多远?大约10公里。 ? 6. Lin Fei?s home is about 10 kilometers from school.林飞的家离学校大约10公里 ? 7. He leaves for school at around six-thirty. 他大约在6点30分动身去学校。

? 8. Then the early bus takes him to school. 然后,他乘坐早班车到学校。 ? 9. Thomas wants to know where Nina lives. 托马斯想要知道尼娜住在哪里。 ? 10. In Japan, most students take trains to school, although others also walk or ride their bikes. 在日本,大部分学生乘坐火车上学, 尽管其他人也步行或骑自行车。 ? 11. A small number of students take the subway to school. ? 12. What do you think of the transportation in your town?

? 13. She is dead but her memory still lives on.她虽然死了,但人们仍然怀念她。 ? 八年级英语第五单元复习 ? 1. Can you come to my party on Saturday afternoon? Sure, I?d love to. ? 星期六的下午你能来参加我的聚会吗?当 然,我非常乐意。 ? 2. May I ask you some questions? Sure. / Of course. /Certainly. ? 3. I would love to go to your party. 我愿 意参加你的聚会。 ? 4. She isn?t very well these days and

? 4. She isn?t very well these days and has to stay home. ? 5. We can learn what we did not know. 我

们 能够学会原来不知道的东西。 ? 6. Thank you for inviting me. =Thanks for asking (having, inviting) ? 谢谢你邀请我。 ? 7. Maybe another time.或许下一次吧。 ? 8. Can she go to the movies? No, she can?t. She?s playing soccer. ? 9. Read these dialogues and find out about another kind of football. ? 朗读这些对话,找出有关另一种足球的语句。

? 10. She and I are both students. 我和她都是 学生。 ? 八年级英语第六单元复习 ? 应该掌握的句子: ? 1.What are you doing for vacation? I?m babysitting my sister. ? 假期你要做什么?我要照顾我的妹妹。 ? 2.Who are you going with? I?m going with my parents. ? 3.When is he going camping? He is going on the 12th of February, 2005. ? 4.I?m going to Tibet for a week. 我要去西藏 一周。

? 5.What are you doing there? I?m going hiking in the mountains. ? 你在那里要做什么? 我要在山区里远足。 ? 6.Show me your photos when we get back to school. ? 我们返回学校时,你把照片拿给我看。 ? 7.Where are you going for vacation? I?m going to Hawaii for vacation. ? 你要去哪度假?我要去夏威夷度假。 ? 8. I?m going to Hawaii for vacation in December, and I?m staying for three weeks. 我要在12月去夏威夷度假,在那里呆3个星期。

? 9.What is it like there? 那里什么样子? ? 10. Can I ask you some questions about your vacation plans? ? 我可以问你一些有关你假期计划的问题吗? ? 11. He thought about going to Greece or Spain, but decided on Canada. ? 他考虑去希腊或西班牙,但是最后他决定去加拿 大。 ? 12. He is leaving the first week in June and staying until September. ? 他将在6月的第一个星期动身,一直呆到9月。

? 13. Please don?t forget to close the door when you leave. ? 你离开时,请别忘记关门。 ? 14.She couldn?t wait to get home to see he parents. ? 她迫不及待的想回家看望父母。 ? 八年级英语第七单元复习 ? 1.How do you make a banana smoothie? 如何制作香蕉思木西? ? 2.Describe a process and follow instructions. 描述过程,按说明做。

? 3.Pour the milk into the blender.把牛奶倒入 果汁机。 ? 4.How many bananas do we need? 我们需 要多少个香蕉? ? 5.Then compare lists with another student. ? 然后和另一个学生的清单进行比较。 ? 6.I need some help.我需要一些帮助。 ? 八年级英语第八单元复习 ? 应掌握的句子: ? 1. How was your school trip? 你的学校旅行怎 么样?

2. Talk about events in the past.谈谈过去的事 件。 3. Were there any sharks? No, there weren?t any sharks, but there were some really smart seals.有鲨鱼吗?不,没有鲨鱼,但是看 见了一些非常伶俐的海豹。 5. Finally, they took the school bus back to school.最后他们乘坐

公共汽车返回学校。 ? 6. At the end of the day, the science teacher was very happy because the students cleaned the bus after the trip. ? 在哪天结束的时候,自然老师很高兴,因为学生 们在旅游之后把汽车打扫了一遍。

? 7.The students had a terrible school trip.学 生们度过了一次很糟糕的学校旅行。 ? 8.They took the subway back to school.他们 乘坐地铁回到学校。 ? 9.She lives in California. The weather was beautiful.她住在加利福尼亚,天气很好。 ? 10. On my next day off, I don?t want to go for a drive. That sounds really boring. ? 在我的下次假日,我不想开车兜风。那听起来真 的很烦人。 ? 11. Did you have fun camping?你的野营过得 愉快吗?

? 12. No one came to the sale because the weather was so bad. ? 没有人来购买,因为天气是如此的糟糕。 ? 八年级英语第九单元复习 ? 应掌握的句子: ? 1.When was he born?他是什么时候出生的? ? 2.Who?s that? That?s Deng Yaping. She is a great Chinese ping-pong player. ? 那是谁?是邓亚萍。她是中国一位杰出的乒乓 球运动员。

? 3.How long did Charles Osborne hiccup? He hiccupped for 69 years 5 months. ? 查里斯˙奥斯本打嗝打了多长时间?他打了 69年零5个月。 ? 4.You are never too young to start doing things.你永远不会小到不能做事情 的地步。 ? 5.Tiger Woods started golfing when he was only ten months old. ? 泰戈伍德在只有10个月大的时候开始玩高

? 6.Who is ShirleyTemple? 坦普尔是谁? ? She?s a movie star. 雪利她是一电影明星。 ? When did she became a movie star? 她何时成为明星的? ? She became a movie when she was three years old. 她3岁的时候. ? 8.Arthur is a loving grandfather. He spends all his free time with his grandchildren. ? 阿瑟是一位慈爱的祖父。他与他的孙子、 孙女一起度过了他所有的业余时间。

? 9. She toured the U.S. when she was fourteen.他14岁的时候就在美国做巡回表演了。 ? 10. When he was a small boy, he could hum songs and difficult pieces of music. ? 在他还是一个小孩子的时候,他就能哼唱歌曲和 难的乐曲。 ? 15.Who is the greatest man alive?谁是当今 最伟大的人? ? 16. My mother bought a live fish.我妈妈买了 一条活鱼。 ? 17. The living people are more important.活 着的人更重要。

? 八年级英语第十单元复习 ? 1. I am going to be a basketball player. 我想 成为一名篮球运动员。 ? 2. How are you going to do that? I?m going to study computer science.你打算怎样做? ? 3. Being a computer programmer is his dream. ? 当一名电脑程序设计人是他的梦想。 ? 4.Cheng Han is going to be an actor. 程汉想 要当一名演员。 ? 5.Where is Cheng Han going to move? He?s going to move to New York. ? 程汉打算要搬到

哪里去?他打算要搬到纽约去。

? 6. Where are you going to work? 你打算在哪里工作? ? I?m not sure yet. 我还没有定下来。 Maybe Beijing or Shanghai. 也许在北京或 上海吧。 ? 八年级英语第11单元复习 ? 1.Could you please clean your room? 请你打扫一下你的房间好吗? ? 2.Could you please open the door for me? 请你替我开门,好吗? ? 3.I hate to do chores.我讨厌做家务。

? 4.Tell your partner your answer to activity 1a. Does your partner agree? 把 你对活动1a的答案告诉你的搭档。你的搭 档同意吗? ? 5.Thanks for taking care of my dog. 感 谢你照看我的狗。 ? 6.You are having a party. Ask your partner for help. Talk about these things. ? 你要开一个晚会。向你的搭档寻求帮助。 谈论这些事情。

? 7.Take him for a walk. 带它出去散步。 ? Give him water and feed him. 给它喝水, 并喂它食物。 ? Then wash his bowl. Play with him. 然 后,把它的碗洗洗。和它一起玩。 ? Don?t forget to clean his bed. 不要忘了 把它的床铺清扫干净。
? 9.I?m going to move to a new house! I need some help.我要搬入新房子,需要帮助

? 八年级英语第12单元复习 ? 1. What?s the best radio station? 哪一家是最 好的广播电台? ? 2. How do you choose what movie theater to go to? 你如何选择去哪一家影剧院。 ? 3.I think Gold Theater has the most comfortable seats.我认为黄金剧院的座位最舒 适。 ? 4. What do young people think about places in town? 年轻人认为我们镇里的场所怎么样? ? 7.My sister Isabel is the funniest person I know.我妹妹伊莎贝尔是我知道的最滑稽的人。

? 8.Last week?s talent show was a great success.上个星期的才艺表演获得了巨大 的成功。 ? 9.He danced without music.在没有音乐 伴奏的情况下,他跳了一曲。


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