haihongyuan.com
海量文库 文档专家
全站搜索:
您现在的位置:首页 > 初中教育 > 初中英语初中英语

初中语法总复习

发布时间:2014-02-05 11:46:28  

2014年中考语法总复习

Ⅰ 词类。

名词 The Noun (缩写为n) 表示人或事物的名称 Basket, mouth, hospital, year, train

冠词 The Article (art) 用在名词前帮助说明名词所指的人或事物 a, an, the

代词 The Pronoun (pron) 用来代替名词、形容词或数词 They, his, him, mine, which, all

形容词 The Adjective (adj) 用以修饰名词,表示人或事物的特征 Long, empty, heavy, different, cheap, hungry

数词 The Numeral (num) 表示数量或顺序 Three, thirteen, twenty, second

动词 The Verb (v) 表示动作或状态 Hear, write, swim, eat, borrow, sing

副词 The Adverb (adv) 修饰动词、形容词或其他副词 Quickly, early, out, soon, then, sometimes

介词 The Preposition (prep) 表示名词、代词等和句中其他词的关系 From, with, at, into, behind, between, for

连词 The Conjunction (conj) 用来连接词与词、短语与短语或句与句 And, or, but, so, because

感叹词 The Interjection (interj) 表示说话时的喜悦、惊讶等情感 Oh, hey, ouch, well, there, dear (一) 名词:

专有名词:表示人名、月份、日期、地名等。如 China, John, London, the USA, Harbin .

1.名词 个体名词:表示单个的人或事物。如 boat, chair, desk, apple . 可数名词

集体名词:表示一群人或一些事物的总称。如 family, people, class, police . 普通名词

物质名词:表示无法分为个体的物质。如 water, air, tea, sea, money, cotton .

抽象名词:表示抽象概念的词。如 health, help, work, friendship . 不可数名词

2.名词的数。可数名词有单复数,不可数名词没有单复数。 3.名词的格:名词有三个格:主格(作主语)、宾格(作宾语)和所有格。其中只有名词的所有格有形式变化。 (二)冠词 1.定冠词-the .

1 特指某(些)人或某(些)事物。The students are very good. 2 说话人与听话人都知道的人或事物。Where is the toilet ? 3 重复提到上文的人或事物。I have a cat , the cat is white and black .

4 表示世界上独一无二的事物。The moon moves around the earth .

5 形容词最高级和序数词前和表示方位的名词前。I am the oldest . He is the first to school . I live in the south .

6 洋乐器的名称前常用定冠词-the 。I like playing the piano / violin .

7 和某些形容词连用,使形容词名词化,代表某一类人。We should help the poor . 但play Erhu.

8 放在某些专有名词前。We will go to visit the Great Wall next week . the People’s Republic of China .

9 放在姓氏的复数形式前,表示全家人或夫妇两人。The Whites are watching TV .

10 固定词组中。In the morning / afternoon / evening . 2.不定冠词-a / an .

1 指人或事物的某一种类。A horse is a useful animal. A table has four legs.

2 指某一类人或事物中的任何一个。Pass me a pencil, please. We write with a pen.

3 指某人或某物,但不具体说明何人或何物。The book was written by a peasant. Last month we were working in a factory. 4 不定冠词还可以指“事物的单位”,如“每日”、“每斤”等。 Here is a letter for you . The meat is 18 yuan a kilo. 3.零冠词。

1 泛指人类或男女。Man will conquer nature .

2 抽象名词在用来表示它的一般概念时,通常不加冠词。Knowledge begins with practice .

3 有些个体名词有时可以转化成具有抽象意义,其前面也常不加冠词。We had better send him to hospital at once. 4 在专有名词前一般不用冠词。China is a great country. Mr Smith is an artist.

5 在三餐饭、球棋类运动名称之前不用冠词。He often goes out for a walk after supper. Sometimes I play basketball.

6 在节假日、星期几、月份、季节等名词前。September 10th is Teachers’ Day.

7 称呼语或表示头衔、职务的名词前不用冠词。Granny is sleeping now. We call him monitor.

8 在语言名词前,名词前有指示代词、物主代词或数词时,不用冠词。This is his book. I can speak English .

9 不用冠词的惯用语。At night / on food / go to town / at home / in class / at work 等。 (三)形容词 1.形容词的构成。

1 简单形容词由一个单词构成。Good, long, green, large, bright, interesting, surprised, learned, developing, sleeping .

2 复合形容词由一个以上的词构成。20-minute, second-hand, 500-word, 8-year-old, three-legged, round-trip, part-time, good-looking. 2.形容词的用法。

1

1 修饰名词作定语。She is a beautiful girl . 2 作表语。He is very strong.

3 作宾语补足语。Let the door open. You must keep your classroom clean .

4 “定冠词+形容词”表示一类人或物,在句子中可作主语或宾语。We should speak to the old politely.

5 大多数形容词既可作表语又可作定语,但少数形容词只能作表语,不能作定语。如:asleep, ill, awake 等。 6 有些形容词只能作定语而不能作表语。如:many, little, wooden, golden 等。 3.形容词的位置。

1 形容词通常放在它所修饰的名词的前面。A heavy box. 2 与表示度量的词连用,形容词要放在它所修饰词语的后面。3 metres long. 12 kilometers away .

3 与不定代词something, anything, everything, nothing 等连用时,可以放在这些词之后。 Something important . nothing serious .

4 当名词前有多个形容词修饰时,一般按下面的词序排列: 冠词(包括物主代词、序数词、基数词)-描述形容词(brave, beautiful)-表示形状(大小、长短、高矮)的形容词-表示年龄或新旧的形容词-表示颜色的形容词-表示国籍、出处或来源的形容词-表示材料、物质的形容词-表示用途或类别的形容词-被修饰的词。My nice small brown leather bag . those large round black wooden tables .

4.形容词的比较级和最高级。(一般加 er / est ,不规则见表) 1 原级的用法:“……和……相同”

A. 肯定句:A + 动词 + as + 形容词原级 + as + B . He is as tall as me .

B. 否定句:A… + not as +形容词原级 + as + B (即A 不如 B 那么…)

A… + not so +形容词原级 + as + B = A…+ less + 形容词原级+than + B . 2 比较级的用法:

A. A + 动词 + 形容词的比较级 + than + B . (A 比B 更… ,在这种句型中,比较级前面可用 much, even, still, a little, a bit, a lot, any, far 等修饰,表示“…得多”,“甚至…”,“更…”,“…一点儿”。

B. “比较级 + and + 比较级”、 “more and more + 部分双音节或多音节的原级” 译为“越来越…”。

3 最高级的用法:(个体用-of ,范围用-in,最高级前面要用定冠词-the) A. 三种最高级表示法。

最高级:Shanghai is the largest city in China .

比较级:Shanghai is larger than any other city in China . / Shanghai is larger than the other cities in China .

原级: No other city is as large as Shanghai in China . / No other city is larger than Shanghai in China . (四) 副词 1.副词的种类:

1 时间副词:often, always, usually, early, ago, already, before, ever, late, now, soon, since, tomorrow, just now …

2 地点副词:here, there, above, below, outside, anywhere, back, down, home, out, everywhere …

3 方式副词:hard, well, badly, fast, slowly, angrily, simply, carefully …

4 程度副词:very, quite, much, still, almost, little, too, enough … 5 疑问副词:how, when, where, why …

6 关系副词:when, where, why … (引导定语从句) 7 连接副词:how, when, where, why, whether …

8 频率副词:often, seldom, usually, never, sometimes, every day, always, hardly …

9 其他副词:really, certainly, surely, maybe … 2.副词的用法:

1 作状语 : He can finish the work easily .

2 作定语(要后置) : The students here are from Harbin . 3 作表语 : I must be off now .

4 作宾补,构成复合宾语 : Show him up . I saw him out with my sister last night .

3.副词的比较级和最高级。(一般加 er / est ,不规则见表) 1 副词的原级:

A. as + 副词的原级 + as “与…一样”

B. not as(so) + 副词的原级 + as “与…不一样” C. too + 副词的原级 + to do sth . “太…而不能” D. so + 副词的原级 + that 从句 “如此…以致于…” E. 副词的原级 + enough to do sth . “足够…能做…” 2 副词的比较级:

A.A + 动词 + 副词比较级 + than + B

B.副词比较级前也可以用 much, even, still, far, any, a little, a bit, a lot 等修饰。

C.比较级 + and + 比较级,表示“越来越…”,the more … the more … 表示“越…就越…”

D.副词的最高级前通常不加定冠词 the . (五)数词 1.基数词:

1-12 13-19 20-90 100-

1 one 13 thirteen 20 twenty 100 a hundred 2 two 14 fourteen 21 twenty-one 300 three hundred 3 three 15 fifteen 22 twenty-two 1,000 a thousand 4 four 16 sixteen 30 thirty 5,000 five thousand 5 five 17 seventeen 40 forty 1,000,000 a million 6 six 18 eighteen 50 fifty 1,000,000,000 a billion

2

7 seven 19 nineteen 60 sixty 8 eight 70 seventy 9 nine 80 eighty 10 ten 90 ninety 11 eleven 12 twelve 2.序数词: 1-10 11-19 20-90 100-

1 first 1st 11 eleventh 11th 20 twentieth 20th 100 one hundredth 100th

2 second 2nd 12 twelfth 12th 21 twenty-first 21st 103 one hundred and third 103rd

3 third 3rd 13 thirteenth 13th 30 thirtieth 30th 134 one hundred and thirty-fourth 134th

4 fourth 4th 14 fourteenth 14th 37 thirty-seventh 37th 200 two hundredth 200th

5 fifth 5th 15 fifteenth 15th 40 fortieth 40th 1000 one thousandth 1,000th

6 sixth 6th 16 sixteenth 16th 50 fiftieth 50th 1,000,000 one millionth 1,000,000th

7 seventh 7th 17 seventeenth 17th 60 sixtieth 60th 1,000,000,000 one billionth 1,000,000,000th

8 eighth 8th 18 eighteenth 18th 70 seventieth 70th 9 ninth 9th 19 nineteenth 19th 80 eightieth 80th 10 tenth 10th 90 ninetieth 90th

○1作主语:The first is better than the second . ○2 作宾语:He was among the first to arrive . ○3 作表语:He is the first to come to school .

○4 作定语:The ninth letter of the word “restaurant” is “n” ./ There are three thousand workers in the factory . (六)代词

人称代词 代替人或事物,主格作主语,宾客作宾语 数格 人称 单数 复数 I am a teacher . They are students . We all like him . He gave the book to me . 一 二 三 一 二 三

主 格 I you he She it we you they 宾 格 me you him Her it us you them

物主代词 形容词性只作定语,名词性可以作主、宾、表语等,表示所属关系 。

类型: 我的 你的 他的 她的 它的 我们的 你们的 他们的 My book is there. Her father is a worker.

This bike is yours, ours is broken .

形容词性 my your his her its our your their 名词词性 mine yours his hers its ours yours theirs

反身代词 起强调作用,只作同位语和宾语 数 人称 第一人称 第二人称 第三人称 We ourselves did the work. He did the work by himself.

单数 myself yourself himself herself itself 复数 ourselves yourselves themselves

相互代词 表示相互关系,作宾语 宾格 所有格 We should help each other.

Please correct each other’s mistakes .

each other(两者相互) each other’s(相互的)

one another(三者或三者以上) one another’s(相互的) 指示代词 起指示作用,作定语、主语、宾语、表语等 This, that, these, those, it, such, same Take this book to his room. My point is this .

不定代词 代替或修饰任何不定数量及不定范围的人或事物 some, any, no, none, many, few, little, all, both, every, one, either, neither, other, a few, a little, another, somebody, nobody, nothing, each I have something to tell you. Neither answer is right.

疑问代词 表示疑问,构成特殊问句 who, what, whose, which, whom Whom did you see ?

关系代词 引导定语从句 which, that, who, whom, whose The book that I lost was new.

连接代词 引导名词性从句(主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、同位语从句) what, who, that I know what you are doing . at’s what I hope . (七)动词

行为动词 含有实在的意义,表示动作或状态,在句中能独立作谓语。 及物动词 后面一定接宾语 Open, visit, hear … He visited Gaozhou yesterday.

不及物动词 后面可以不接宾语 Laugh, cry, live … He lives in Beijing .

连系动词(link v) 本身有一定的词义,但不能独立作谓语,必须与表语一起构成谓语。 Be, become, grow, get, turn, look, sound, smell, taste, feel, seem … The meat smells bad . He is a student .

助动词(v.aux.) 本身没有词义,不能独立作谓语,只能和主要动词一起构成谓语动词,表示否定、疑问、时态或其他语法形式 Do, does, did, am, is, are, have, has, had, shall, will, should, would … He doesn’t speak English . We are playing football . He had gone to Beijing .

情态动词(Modal Verbs) 本身有一定的意义,但不能独立作谓语,只能和主要动词一起构成谓语动词,表示说话人的语气

3

和情态。情态动词没有人称和数的变化。 Can, may, must, should, need, dear, shall, will, have to … She can speak English . May I speak to Ann, please、 We must go now .

注:动词(除情态动词,只有原形和过去式)有原形、第三人称单数、动词-ing、动词过去式、动词过去分词五种形式。 (八)介词 1.介词的种类:

1) 简单介词:in, at, of, from, since, around, to … 2)合成介词:onto, into, without, upon, within … 3)短语介词:because of, in front of, according to … 4)分词介词:regarding, following, concerning … 2.介词短语在句子中的作用:

1)作定语。I know the answer to the question .

2)作状语。The children are playing basketball in the playground . 3)作表语。Mike is in the classroom .

4)作宾语补足语。He found himself in the middle of the river . 5)作主语补足语。Tom was seen inside the cinema . 3.常用介词的基本用法:

1 )表示时间的介词(at, in, on, for, since, after, by, during, before, from, to, until, within …)

2 )表示位置,方位的介词(in, at, on, to …) 3) 表示交通方式的常用介词(by, on, in …)

4 )其他一些词组搭配介词(be angry with/at/about sb/sth . be strict with/in/ sb/sth …) (九)连词 1.并列连词:

1 )表联合关系连词。(and, or, but, for, not only…but also, as well as, both…and…, neither…nor .)

2 )转折连词。(but, while, yet, however .) 3 )选择连词。(or, or else, either…or…, otherwise .) 2.从属连词:

1) 引导主语从句、宾语从句和表语从句的连用,主要有三个:that, whether, if . I hear that he is a student . 2 )引导状语从句的从属连词:

A. 连接时间状语从句:when, before, after, while, as soon as, since, until, as, whenever, ever since …

B. 连接让步状语从句:although, though, even if, however … C. 连接原因状语从句:as, because, since, now that, for … D. 连接目的状语从句:that, so that, in order that … E. 连接条件状语从句:if, unless, once, in case … F. 连接结果状语从句:so…that, such…that … G. 连接方式状语从句:as, as if, as though … H. 连接地点状语从句:where .

I. 连接比较状语从句:as, as…as, not as/so …as, than … (十)非谓语动词

1.定义:动词除在句子中作谓语以外,还具有名词、形容词及副词的性质,在句中可作主语、表语、宾语、定语、状语和补语等,这就是动词的非谓语动词。可分为三种:动词不定式、分词和动名词。

2.动词不定式:to + 动词原形(在某些情况下可以不带to )。(没有人称和数的变化,可以有自己的宾语和状语,可以有时态和语态的变化)

1 )一般式:主动语态:to do , 被动语态:to be + 动词过去分词 (表示动作或状态与谓语动词的动作或状态同时发生或之后发生)

2 )进行式:主动语态:to be doing , 被动语态:无 (表示动作或状态与谓语动词的动作或状态同时发生)

3 )完成式:主动语态:to have +动词过去分词,被动语态:to have been +动词过去分词 (表示动作或状态在谓语动作之前就发生) 4) 用法:

A. 作主语:To learn a foreign language is not easy . = It’s not easy to learn a foreign language .

B. 作表语:The most important thing is to finish the work on time . C. 作宾语:

a. 动词+to do . He decided to buy a new watch . (agree, choose, want, hope, like, wish, learn, love, plan, try, start, afford …) b. 动词+疑问词+to do I don’t know where to put the bike . c. 动词+形式宾语(it)+宾补+to do I find it important to learn a second foreign language . D. 作补语:

a. 动词+宾语+to do Tom asked me to show him the new shoes . (tell, wish, ask, want, like, beg, invite, allow, encourage…) b. 动词+宾语+不带to的动词 He often saw Tom play football .(see, hear, feel, watch, notice, have, make, let…) E. 作状语:

a. 表示目的:He went to Guangzhou to see his sons . He got up early in order to catch the first bus .

b. 表示结果:He is too tired to walk any farther . They aren’t old enough to go to school .

c. 表示原因:He is sorry to hear that . I am glad to see you . F.作定语: I have something to tell you . I want to buy something to eat .

5 )动词不定式to 的省略:

A. 在感官动词feel, hear, see, watch, notice 及使役动词have, let, make等后面要省to,但在变被动语态时要还原不定式to。 I often saw him go out of the room .-------- He was often seen to go out of the room by me .

B.在had better, would rather, do nothing but等后面常省to。

4

6) 动词不定式的否定形式:not + to do ,有时也可以用-never + to do 结构。

3.动名词:动词原形+ing 。具有名词、动词一些特征。 1) 一般式:主动语态:doing ,被动语态:being + 动词过去分词(表示动作或状态与谓语动词的动作或状态同时发生或之后发生)

2) 完成式:主动语态:having +动词过去分词,被动语态:having been +动词过去分词 (表示动作或状态在谓语动词的动作或状态之前就发生)Children enjoy watching animated cartoon . I don’t remember having ever seen the film .

3) 动名词的否定形式:not + 动名词(v-ing) I regret not being able to help you . 4) 用法: A. 作主语:

a. 动名词作主语如果太长,可以用形式主语it代替。Learning English is very important .--- It’s very important to learn English . b. No + 动名词表示“禁止”。No smoking, No parking . B. 作宾语:He finished doing his homework . C. 作表语:His favourite sport is playing basketball .

D. 作定语:shopping basket, finishing line . (表明名词的用途、功能等)

E. 动名词的复合结构:名词所有格、形容词物主代词+动名词。Do you mind my / Wei Fang’s opening the window ? 4.分词:动词原形+ing 。具有形容词、副词和动词一些特征。(可分为现在分词、过去分词) 现在分词

1 )一般式:主动语态:doing ,被动语态:being + 动词过去分词(表示动作或状态与谓语动词的动作或状态同时发生) 2) 完成式:主动语态:having +动词过去分词,被动语态:having been +动词过去分词 (表示动作或状态在谓语动词的动作或状 态之前就发生)

3) 动名词的否定形式:not + 动名词(v-ing) No understanding the meaning of the words, he couldn’t explain the sentence . 4) 用法:

A. 作表语。The result is surprising .

B. 作定语。Developing country (主谓关系) sleeping boy (boy 所做的动作)

C. 作状语。Passing by the house, he saw a girl playing the piano . = when he was passing by the house , he saw a girl playing the piano .

D. 作宾补。I found him lying on the grass. 过去分词

1) 形式:规则动词+ed,和不规则动词的过去分词。 2) 过去分词的否定形式:not + 动词过去分词。 3) 用法:

A. 作表语:My bike is broken . He is very worried .

B. 作定语:developed country, fallen leaves, spoken English . C. 作状语:Asked why he was absent, he said he was ill . = When he was asked why he was absent, he said he was ill .

D. 作宾补:You had better have your shoes mended . I had my hair cut yesterday . (十一)动词的语态

1.语态定义:英语中表示主语和谓语之间的关系的动词形式称为语态。英语的语态分为主动语态和被动语态。主动语态表示主语是动作的执行者,被动语态表示主语是动作的承受者。We teach English in our school .(主动) English is taught in our school .(被动)

2.被动语态:助动词Be + 及物动词的过去分词(be +p.p.),be有人称、时态和数的变化。见下表: 时 态 谓语动词的形式 例 子

一般现在时 Am / is / are + 动词过去分词 Colour TVs are made in the factory .

一般过去时 Was / were +动词过去分词 My hometown was liberated in 1949 .

一般将来时 Shall / will + be +动词过去分词 The film will be shown again .

现在进行时 Am / is / are + being +动词过去分词 The walls are being painted .

过去进行时 Was / were +being动词过去分词 The tickets were being well sold then .

现在完成时 Has / have + been + 动词过去分词 A new road has been built here .

时 态 谓语动词的形式 例 子

过去完成时 Had + been +动词过去分词 Much had been done before mother came back .

含有情态动词的被动语态 情态动词+be+动词过去分词 The composition must be handed in today . 3. 被动语态中值得注意的问题:

1) 带有双宾语的动词,可以把任何一个宾语变被动,一般在间接宾语前加适当的介词。My father gave me a book ./ I was given a book by my father ./ A book was given to me by my father . 2) 英语中有些动词用主动语态表示被动语态。The cloth washes well ./ This kind of bags sells well. / The shoes wear long. / The knife cuts well . / The pen writes smoothly . / This coat lasts long . 3 )在英语中有时“be + V-ed”结构并不是被动语态,而是系表结构。The mountains were covered with snow .

4) 在“主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补足语”的结构中,要补留宾语补足语。We found the door broken. / The door was found broken.

5) 宾语补足语为省to的不定式,变为被动语态后,要还原to。He made me laugh. / I was made to laugh .

5

6) 如果短语动词是及物动词时,可以用被动语态,但不能遗漏所含的介词或副词。The nurse looked after the baby ./ The baby was looked after by the nurse . / We must make up for the lessons we missed. / The lessons we missed must be made up for . 7) 下列情况不能用被动语态:

A. 不及物动词: The accident happened on a busy road yesterday .

B. 连系动词: The girl looks like her sister .

C. 宾语为反身代词:He always dresses himself neatly . D. 宾语为相互代词:The students often help each other . E. 同源宾语:At that time, they lived a happy life .

F. 表示状态的及物动词:I have a new car. / The book cost me 30 yuan .

(十二)动词的时态:

时态 表示内容 谓语动词的构成 常用的时间状语 例句 一般现在时 现阶段经常发生的动作或存在的状态 动词原形(包括第三人称单数形式+s / es) often、usually、always、sometimes、every day、in the morning (afternoon …)等 He is often late for school.

She usually goes to work on foot.

一般将来时 将要发生的动作或存在的状态 shall / will + 动词原形

am / is / are going to + 动词原形 am / is / are to + 动词原形 am / is / are about to + 动词原形

am / is / are + 动词-ing tomorrow、next week、this month、in an hour、the day after tomorrow 等 He will go to Shanghai next week.

I am going to buy a book tomorrow. They are to see a film in a hour. She is about to mend the bike later. I am flying to Guangzhou next week.

一般过去时 过去发生的动作或存在的状态 动词过去式 (一般+ed , 特殊见课本不规则表) yesterday、last week、three days ago、before、 the day before yesterday 等 I finished my homework yesterday.

He went to Gaozhou three days ago.

现在进行时 现在正在进行的动作 am / is / are + 动词现在分词 now、It’s six o’clock.也可用look、listen 等词提示 They are doing their homework now.

Look! The boy is playing basketball.

过去进行时 过去某个时刻正在进行的动作 was / were + 动词现在分词 at six yesterday morning、this time yesterday、也可用when等引导的从句 I was sleeping at 11 last night . They were cooking when the bell rang .

现在完成时 动作发生在过去,已结束,对现在有影响;或者开始在过去一直持续到现在的动作。 have / has + 动词过去分词 (一般+ed , 特殊见课本不规则表) already、ever、never、just for three days、since 1998 、by the end of this term、yet 等 I have already finished my work .

He hasn’t found out who broke the door .

过去完成时 过去某个时间之前已经完成了的动作 had + 动词过去分词 By the end of last month、when、before等引导的从句 I had seen the film when I was in college. The meeting had begun before we arrived .

过去将来时 从过去某个时间看将来发生的动作 should / would + 动词原形

was / were going to +动词原形 was / were to + 动词原形 was / were about to + 动词原形

was / were + 动词-ing 通常在宾语从句中出现,主句为 共有4条文章 页次:2/4 分页:

过去时 He said (that) he would go to Maoming the next day . She told me (that) she was moving to France in two days . Ⅱ 句子 句子的成分

1.定义:组成句子的各个部分叫做句子的成分,即:主语、谓语、表语、宾语、宾语补足语、定语和状语。主语和谓语是句子的主体部分。表语、宾语、宾语补足语都是谓语里的组成部分。

主语 表示句子所说的是“什么人”或“什么事物”,一般由名词、代词或相当于名词的词或短语等充当。 Lucy is an American girl .

We study in No.1 Middle School .

谓语 说明主语“做什么”、“是什么”或者“怎么样”。谓语(谓语部分里主要的词)用动词。谓语和主语在“人称”和“数”两方面必须一致 We love China . / She is singing .

Mike hopes to be a doctor . / His parents are farmers .

表语说明主语是什么或者怎么样,由名词、形容词或相当于名词或形容词的词或短语等充当,和连系动词一起构成谓语。 Her aunt is a driver . / Are you ready ? We were at home last night . 句子成分 意义 例句

宾语 表示动词、行为的对象,由名词、代词或相当于名词的词、短语等充当,和及物动词一起说明主语做什么。 He often helps me . / We study English at school. Did you see him yesterday ?

定语用来修饰名词或代词。作定语的除形容词外,还有代词、数词、名词、介词短语或相当于形容词的词或短语等。 The black bike is mine. / What’s your name, please ? We have four lessons in the morning ?

6

状语用来修饰动词、形容词或副词。一般表示行为发生的时间、地点、目的、方式、程度等意义,通常由副词、介词短语或相当于副词的词或短语等来表示。 People are all working hard. / It is very nice.

We had a meeting this afternoon .

宾语补足语 英语中有些及物动词,除有一个直接宾语以外,还有一个宾语补语,才能使句子的意义完整。这类词有:make, consider, cause, see, find, call, get, have, let等。 He made me very angry.

I find him a good boy . 句子的种类

1.英语中按使用目的或功用分为四类:陈述句、疑问句、祈使句、感叹句。 A.陈述句。

1) 陈述句说明一个事实或陈述一个人的看法。陈述句分为肯定陈述句和否定陈述句两种。

a.陈述句的肯定式。I have already posted the photos. / They are students. / I must go now . / He was reading a book at 8:00 last night.

b.陈述句的否定形式。

(1)谓语动词是系动词be, 助动词have, will, shall, be或情态动词,只须在其后面加not构成否定句。

She isn’t a student . / He hasn’t been to the Great Wall . / I can not swim . / You will not go there tomorrow. / They aren’t sleeping . (2)若谓语动词是实义动词,在实义动词前加上do not,第三人称单数现在时用does not,过去时用did not。 He didn’t send me an invitation .

(3)由具有否定含义的词never, nobody, hardly, little, dislike, seldom, few, too…to等构成的否定句。

Not all the books in our school library can be renewed . B. 疑问句。

1) 疑问句提出问题。英语中有四种疑问句:一般疑问句、特殊疑问句、选择疑问句和反意疑问句。

a.一般疑问句:以一个助动词、情态动词、动词be或have开始,语调为升调,通常要求以yes或no回答的疑问句。 (1)一般疑问句的基本结构:

Be动词(is, am, are, was, were)+主语+表语…? Have动词(表示“有”:have, has, had)+主语+宾语…? 情态动词(can, may, must等)+主语+行为动词或be…? 助动词(do, does, did)+主语+行为动词…? 助动词(shall, will, have, has)+主语+行为动词…?

(2)否定形式的疑问句,通常把助动词与not缩写,放在句首。构成回答:

Aren’t you a student? Yes, I am .(不,我是) No, I am not .(对,我不是)

b.特殊疑问句:以疑问代词who, what, whom, whose, which或疑问副词when, where, why, how开头。

(1)如果疑问词在句中作主语或其修饰主语时,其语序如陈述句。Who is on duty today ? / Which book is yours .

(2)如果疑问词在句中不作主语或其修饰主语,用“疑问词+一般疑问句”形式。Where have you been ?

c.选择疑问句:提出两种或两种以上的情况,供回答者选择,并由or连用,但不能用Yes或no 来回答。

(1)疑问句+选择成分1+or+选择成分2?Do you want coffee or cocoa ? / Are you an Englishman or an American ?

(2)特殊问句+选择答案1+or+选择答案2?who runs fast, Tom , Mary or Li lei .

d.反意疑问句:陈述部分+提问部分。

(1)◎前肯后否,前否后肯。 ◎前后人称、数和时态要一致,疑问部分要用代词。◎事实回答用Yes, 非事实回答用No . ●前陈述句用降调,后问句用升调;如对前陈述句内容有把握,后问句也可用降调。●如果前面陈述句中有否定词:hardly, little, few, never, rarely, nothing, none , nobody, not, no 等,后面疑问句应该用肯定式。

(2)陈述句中有:have to, had to, ought to, used to,

don’t(imperative), somebody / someone, everybody / everyone时,附加疑问句需分别用:don’t, didn’t, shouldn’t, usedn’t / didn’t, will, they等。

My grandma used to be a teacher, usedn’t / didn’t she ? Don’t turn on the TV set, will you ?

(3)陈述句部分是复合句时,提问部分的主语和助动词要与主句一致。He was reading when the teacher came in, wasn’t he ? (4)在“I think(guess, suppose, believe)+宾语从句”中,当主语是第一人称时,附加疑问句的主语和谓语应与后面宾语从句相一致;但若主语不是第一人称时,则附加问句与前面主句一致。 I don’t think he can pass the exam, can he ? He believed you had seen her before, didn’t he ?

(5)在含有情态动词must 的句子中,若must 表示推测,提问用must后面的动词。若must表示有必要时,用needn’t。若mustn’t表示禁止时,提问用must。

He must be tired, isn’t he ? You must go to Gaozhou, needn’t ? You mustn’t smoke here, must you ?

(6)陈述句部分为祈使句,疑问部分常用will you(表请求)。注:let’s 用shall we(包括说话人),let us 用will you(不包括说话人)。Have a cup of tea, will you ? Let’s go now, shall we ? Let us go now, will you ?

e.祈使句:可表示请求、命令、劝告、建议等。(省主语,动词用原形)

(1)let + 第一人称,第三人称+(not)动词原形。Let me try again .

(2)动词原形+其他成分。Listen to me carefully .

7

(3)Don’t (never)+动词原形+其他成分。Don’t look out of the window .

(4)Do+动词原形+其他成分。Do give him another chance . f.感叹句:表示喜怒哀乐等强烈感情,句尾用“!”。What 修饰名词,how 修饰形容词、副词。 (1) How + 形容词 / 副词。

●How + 形容词 + 主 + 谓 + ??? ! How cold it is today ! How clever the boy is !

● How + 副词 + 主 + 谓 + ??? ! How fast she runs ! How hard the girls are working !

●How + 形容词 + a / an + 名词 + 主 + 谓 + ??? !How clever a boy he is ! How funny an elephant it is ! (2)What + 名词。

● What + a / an + 形容词 + 可数名词单数+ 主 + 谓 + ??? ! What a fine day it is today ! What an honest man his father is !

● What + 形容词 + 可数名词复数 + 主 + 谓 +???!What tall trees they are !What good students the boys are ! ●What + 形容词 + 不可数名词 + 主 + 谓 + ??? !What cold water it is ! What delicious milk it is ! 句子类型

1.从结构上看,英语的句子可分为三种类型:简单句、并列句和复合句。

2.简单句:由一个主语(或并列主语)和一个谓语(或并列谓语)构成的句子叫做简单句。简单句有六种句型: 型号 句型 例 子

1 主语+不及物动词(+状语) The Frenchman coughed badly at night. / The city lies in a valley .

2 主语+连系动词+表语 That is a map of China. / That piece of meat looks quite good. / It sounds like the singing of rails . 3 主语+及物动词+宾语 You’re doing the right thing. / Jack likes to stay at home and play by himself .

4 主语+及物动词+间接宾语+直接宾语 Can you tell me the way to the Summer Palace ? / It took me a week to finish the work. 5 主语+及物动词+宾语+宾语补足语 We call him Li Ming . / The rich man asked the singer to come up to the sitting room . 6 There +be+主语+状语 There are some flowers on the teacher’s desk . / There are 365 days in a year .

3.并列句:由并列连词把两个以上的简单句连在一起构成的句子。常用的并列连词有and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet, neither…nor, either…or, still, however, not only…but also等。并列句的结构:简单句+并列词+简单。

Hurry up, or you’ll miss the early bus . / We love peace but we are not afraid of war . / He must be ill, for he is absent today . She has not only knowledge, but also experience . / He was ill, so he didn’t go to school. / Work hard, and you will succeed .

4.复合句:由一个主句和一个或一个以上的从句构成的句子叫做复合句。主句是句子的主体,从句只用作句子的一个成分,不能独立。从句可以担任复合句的主语(主语从句)、表语(表语从句)、宾语(宾语从句)、定语(定语从句)、状语(状语从句)。中学阶段主要学习含有状语从句、宾语从句、定语从句的复合句。

A.状语从句:在复合句中修饰主句中的动词、形容词或副词等的从句叫做状语从句。状语从句根据它表示的意思的不同可分为时间、地点、原因、结果、让步、比较(或方式)和条件等类。

1) 时间状语从句:由when, while, as, the moment, the minute, once, whenever, before, after, till(until), since, as soon as等连词引导。

主句、从句和例 子

一般将来时 一般现在时 I will go out for a walk if it doesn’t rain tomorrow .

带有情态动词 You must look left and right when you cross the crossing .

祈使句 Ask him to give me a call as soon as he comes back . 过去时的某种时态 过去时的某种时态 I went to bed at ten after the film was over. / The film had begun when I reached the cinema .

I was reading a book while he was singing a song .

2 )条件状语从句:由if, unless, so long as, as long as, in case , if only, provided that等引导。(注:在条件状语从句的将来时态要用现在时和过去时,表示相应的将来时)。

I’ll show you around the city if I am free tomorrow . / If I had enough money, I would buy the car .

3 )原因状语从句:由because(因为), as(由于), since(既然), for(因为)等引导。

He was absent yesterday because he was ill . / As it was already dark, they decided to stay in the town for the night .

4) 目的状语从句:由so that, that, so, in order that, in case等引导。句中常有may, might, can, could, should, would等情态动词。 He got up early so that he could catch the early train. / He studied hard in order that he might succeed .

5) 结果状语从句:由so…that, so, so that, such…that等。 The film is so interesting that everyone likes to see it again . / Nothing more was heard of him, so people thought that he was dead .

6 )比较状语从句:由than, as…as, not as(so)…as, the(+比较级)…the(+比较级)等引导。

Today is not as warm as yesterday. / He listens to the teacher more carefully than I .

7) 地点状语从句:由where 和wherever等引导。地点状语从句位于句首时,常用逗号与主句隔开;位于句末时则不用逗号。 8

He follows her wherever she goes .

8 )方式状语从句:由as, just as…so, as if 等。As if 引导的从句的时态要用过去时(虚语语气)。

Please do as I do . / He tells me the whole thing as if he knew everything .

9 )让步状语从句:由though, although, even if, even though, however, whatever, no matter who等引导。

Although he has failed many times, he doesn’t give up trying . B.宾语从句:由一个句子充当宾语,我们称之为宾语从句。(宾语从句的语序永远是陈述语序) 1 )宾语从句的连词。

a. 如果宾语从句是从陈述句变化而来的,要用连词that来引导,that可以省略。

b. 如果宾语从句是从一般疑问句变化而来的,要用连词if或whether .

c. 如果宾语从句是从特殊疑问句变化而来的,连词就应该用特殊疑问词(what, when, where…)。 2 )宾语从句的时态: 主 句 从 句 例 子

任何一种时态 一般现在时(表示真理、科学原理、自然现象)The teacher told / tells us that the earth goes round the sun. 一般现在时 任何一种时态 I hear that he will come back next week.

一般将来时 I will tell him that his father rang him up just now when he comes back .

一般过去时 过去时的某种时态 I wondered if Tom would come back ./ Lucy asked whether I had finished my homework . 3) 宾语从句的人称:人称代词要随合理的逻辑而自然变化。 She said, “I am much better than before.”--------She said that she was much better than before .

4 )when 和if 在引导宾语从句和状语从句中,后面的时态有差别。

I don’t know when (何时)she will be back(宾语从句), but when(当…时候) she comes back, I’ll let you know(状语从句) . I don’t know if(是否) she will come back(宾语从句), but if (如果)s 共有4条文章 页次:3/4 分页: 9 7 1 2 3 4 8 : he comes back, I’ll let you know (状语从句) .

C.定语从句:在复合句中修饰名词或代词的从句叫做定语从句,被定语从句修饰的名词或代词叫先行词,定语从句必须放在先行词之后。引导从句的关系代词有:who(人,主格), whom(人,宾客), whose(人,所有格), which(物), that(人,物)。引导从句的关系副词有:where(地点), when(时间), why(原因)。The man who lives next to us is a policeman./ You must do everything that I do ./ We will never forget the day when we visited Gaozhou .

主句/先行词 从 句 主 句 主 句 / 先行词 从 句 主 句 / 先行词 从 句

1) 从句的谓语动词和先行词的关系。

a. 主谓关系:He asked the man(作从句主语) who/that was smoking .

b. 动宾关系:The noodles(作从句宾语) that/which I cooked were delicious .

2 )只能用that 的情况:

a. 先行词为all, any, few, no, some, much, little等修饰。 I have done all the work that he told us to do .

b. 先行词被序数词修饰。 That last/first question that he asked me was hard to answer .

c. 先行词同时有人和物。 They often talk about things and persons that they remember .

d. 先行词是everything, anything, nothing, none等不定代词。 I remembered everything that the teachers taught me before . e. 先行词被形容词最高级修饰。 That is the best book that I have read .

f. 先行词被the very, the only, the same修饰。 It is the very book that I am looking for .

g. 先行词是主句的表语或关系代词在定语从句中作表语。 China is no longer the country that it used to be .

h. 先行词是指示代词that, one, those, this, another, all等。 Is this school the one that I saw in the picture ?

i. 主句以who / which开头,定语从句用that 。who is the girl that spoke to you just now ? / which is the car that was made in China ?

3) 只能用which的情况:

a. 关系代词前有介词。 This is the house in which we lived last year .

b. 先行词本身是that 。 The clock is that which I bought yesterday .

c. 非限制性定语从句。 His English , which used to be very poor, is now excellent .

4) 定语从句在句中作定语,所以在使用时,相当于现在分词短语,过去分词短语,动词不定式短语,介词短语作后置定语的句子。

a.I bought a book that was written by Lu Xun . = I bought a book written by Lu Xun .

b.Tell the children who are playing basketball not to do that . = Tell the children playing basketball not to do that .

c.The house that stands at the corner was built in 1987 . = The house standing at the corner was built in 1987 .

d.We have nothing that we should fear . = We have nothing to fear .

9

e.The book that is on the table is expensive . = The book on the table is expensive .

5 )引导词when, where和why可用相应的表示时间(in, on, at, during等)、地点(in, on, at等)和原因(for)的介词+which 表达为介宾结构。

a.I still remember the day when I met her for the first time . ---- I still remember the day on which I met her for the first time . b.That is the place where I went when I was a child . ----- That is the place to which I went when I was a child .

c.May I know the reason why you are late ? ----- May I know the reason for which you are late ?

6) 在定语从句中,不能再出现指示先行词的指示代词。 I just can’t find the book which/that she lent it to me .(×)---- I just can’t find the book which/that she lent to me .(√) 7) 注意下面的变化:

a. This is the house(不作lived的宾语) where we lived last year . This is the house(作lived in的宾语) which/that we lived in last year .

b. This is the day (不作left的宾语)when we left for Shenzhen . This is the day (作spent的宾语)which/that we spent in Shenzhen . 8) 限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句的区别:

a. 限制性定语从句:是句中不可缺少的组成部分,没有从句,先行词意思不明确,主句也不完整,从句主句不用逗号分开。 b. 非限制性定语从句:是主句先行词的补充说明,没有从句并不影响主句意思的明确或完整,这种定语从句一般用逗号和主句分开,在非限制性定语从句中,一般不用that。 ● Last Sunday they reached Dalian, where a meeting was to be held .

●She has two brothers, who are both doctors .

Ⅲ There be 句型

1. 英语“There + be + (not)”结构表示“有(没有)某人或某物”时,there 是无词义的引导词,be是谓语动词,它后面的名词是主语,两者再数上必须一致。句末往往有表示地点或时间的状语。

2. 肯定句:There +(助动词或情态动词)+be 主语+地点(时间)状语。

There is a pen on the table . / There will be a football match tomorrow .

3. 否定句:There + be(助动词或情态动词)+not(any)(或+no)+ 主语…。

There are not fairies in the world . / There wasn’t a underground in Shanghai before ./ There won’t be a football match tomorrow . 4. 一般疑问句:Be + there +(any) +主语… ? / 助动词或情态动词 + there +be +(any) + 主语… ?

Is there anything I can do for you ? / Will there be cloud tomorrow ?

5. 特殊疑问句:疑问词(+名词)+be +there + 状语 ? How many weeks are there in a year ? / What is there on the desk ? / Where will there be a football match tomorrow ?

6. 如果there +be 之后是并列主语,应根据离be 最近的名词来选择be的形式。

There is a apple and two pears on the table . / There are two pears and a apple on the table .

7. 含有引导词there 的句子用seem to be , happen to be , used to be 或live 等作谓语的结构。

There happened to be an old friend of mine in the shop . / There used to be a temple here . Ⅳ 主谓一致

1. 主谓一致是指谓语动词要与主语单、复数形式及人称变化相一致。主要包括三方面:形式一致、意义一致、就近原则。 2. 单数名词、不可数名词作主语,谓语用单数;复数名词作主语,谓语用复数;若主语表示单数或整体概念时,谓语应用单数。

Time is money . / My book is new . / Our books are there . / His family isn’t very large . / His family are all music lovers . 3. 有些名词以“s”结尾,但谓用单数。(news, physics, maths, politics等) Maths is very important to us .

4. People, police, youth, cattle等常作复数处理。 The youth are full of living .

5. 既作单数又是复数的名词,可作单、复数。(sheep, fish, deer, Chinese, Japanese…)

There is one deer / are some deer in the zoo. / I met a Japanese in the street . / The Japanese I met in the street were friendly . 6. 当主语是两个名词由and 连接时,若表示一种事物或一种概念时,谓语用单数。

The teacher and writer is coming(同一个人) . / The teacher and the writer are coming .(不同人)

7. 有every 或each 修饰的单数名词并列时,谓语动词用单数,第二个every或each 可省略。Every boy and (every)girl has a new book.

8. 表示时间、距离、金钱或数量的复数名词,一般视为一个整体,谓语用单数。A hundred miles is a long distance . 9. 有些形容词前加定冠词构成表示一类人的名词,常用复数处理。The rich are getting richer. / The blind are sitting on the road .

10. Number, population 等词可作单数或复数,主要从意思决定。A number of books are new. / The number of books is 3,000. The population of China is very large . / One third of the population here are workers.

10

11. 当名词后有with, together, like, but, except等介词短语时,

谓语随名词的数而变。 Tom with his parents has been to Beijing

twice . 12.

Each和由some, any, no, every构成的复合代词,都作单数

看待。Each of us has an apple. / Somebody is using the photo. Taking means no holes . Seeing is believing . Finishing the work takes me a long time . = To finish the work takes me a long time . = It takes me a long time to finish the work .

13. What, who, which, any, more, most, all等代词可以是单、复

数,主要*意思决定。Which is your room ? / Which are your

rooms ?

14. “None 或none of+名词(代词)复数”可作单、复数,若

名词为不可数,则谓语只用单数。

None of the books are easy enough for us . / None of us has got a

camera. / None of milk is good.

15.“Either, neither (+of +名(代)词复数”作主语时,通常看作

单数。Neither of us has been to HongKong . / Either answer is

wrong .

16.“many a +单数名词”或“more than one +单数名词”作主语时,

谓语多用单数形式。More than one person has that kind of

experience.

17.All/most/half/part/some/the rest of +不可数名词,谓语用单数。

All of meat is bad .

18.All/most/half/part/some/the rest of +可数名词复数,谓语用复

数。 Some of students are absent .

19.“one of +名(代)词复数”为主时,谓语通常用单数。One of

the girls is from America .

20.“a pair of +名词复数”作主语时,谓语常用单数,若pair是

pairs时谓语用复数。

21.“(a)part of +名词”作主语时,若名词是单数,谓语用单

数;若名词是复数,谓语用复数。

22.“a group of +名词”作主语时,强调整体,谓语用单数;若

强调group 中的各成员,谓语用复数。

23.“a lot of /lots of +名词复数”作主语时,谓语用复数;若名词

为不可数名词,谓语用单数。

24.“most of +名词复数”作主语时,谓语用复数;若名词为不可

数名词,谓语用单数。

25.“plenty of +名词复数”作主语时,谓语用复数;若名词为不

可数名词,谓语用单数。

27.由either…or, neither…nor, not only…but also, or或there be +

名词+and + 名词等连接的主语,通常根据就近原则,谓语的

单、复数形式依最接近它的名词词组的单、复数形式决定。

My parents or I am going to visit my grandparents .

Either your father or your mother has been to the Great Wall .

Neither you nor Lao Yang is to do the work .

There is a man and three children over there .

Not only you but also he knows that thing .

28.动词不定式和动词-ing形式作主语时作单数处理。

To see you is very glad . = It is very glad to see you .

11

网站首页网站地图 站长统计
All rights reserved Powered by 海文库
copyright ©right 2010-2011。
文档资料库内容来自网络,如有侵犯请联系客服。zhit326@126.com