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广州八年级英语语法概论

发布时间:2014-02-05 12:49:54  

广州牛津版英语八年级每一单元的语法点是什么?

unit1 情态动词should和ought to的用法

unit2 动词不定式和动名词的用法

unit3 形容词和副词的比较级和最高级

unit4 现在完成时和一般过去时 以及感叹句

unit5 副词的初步用法

unit6 被动语态的用法

unit7 why 和 because的用法 用as ......as比较事物 用like, the same as, different from去比较事物

http://wenku.baidu.com/view/fe0829284b73f242336c5f70.html

期末复习:语法复习

动词不定式

一. 定义:

动词不定式是非谓语动词的一种,它没有人称和数的变化,在句子中不能独立作谓语,但它仍保持动词的特点,既可以有自己的宾语和状语。同时动词不定式又具有名词、形容词、副词的特征,在句中可以作主语、表语、宾语、宾语补足语、定语和状语。

二. 动词不定式的构成:to+动词原形

三. 动词不定式作宾语

后面能接不定式作宾语的动词有:agree, ask, choose, decide, forget, hope, learn, want, wish, would like等。

We hope to get there before dark. 我们希望天黑以前到那儿。

The girl decided to do it herself. 那个姑娘决定自己做那件事。

动词不定式作宾语的注意事项(2点)

1. 有些动词既可跟不定式作宾语,也可跟动名词作宾语,但含义不同:

remember to do 记住要做某事

remember doing 记得曾经做过某事

forget to do忘记要做某事

forget doing 忘记曾经做过某事

stop to do 停下来去做某事

stop doing 停止做某事

go on to do 继续做另一件事

go on doing 继续做原来在做的事

I remember seeing you somewhere before.

我记得以前在哪儿见过你。

Please remember to turn off the light when you leave.

离开时请记得关好灯。

2. 不定式作宾语时,如带有宾语补足语,则要把不定式放到后面,用it作形式宾语,构成“主语+动词+it+宾补(形容词、名词)+不定式”结构。

如:He found it very difficult to get to sleep.

他发现很难入睡。

四. 动词不定式作宾语补足语

1. 后面能接to不定式作宾语补足语的动词有:ask, order, teach, tell, want, wish, help等。

The teacher told us to do Exercise 1. 老师要我们做练习一。

I want both of you to go. 我要你们俩去。

We helped her (to) repair her bike. 我们帮助她修理自行车。

2. 使役动词let, have, make及感官动词see, watch, notice, hear, feel等要以不带to的不定式作宾补。 Let’s have a rest. 我们休息一会吧。

I saw him come in. 我看见他进来了。

感官动词后既可跟不带to的不定式作宾补,也可跟v-ing作宾补,前者表示动作的全部过程已结束;后者表示动作正在进行。

I saw him come downstairs.我看见他下了楼。(说明他下楼了这件事)

I saw him coming downstairs.我看见他在下楼。(说明他下楼时的情景)

五. 动词不定式作状语

Later he left home to work in different cities. 不久他离开家到不同的城市工作。

He went to see a football match. 他去看足球比赛了。

In order to catch the other students, I must work hard.

为了赶上其他同学,我必须努力学习。

六. 动词不定式作定语

不定式作定语一般放在所修饰的词的后面。

I need something to eat.

Do you have something to read?

Tom was so excited that he had no word to say.

He is really a fool only to eat.

The man to stand here just now is our English teacher.

The doctor had no way to save the patient.

注意:

(1)作定语的不定式是由及物动词组成,被修饰的名词或代词与不定式之间存在方位或方式关系需要有介词。

I am looking for a room to live in. 我正在找一间住房。(方位关系)

We have many things to do experiments with.

我们有许多做实验的东西(方式关系)

(2)作定语的不定式是由“be + adj + prep”构成的动词短语。

Here there isn’t any book for me to be interested in.

We have done many things to proud of. 我们做了许多引以自豪的事。

七. 动词不定式作主语

To give is better than to receive.

To reach there on foot is impossible.

动词不定式作主语时,可以用it 代替,把实际主语不定式放在后面。

It’s better to give than to receive.

It’s impossible to reach there on foot.

It’s + adj + for sb. to do sth.

It’s not difficult for me to study English well.

It’s easy for him to work out this math problem.

在这个句型中,如果形容词与不定式的逻辑主语关系密切,并且形容词用来说明逻辑主语的性质、品质、特点等,由of引出逻辑主语。这类形容词主要有nice, kind, good, wrong, right等。

八. 动词不定式和疑问词连用

动词不定式可以和疑问词what, which, how, where, when连用,构成不定式短语,可以作主语、宾语、表语、宾语补足语等。

How to do is still a question.

Have you decided when to leave?

九. 动词不定式的否定形式

动词不定式的否定式是在to前加not;不带to的不定式则在动词前加not. 如:

Zhang Ming asked me not to stay at home all day. 张明要我不要整天呆在家里。

My mother let me not do it by myself. 妈妈让我不要独自做这件事。

被动语态

英语有两种语态:主动语态和被动语态

主动语态(The Active Voice)表示主语是动作的执行者。

被动语态(The Passive Voice)表示主语是动作的承受者。

构成:承受者+助动词be+及物动词的过去分词+by+执行者

一般现在时:承受者+助动词am / is/are +及物动词的过去分词+by+执行者

一般过去时:承受者+助动词was / were +及物动词的过去分词+by+执行者

承受者+助动词shall / will be+及物动词的过去分词+by+执行者

承受者+助动词 have/ has been+及物动词的过去分词+by+执行者

承受者+ can /may/must/should +be+及物动词的过去分词+by+执行者

被动语态用法:

1)当我们不知道动作的执行者是谁,或者没有必要指出动作的执行者时,需用被动语态。

2)当我们需要强调动作的承受者时,常用被动语态。

3)如果需要说出动作的执行者, 用by引导出动作的执行者。

主动语态变为被动语态时,其谓语动词的时态要与原句时态保持一致,其谓语动词的数要与新主语保持一致。

主动语态变为被动语态时有以下几种情况:

1)主语+谓语动词+宾语

将主动语态的宾语变为被动语态的主语。

(主动)We bought a book yesterday.

(被动)The book was bought yesterday.

2)主语+谓语动词+间接宾语+直接宾语

将主动语态中一个宾语变为被动语态的主语。多数情况下将间接宾语变为主语。如果直接宾语变为主语时,间接宾语前要加介词to / for。

(主动)He showed me a book yesterday.

(被动)I was showed a book yesterday.

(被动)The book was showed to me yesterday.

3)主语+谓语动词+复合宾语

含有一个由宾语加宾语补足语构成的复合宾语,变为被动语态时,将主动语态的宾语变为被动语态的主语,宾语补足语保留不变,成为主语补足语。

(主动)I found him a good pupil. (宾语补足语)

(被动)He was found a good pupil. (主语补足语)

4)短语动词变为被动语态

有些短语动词相当于一个及物动词,其后可以接宾语,因此它们也有被动语态,但短语动词是不可分割的整体,变为被动语态时不可去掉其后面的介词或副词。

(主动)We should look after the patients very well.

(被动)The patients should be looked after very well by us.

5)宾语从句变为被动语态

若主动语态中是宾语从句,变为被动语态时常用it作形式主语,而把真正的主语放在后面。It’s said that he passed the exam.

被动语态应注意的几个特殊问题:

(1)不及物动词带介词和介词宾语,在变为被动语态时,仍然要带上介词。

(主动)The students in class listen to the teacher carefully.

(被动)The teacher is listened to carefully by the students in class.

(2)当动词带有复合宾语时,并且宾补是省去“to”的动词不定式时,在被动语态中应加上“to”。 (主动)They make do all the work.

(被动)We were made to do all the work.

(主动)We often hear her sing English songs.

(被动)She is often heard to sing English songs.

(主动)I see him walk to school.

(被动)He is seen to walk to school.

九年级英语Unit1

1. by + doing 通过……方式 如:by studying with a group

by 还可以表示:“在…旁”、“靠近”、“在…期间”、“用、” “经过、”乘车”等

如:I live by the river.

I have to go back by ten o’clock.

The thief entered the room by the window.

The student went to park by bus.

2. talk about 谈论,议论,讨论 如:The students often talk about movie after class. 学生们常常在课后讨论电影。

talk to sb. === talk with sb. 与某人说话

3. 提建议的句子:

①What/ how about +doing sth.?

如:What/ How about going shopping?

②Why don’t you + do sth.? 如:Why don’t you go shopping?

③Why not + do sth. ? 如:Why not go shopping?

④Let’s + do sth. 如: Let’s go shopping

⑤Shall we/ I + do sth.? 如:Shall we/ I go shopping?

4. a lot 许多 常用于句末 如:I eat a lot. 我吃了许多。

5. too…to 太…而不能 常用的句型 too+adj./adv. + to do sth.

如:I’m too tired to say anything. 我太累了,什么都不想说。

6. aloud, loud与loudly的用法

三个词都与"大声"或"响亮"有关。

①aloud是副词,重点在出声能让人听见,但声音不一定很大,

常用在读书或说话上。通常放在动词之后。aloud没有比较级

形式。如: He read the story aloud to his son.

他朗读那篇故事给他儿子听。

②loud可作形容词或副词。用作副词时,常与speak, talk,

laugh等动词连用,多用于比较级,须放在动词之后。如:

She told us to speak a little louder. 她让我们说大声一点。

③loudly是副词,与loud同义,有时两者可替换使用,但往往

含有令人讨厌或打扰别人的意思,可位于动词之前或之后。如: He does not talk loudly or laugh loudly in public.

他不当众大声谈笑。

7. not …at all 一点也不 根本不 如:

I like milk very much. I don’t like coffee at all.

我非常喜欢牛奶。我一点也不喜欢咖啡。

not经常可以和助动词结合在一起,at all 则放在句尾

8. be / get excited about sth.

=== be / get excited about doing sth.

=== be excited to do sth. 对…感兴奋 如:

I am / get excited about going to Beijing.===

I am excited to go to Beijing. 我对去北京感到兴奋。

9. ① end up doing sth 终止做某事,结束做某事 如:

The party ended up singing. 晚会以唱歌而结束。

② end up with sth. 以…结束 如:

The party ended up with her singing. 晚会以她的歌唱而告终。

10. first of all 首先 to begin with 一开始

later on 后来、随

11. also 也、而且(用于肯定句)常在句子的中间

either 也(用于否定句)常在句末

too 也 (用于肯定句) 常在句末

12. make mistakes 犯错 如:I often make mistakes. 我经常犯错。 make a mistake 犯一个错误 如: I have made a mistake.

我已经犯了一个错误。

13. laugh at sb. 笑话;取笑(某人) 如:Don’t laugh at me!不要取笑我!

14. take notes 做笔记,做记录

15. enjoy doing sth . 喜欢做…乐意做… 如:

She enjoys playing football. 她喜欢踢足球。

enjoy oneself 过得愉快 如:He enjoyed himself. 他过得愉快。

16. native speaker 说本族语的人

17. make up 组成、构成

18. one of +(the+ 形容词比较级)+名词复数形式 …其中之一

如: She is one of the most popular teachers.

她是最受欢迎的教师之一。

19. It’s +形容词+(for sb. ) to do sth. (对于某人来说)做某事…

如:It’s difficult (for me ) to study English.

对于我来说学习英语太难了。

句中的it 是形式主语,真正的主语是to study English

20. practice doing 练习做某事 如:

She often practice speaking English. 她经常练习说英语。

21. decide to do sth. 决定做某事 如:

LiLei has decided to go to BeiJing . 李雷已经决定去北京。

22. unless 假如不,除非 引导条件状语从句

如:You will fail unless you work hard..假如你不努力你会失败。 I won’t write unless he writes first. 除非他先写要不我不写

23. deal with 处理 如:I dealt with a lot of problem.

24. worry about sb./ sth. 担心某人/ 某事

如:Mother worried about his son just now.

妈妈刚才担心他的儿子。

25. be angry with sb. 对某人生气 如: I was angry with her. 我对她生气。

26. perhaps === maybe 也许

27. go by (时间) 过去 如: Two years went by. 两年过去了。

28. see sb. / sth. doing 看见某人正在做某事 强调正在发生

see sb. / sth. do 看见某人在做某事 如:

如: She saw him drawing a picture in the classroom.

她看见他正在教室里画画。

29. each other 彼此

30. regard… as … 把…看作为…. 如:

The boys regarded Anna as a fool. 这些男孩把安娜看成傻瓜。

31. too many 许多 修饰可数名词 如:too many girls

too much 许多 修饰不可数名词 如:too much milk

much too 太 修饰形容词 如:much too beautiful

32. change… into… 将…变为…

如:The magician changed the pen into a book. 这个魔术师将这本书变为一本书。

33. with the help of sb. == with one’s help 在某人的帮助下

如:with the help of LiLei == with LiLei’s help

在李雷的帮助下

34. compare … to … 把…与…相比

如:Compare you to Anna, you are lucky.

你和安娜相比,你是幸运的。

35. instead 代替 用在句末,副词(字面上常不译出来)

instead of sth. / doing sth. 代替,而不是 用在句中,动词

如:Last summer I went to Beijing. This year I’m going to Shanghai instead.去年夏天我去北京, 今年我将要去上海。

I will go instead of you. 我将代替你去。

He stayed at home instead of going swimming. 他呆在家里而不是去游泳。

初二英语知识点精讲精练

(一)【原文重现】You say that you like working as a detective.

【重点解析】work as意思是“担任”,后面可以跟某个职业。

【小试牛刀】I’d like to work _____ a teacher when I grow up.

A.on B.as C.for D.of

(二)【原文重现】Let me tell you about a recent case that I dealt with.

【重点解析】deal with相当于handle,意思是“处理”,deal的过去式和过去分词为dealt。

【小试牛刀】It’s very difficult to deal _____ the problem.

A.of B.through C.at D.with

(三)【原文重现】Mr Li is a very rich man who lives alone and enjoys collecting things.

【重点解析】alone可以作形容词和副词,意思是“单独的,独自,无人陪伴”。to do something alone 意为独自做某事,不一定表示悲伤,也可能会感到愉快。要注意的是:alone不能用在名词之前作定语。另外,lonely是形容词,意思为“孤独的”。

【例句展示】She went home alone. 她独自回家去了。

Sarah felt lonely when her best friend left the town.

自从她最好的朋友离城以后萨拉感到很寂寞。

【小试牛刀】I feel very ______ without my dog. (alone, lonely)

Han Mei was reading ______ when the teacher came into the classroom. (alone, lonely)

(四)【原文重现】He purchased a vase for two million yuan.

【重点解析】purchase相当于buy,意思为“买”,一般用purchase sth. for money的结构。(区别:pay money for sth.)

【例句展示】 She purchased a sofa for three thousand yuan. 她以3,000元买了一个沙发。 John paid one hundred yuan for the bag. 约翰花了100元买了这只包。

【小试牛刀】I don’t want to pay 200 dollars for this small handbag. (保持原意) I don’t want to _____ this small handbag _____ 200 dollars.

(五)【原文重现】Then he locked it in the safe at his house.

【重点解析】safe在句中作名词,意思是“保险箱”,另外safe也可以作形容词,表示“安全的”,副词为safely,名词为safety。

【例句展示】Water from this well is safe to drink. 这口井里的水可安全饮用。

【小试牛刀】These children arrived at the place ______ at last. (safe)

答案: (一)B (二)D (三)longly,alone

(四)purchase/buy,for (五)safely

a pair of一双,一对

ask for 请求

ask sb (not) to do sth叫某人干

agree with赞同

all year round一年到头,全年

all kinds of各种,各样 all the time一直

argue with与争吵

around the world在世界各地 arrive in/at到达

at least至少

at a meeting在开会 at first首先

as…as possible尽可能

as…as象一样 be able to能够

be angry with 生气

be mad at对感到气愤

be good at擅长于

be careful小心

be allowed被允许

be surprised惊讶

be supposed to被期望/被要求

be interested in对感兴趣

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