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并列句和复合句 十四

发布时间:2014-02-06 11:50:27  

十四、并列句和复合句

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一、并列句 由并列连词把两个或两个以上的简单句连接起来的句子叫 作并列句。常见分类: 1. 表示同等、平行或承接关系,常用连词and,both. . . and, not only. . . but also. . . ,neither. . . nor. . . ,as well as等。 2. 表示转折关系,常用连词but,yet(然而), however(然而),

while(而)等。

3. 表示选择关系,常见连词or,not. . . but(不是??而

是??), either. . . or. . . (要么??要么??)等。
4. 表示因果关系,常见连词because, as,for(因为), so等。 二、复合句 由一个主句和一个或一个以上的从句构成的句子叫作复合 句。从句需由关联词引导。初中英语教材主要涉及的复合句有 状语从句、宾语从句和定语从句。

考点一

状语从句

状语从句在复合句中起状语的作用,修饰主句中的谓语、

形容词或副词。状语从句由从属连词引导,从属连词不充当句
子成分,只起连接作用。根据意义上的不同,状语从句可分为: 时间状语从句、条件状语从句、目的状语从句、让步状语从句、 原因状语从句、结果状语从句、比较状语从句、地点状语从句 等。

从句类型

从句引导词

例句

时间状 语从句

①He didn’t get home until 9 p. m. last night. when, while, 他直到昨天晚上九点才到家。 before, after, until, ②I’ll call you up as soon as I since, as soon as arrive in Beijing. 我一到北京就 给你打电话。 You’ll be kept out of the party if, unless, as long unless you have an invitation. as 如果没有请柬,您是无法参加 这个聚会的。

条件 状语 从句

从句类型

从句引导词

例句

目的 状语 从句

The new company gave away lots of ads in order that people so that, in order can get to know it. 这家新公司 that 散发了大量广告以加强人们对 它的了解。 though/although, even if, whatever, wherever, whenever The whole library was in silence, although there were nearly 500 people reading in it. 尽管有将近 500 人在看书,但 整座图书馆却寂静无声。

让步 状语 从句

从句类型 原因

从句引导词

例句

状语
从句

Since everyone is here, let’s because, since, as, begin our meeting. 既然大家都 for 到齐了,我们开始开会吧。 Yao Ming plays basketball so well that many Americans have also become his fans. 姚明篮球打得如此好以至于很 多美国人也成了他的粉丝。

结果
状语 从句

so. . . that, such. . . that

从句类型 比较 状语 从句 地点 状语 从句

从句引导词

例句

than, as. . . as. . . , I’m as old as Bob. not as/so. . . as. . . 我和鲍勃年龄一样大。 Where there is a will, there is a way. 哪里有希望,哪里就有出 路。(有志者,事竟成)

where, wherever

状语从句的注意事项 1. 条件状语从句和

时间状语从句中的时态 ①Your dream must come true if you (1)如果主句使用一般将来 work hard. 时,条件状语从句和时间 如果努力,你的梦想一定会实现。 状语从句中使用一般现在 ②I’m going to be an engineer when 时表示将来的动作 I grow up. 长大后我想成为一名工程师。 (2)如果主句使用过去进行 We were watching TV when my 时,时间状语从句中一般 father got back. 使用过去时态 爸爸回来时我们在看电视。

2. 时间状语从句中 not. . . until. . . (直到??才??)与 before/ after引导的从句的转换。 I went to bed after I finished my homework. =I didn’t go to bed until I finished my homework. 直到做完作业我才去睡觉。

3. 结果状语从句中的特殊句式 (1) 祈使句 +and + 简单句: 祈使句表示条件, and 引导 的简单句表示在条件的基础 上产生的良好结果,前后句 意统一 Eat more vegetables and less meat, and you’ll keep in good health. 多吃菜少吃肉,你会保 持健康的。

(2) 祈使句 +or+ 简单句:祈 使句表示条件,or引导的简 单句表示在违背条件的基础 上可能产生的不良后果,前 后句意对立。or在句中表示 “否则”,可与 if 引导的从 句进行替换

Keep quiet, or you won’t hear what the teacher says. =Keep quiet, and you will hear what the teacher says. =If you don’t keep quiet, you won’t hear what the teacher says. 保持安静,否则你听不见老师在 说什么。

(3)so. . . that. . . (如此?? 以至于??)与too. . . to. . . ( 太 ?? 而 不 能 ?? ) 和 not. . . enough to. . . (不足 以??)句式的转换

He is so young that he can’t look
after himself. =He is too young to look after himself. =He is not old

enough to look after himself.
他如此年轻以至于他不能照顾自 己。

考点二

宾语从句

一、在主从复合句中作宾语的句子叫作宾语从句。 二、宾语从句的四个考点:

①主句是现在时,从句根据实际情况使用相应时态
时态 ②主句是过去时,从句使用过去时的某种形式 ③从句表示的是客观事实、真理、自然现象等时,不 管主句使用什么时态,从句都用一般现在时 语序 从句一律用陈述语序,即主语 + 谓语

连接 词

①that在从句中作宾语时可以省略;作主语时不能省 略 ② what, when, where, how, whatever, whenever, wherever, who, whom, whose等特殊疑问词作连接词 ③当宾语从句由一般疑问句变化而来时,连接词用 whether或if,表示是否 一随主,二随宾,三不变

人称

【温馨提示】 当主句谓语动词为 think , suppose , guess, believe 等词,主语

为第一人称,从句表达否定意义时,形式上应否定主句。例如:
I don’t think that he is right. 我认为他不对。

考点三
一、基本构成

定语从句

1. 定义:在复合句

中作定语,修饰主句中某一名词或代词的从 句叫作定语从句。被定语从句修饰的词叫先行词,通常位于定 语从句之前。 2. 句式:含有定语从句的复合句基本结构:先行词 + 关系词 + 定语从句。

二、关系代词的基本用法 作主语 指人 指物 who/that which/ that 作宾语 who/whom/that/省略 which/that/省略 作定语 whose whose

Do you know the girl who/ that has won the first prize in

the singing competition?
你认识歌咏比赛中获得一等奖的那个女孩吗? Many laugh-making stars whose master is Zhao Benshan have become famous these years. 近年来很多师承赵本山的笑星成名了。

【温馨提示】 1. 以下情况只用that: ①The Transformers Ⅲ is the greatest movie that I have ever seen. (1) 先 行 词 前 有 最 《变形金钢Ⅲ》是我看过的最棒的一部电 高级或序数词修饰 影。 ②The first gift that I got from Uncle Liu was a toy panda. 我从刘叔叔那里得到的 第一件礼物是一只玩具熊猫。 (2)先行词前有only, Miss Yu seems to be the only teacher that all, any , no , last , can help us now. 现在可以帮助我们的老 just , very 等 词 修 师好像只有于老师了。 饰

(3) 先 行 词 是 something , anything , nothing , Is there anything that I can do for everything , little , few , you? 我可以为你做点什么? many,all,no,none等 I love the schools and teachers that give me happiness. 我喜爱给 我带来欢乐的学校和老师。

(4)先行词既有人又有物

2. 以下情况只用who/ whom:

(1)先行词是anyone, anybody, one, ones, those等

Anyone who breaks the law will be punished. 任何违法之人都将 受到处罚。

There are some boys who are (2)在there be结构中,先行 playing basketball on the 词指人时,关系代词用 playground. 操场上有些男孩在打 who 篮球。

3. 以下情况只用which: (1)引导词前有介词且先行 This is the house in which I’m 词指物 living. 这就是我住的房子。

(2)非限制性定语从句中

He bought a new computer, which can work faster and better. 他买了 台新电脑,这台电脑可以工作得 更快更好。

三、关系副词的基本用法 用法 when表示时间,在定语从句 中作时间状语,其先行词是 表 示 时 间 的 名 词 ( year , season,day等) 例句 I still remember the days when we worked together. 我仍然记得我们在一起工作的日 子。

where 表 示 地 点 , 在 定 语 从 This is the school where we once 句中作地点状语,其先行词 studied. 这就是我们曾经学习过 是表示地点的名词( place, 的学校。 school,room等) why 表示原因,在定语从句 Can you tell me the reason why 中作原因状语,其先行词只 he hasn’t come here? 有表示原因的reason一词 你能告诉我他不来这儿的原因吗?

【巧学妙记】定语从句的用法

主句型,从句型,两种句子要完整。

从句紧跟先行词,关系词引导要弄清。
定人要用who或whom,定物which当先用。

关系代词用that,定人定物有本领。
when用来定时间,where用来定地点。

关系代词作成分,唯作宾语可省略。

单项选择

1. (2012· 达州中考)—Do you enjoy My heart will go on?
—No, I prefer songs _______ loud.

A. that is
C. that are

B. which is
D. what are

【解析】选C。由先行词songs指物且在定语从句中作主语可知
关系代词为 that/which ,再由先行词为复数形式可知定语从句 的谓语为are。

2. (2012· 六盘水中考)—Do you know if we will go for a picnic this Saturday? —I think we will if we _______ any classes. A. won’t have C. don’t have B. didn’t have D. aren’t having

【解析】选 C 。在 if 引导的条件状语从句中用一般现在时表将 来。

3. (2012· 恩施中考)—I don’t know when _______ tomorrow? —I will call you as soon as he _______.

A. will he come; arrives
B. he will come; arrives

C. he will come; will arrive
【解析】选 B。 when引导的宾语从句用陈述语序; as soon as

引导的时间状语从句用一般现在时表将来,故选B。

4. ( 2012· 达 州 中 考 ) —That actor often joins in different activities in Beijing. Do you know _______?

—For 5 years.
A. how soon he will come back

B. how long he has stayed there
C. how long has he stayed there

D. how often does he go there
【解析】 选 B。由宾语从句的语序为陈述语序可排除 C、 D;

再由答语是for引导的时间状语可知宾语从句是how long引导的,
故选B。

5. ( 2011· 广东中考) The first thing _______ my brother is
going to do this afternoon is to write a letter. A. which B. that C. why D. who

【解析】选B。在定语从句中若先行词是物且被序数词修饰时 关系代词用that,故选B。

6. (2011· 济 南 中 考 )—Julie, do you know _______ yesterday

afternoon?
—By bus. I guess. A. when Mr. Green will get to Quancheng Square B. when will Mr. Green get to Quancheng Square C. how Mr. Green got to Quancheng Square

D. how did Mr. Green get to Quancheng Square
【解析】选C。考查宾语从句的用法。根据回答中的By bus我们

可以判断是对交通方式的提问。A和B选项中when不符合句意;
又宾语从句须用陈述语序,而D选项为疑问语序。故选C。

7. (2011· 兰州中考)Jane is one of the students in the class
_______ have ever been to China. A. who B. whose C. which D. whom

【解析】选A。由先行词是students,且在定语从句中作主语, 因此用关系词who。故选A。

8. ( 2011· 山 西 中 考 ) —Mr. Li, I found a watch on the

playground.
—You should try to find out _______. A. whose is the watch B. who is the owner of the watch C. whom does the watch belong to 【解析】选B。 宾语从句应该用陈述语序,

故选B。

9. (2011· 宁波中考)—What a new computer! Can you tell me _______? — Just the day before yesterday. A. how much you paid for it B. how much did you pay for it C. when you bought it D. when did you buy it 【解析】选C。从句应用陈述语序,故排除B项和D项;由答语

“前天”知问的是时间:“你能告诉我什么时候买的吗? ”,故
选C。

10. ( 2011· 广 东 中 考 ) —Let’s go fishing if it ______ this weekend. —But nobody knows if it _______. A. is fine; will rain C. will be fine; will rain B. will be fine; rains D. is fine; rains

【解析】选 A 。第一个 if 作“如果”讲,引导条件状语从句, 从句用一般现在时表将来。第二个 if作“是否”讲引导宾语从 句,可以用将来时。故选A。

11. ( 2011· 呼和浩特中考) —Is there anyone here _______ name is Betty? —Sorry, I don’t know.

A. who

B. which

C. whom

D. whose

【解析】选 D 。 在定语从句中先行词 anyone是人且与 name 之

间存在所属关系,故用whose。

12. ( 2011· 临 沂 中 考 ) The policeman asked the small girl _______. A. why she was crying C. why she is crying B. why was she crying D. why is she crying

【解析】选A。宾语从句用陈述语序,再由主句是一般过去时 可确定从句时态为过去时,故答案为A项。

13. ( 2011· 襄阳中考) —Do you know the man _______ is reading the book over there? —Yes, he’s Mr. Green, our PE teacher. A. which B. what C. whom D. who

【解析】选D。先行词the man 是人,且在定语从句中作主语, 应用关系代词who。

14. (2011· 温州中考)—Jack, could you tell me _______?
—Sure. In the post office on Green Road.

A. where you bought the stamps
B. where did you buy the stamps

C. when you bought the stamps
D. when did you buy the stamps

【解析】选A。由答语In the post office on Green Road可知问
句中的宾语从句的引导词应当是对地点进行提问的,由宾语从 句要用陈述语序可知选A。

15. (2011· 泰安中考)—Tom wants to know if you will have a

picnic tomorrow.
—Yes. But if it _______, we’ll play chess instead.

A. will rain

B. rained

C. is raining

D. rains

【解析】选 D 。在 if 引导的条件状语从句中用一般现在时表将

来。


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