Unit 1 How do you study for a test
1. How long have you been learning Chinese? 2. How do you study Chinese? 3. Do you study Chinese by reading aloud?
How do you learn Chinese?
I learn Chinese by using it.
I learn Chinese by listening to tapes
She learns English...
by taking notes carefully. by finishing her homework seriously. by+doing 表示通过什么样的方式而达到与主句句意 保持一致。
Ways of learning English
by asking my teacher for help by reading English magazines and newspapers by taking part in extra English classes after school by getting an English tutor by surfing the Internet
Mother shows her love by making me breakfast. verb by v-ing
动词与by doing sth. 连用通常就指通过什么方式来完成 那个动词的动作。
2. 表示位置或地点 3. 表示时间和数量
1. 介词 某人做某事 或某事被人做 常翻译为“被” 例：The feast was served by his mother and sisters. 宴席由他的母亲和姐妹们招待。 I was amazed by their discourtesy and lack of professionalism. 我为他们的无礼和职业精神的缺乏所震惊。 2.介词 如果是与书籍 音乐 画作等作品形式同用 则表 示由某人创作. 翻译为“由…创作” 例：A painting by Van Gogh has been sold in New York for more than eighty-two million dollars. 一幅由梵高创作的画在纽约卖到超过八千二百万
3.介词 如果某种方式与by同用，即表示用这种方式。翻 译为“以…方式”。 例：If you're travelling by car, ask whether there are parking facilities nearby. 如果你开汽车旅行，问问附近是否有停车设施。 4.介词 If you achieve one thing by doing another thing, your action enables you to achieve the first thing. 通过 例：The all-female yacht crew made history by becoming the first to sail round the world. 全部由女性组成的游艇船员通过首次环球航行而创造了 历史。
5.介词 用类似 "by chance" or "by accident" 这类词语表示某 件事情是否被策划，by在此处为“ 因为 由于”， 例： I met him by chance out walking yesterday. 昨天出去散步时我无意中遇到了他。 6.介词 如果说某人“by nature, by profession, or by birth”， 表示他们有什么样的性质，by在此处为“ 因为 由于”， 例： I am certainly lucky to have a kind wife who is loving by nature. 我的确幸运有一位仁慈的妻子，她天生富有爱心。 She's a nurse by profession and now runs a counselling service for women. 她是护士出身，现在经营着一家针对女性的咨询服务公司
7.介词 by particular standards. 根据特定的标准，例如 by law, 表示根据法律.
例 Pharmacists are required by law to give the medicine prescribed by the doctor. 根 据法律，药剂师
8.介词 如果 by a particular word or expression, 此时强调 word or expression，强调这个by后面的词语的意思. 例 Stella knew what he meant by "start again. 特拉知道他说“再次开始”是什么意思。 10. 词组 by yourself 表示 独自地 例：...a dark-haired man sitting by himself in a corner. …一个独自坐在角落里的、深色头发的男子 斯
1.介词，副词。 在…旁边 介词 例：Judith was sitting in a rocking chair by the window. 朱迪丝坐在窗边的摇椅上。 副词 例 Large numbers of security police stood by. 许多秘密警察站在旁边。
介词例：A few cars passed close by me. 几辆车从我近旁驶过。 副词例：The bomb went off as a police patrol went by. 炸弹在巡警队经过时爆炸了。 3. 介词 by 与某个位置相搭配，如by hand，by shoulder，表示在某个位置 例 grab someone by the hand/shoulder
1.介词 如果 something happens by a particular time 即发生在 这个时刻之前 到…时; 在…之前 例：By eight o'clock he had arrived at my hotel. 他八点前已 到了我住的旅馆。 2.介词 If you do something by day, you do it during the day. 在…期间 例：By day a woman could safely walk the streets. 白天，妇女可以安全地在街上走。
3.介词 In arithmetic, you use by before the second number in a multiplication or sum. 用于乘除法中
例：...an annual rate of 22.8 percent (1.9 multiplied by 12). …每年22.8％的比率（1.9乘以12）。