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人教版新目标八年级英语上册1-5单元知识点总结

发布时间:2014-02-07 15:51:58  

新目标八年级英语上册第一单元

Unit 1.How often do you exercise?

I. 重点短语归纳:

1.on weekends 在周末

2. go to the movies 去看电影

3. look after=take care of 照顾

4. surf the internet 上网

5. healthy lifestyle 健康的生活方式

6. go skateboarding 去滑滑板

7.watch TV看电视

8. keep healthy=stay healthy = keep in good health 保持健康

keep + 形容词 表保持某种状态

do some reading 阅读

9. exercise= take/do (much) exercise=do sports锻炼

10. eating habits 饮食习惯

11. take more exercise 做更多的运动

12. the same as 与什么相同

13. once a month一月一次

14. be different from 不同

15. twice a week一周两次.three times a week一周三次

16. make a difference to 对什么有影响

Eg:As teachers, you must believe that you can make a difference to the lives of your students. 身为教师,你们必须坚信你们能够影响学生的一生。

Eg:A false step will make a great difference to my future.

错走一步对我的前程来说会产生很大影响。

17. how often 多久一次,询问动作发生的频率

how many times 多少次 ,用来提问做某事的次数

18. although=though虽然 <不能与but连用>

Although he is old, he is quite strong.

(He is old, but he is quite strong.)

句子中,有although或though就不可再用but,但可用yet或still“仍然,还”;有because就不能再用so.

19. most of the students=most students大多数学生

20. shop=go shopping=do some shopping 购物

21. as for至于

22. activity survey活动调查

23. do homework做家庭作业

24. do house work做家务事

25. eat less meat吃更少的肉

26. junk food垃圾食物

27. be good for 对什么有益

28. be bad for对什么有害

29. want to do sth 想做某事

30. want sb to do sth想某人做某事

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31. try to do sth 尽量做某事

32. come home from school放学回家

33. of course=certainly=sure当然

34. get good grades取得好成绩

35. some advice 一些建议

some advice 中的 advice 是不可数名词 a piece of advice 一则建议

give advice 提出建议 take one’s advice 采纳或听从某人的建议

36. help sb to do sth帮助某人做某事=help sb with sth

37. a lot of vegetables=many vegetables许多蔬菜

38. hardly= almost not几乎不 hardly ever很少,几乎不,从不

39. keep/be in good health保持健康

40. your favorite program你最喜欢的节目

41. Animal World 动物世界

42. play soccer踢足球

43.every day 每天

every day 与 everyday

1. every day 作状语,译为“每一天”。如:

We go to school at 7:10 every day.

我们每天7:10去上学。

I decide to read English every day.

我决定每天读英语。

2. everyday 作定语,译为“日常的”。

She watches everyday English on TV after dinner.

她晚饭后在电视上看日常英语。

What's your everyday activity? 你的日常活动是什么?

44.once or twice a week 每周一两次

45. three or four times a week 每周三四次

46. at Green High School 在格林高中

47. all students 所有的学生

48. most students 大多数学生

49. some students 一些学生

50. no students 没有学生

51.the result of a survey 调查结果

52.the result for “watch TV”“看电视”的调查结果

53. improve your English 提高你的英语

54. drink milk 喝牛奶

55. pretty healthy 相当健康 pretty adv. 相当,非常

Pretty(用作副词时) =rather=very=quite 非常,相当

56. kind of = a little 有点

I think I’m kind of unhealthy. 我想我有点不健康。

二. 重点句子:

1.How often do you exercise? 你(你们)多久锻炼一次身体?

How often + 助动词do(does或did) + 主语 + do sth.? 疑问词how often是问频率(多久一次),(在这里助动词do(does或did) 是起帮助构成疑问的作用)与一般现在时或一般过去时连用, 2

回答一般是用表示频率的副词,如:once, twice, three times?, sometimes, often, quite, often, never, every day, once a week , twice a month , three times a month , three or four times a month等。

How often do you go to the factory? Twice a week.你们多久到工厂去一次? 每星期两次。 “How often does he go shopping?” “He goes shopping once a month.”

2“What do you usually do on weekends?” “ I usually play soccer.”

“周末你通常做什么?”“我通常踢足球。”

第一个do为助动词, 在这起帮助构成疑问的作用;而第二个do则是实义动词。

翻译:What do you usually do on weekends? I often go to the movies.

What does she usually do on weekends? She sometimes go hiking.

3. “What’s your favorite program?” “It’s Animal World.”

“你最喜欢什么节目?”“动物世界。”

4. As for homework , most students do homework every day .

as for...意思是“至于;关于”,常用于句首作状语,其后跟名词、代词或动词的-ing形式(即动名词)。如:

As for him,I never want to see him here. 至于他,我永远不希望在这里见到。

As for the story,you'd better not believe it. 关于那故事,你最好不要相信。

As for myself, I don’t want to go now. 至于我自己,我现在不想去。

As for the man, I know nothing about him. 至于那个人,我什么都不知道。

5. Mom wants me to get up at 6:00 and play ping-pong with her .

want to do sth. 意思是“想要做某事”;

want sb. to do sth.意思是“想要某人做某事”。如:

Do you want to go to the movies with me?你想和我一起去看电影吗?

The teacher doesn't want us to eat hamburgers.老师不想让我们吃汉堡包。

有很多动词后面用这种结构做动词的复合宾语

ask sb. to do sth. 叫某人做某事

tell sb. to do sth. 告诉某人去做某事

help sb. (to) do sth. 帮助某人做某事

6. She says it’s good for my health.

be good for...表示“对??有益(有好处)”;其反义为:be bad for...。(这里for 是 介词,后跟名词、代词或动名词)如:

It's good for us to do more reading. 多读书对我们有好处。

Reading in bed is bad for your eyes.在床上读书对你的眼睛有害。

7. How many hours do you sleep every night?

8. I exercise every day , usually when I come home from school .

9. My eating habits are pretty good . 这里pretty相当于very 。

10.I try to eat a lot of vegetables , usually ten to eleven times a week .

try to do sth.表示“ 尽力做某事 ” ,不包含是否成功的意思而try doing sth.表示

“(用某一办法)试着去做某事”。如:

You’d better try doing the experiment in another way.

你最好试试用另一种方法做这个试验。

11. My healthy lifestyle helps me get good grades.

help sb.(to) do sth.帮助某人做某事

12. Good food and exercise help me to study better.

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这里better是well的比较级,而不是good的比较级

13.Is her lifestyle the same as yours or different?

=Is her lifestyle the same as your lifestyle or is her lifestyle different from yours?

be the same as ? / be different from ?

14. What sports do you play ?

15. A lot of vegetables help you to keep in good health .

keep in good health = keep healthy = stay healthy

16. You must try to eat less meat .

try to do sth.表示“ 尽力做某事 ” ,不包含是否成功的意思,less是little的比较级

17. That sounds interesting.

这是“主语+系动词+表语”结构的简单句。sound(听起来),look(看起来),smell (闻起来),taste(尝起来),feel(觉得),seem(好象),grow(变得),get

(变得)等词在英语中可用作系动词,后跟形容词作表语。如:

It tastes good. 这味道好。

The music sounds very sweet. 这音乐听起来很入耳。

The smoke grew heavier and heavier. 烟雾变得越来越浓了。

18. I think I’m kind of unhealthy. 我想我有点不健康。

kind of = a little

a kind of 一种

三.知识结构

○1. 注意sometimes与几个形似的词的区别。

(1) sometime是副词,意为“在某个时候”,“某时”

Will you come again sometime next week?

(2) some time是名词词组,意为“一段时间”,做时间状语用

I will stay here for some time.我将在这呆一段时间。

(3) some times是名词词组,意为“几次,几倍”

I met him some times in the street last month.

上个月我在街上遇到他好几次了。

(4)sometimes 是频度副词,意为“有时”

He sometimes goes skateboarding on weekends.

他有时周末去滑滑板。

○2 time意为“时间”时,为不可数名词。 意为“次数,倍数”时,为可数名词, What time is it?

I go to the movies three times a week.

注意“次数”的表达方法

一次 once, 两次 twice,三次或三次以上用基数词加上times:

three times、five times、one hundred times.

表示“??几次”的表达方法是:

once a day/ a week/ a month/ a year

twice a day/ a week/ a month/ a year

○3 same与different

1.same指“相同的”,前面通常要有一个定冠词the,但是如果same前面已经有this,those等词,就不能再与the连用了。如:

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We are in the same class. 我们在同一个班级。

结构:the same as 与......一样 如:

His mark is the same as mine. 他的分数和我的分数一样。

2.different译为“不同的”,其后的可数名词应为复数形式。如:

We are in different classes. 我们在不同的班级。

结构:be different from 与......不同 如:

This sweater is different from that one. 这件毛衣与那一件不同。

different的名词形式为difference, 复数形式为differences。

○4 hard / hardly

hard: hard既可作形容词,也可作副词。adj. 辛苦的,困难的 adv. 努力,使劲地

He had a hard (adj.)time in the past.

It's a hard (adj.) question. (=difficult) 这是一个难的问题。

The boy studies very hard (adv.). 那男孩学习非常努力

He works hard. 他努力工作。

句子结构:It's hard for sb to do sth 做某事对某人来说是难的。如:

It's hard for him to finish the work. 完成那项工作对他来说很难。

注意区分:hard work 困难的工作

work hard 努力工作

hardly是频度副词,表示否定的意思。(=almost not)通常用在形容词、副词和动词之前。hardly: adv. 几乎不,简直不

I can hardly see it. 我几乎看不到它。

He hardly works. 他几乎不工作。

It hardly rains here, does it?

○5 how often / how long / how soon / how far

how often: “隔多久一次”,指动作的频率,答语常用often, never, twice a week等表示频率的副词或短语。(用于一般现在时或一般过去时)

How often do you go to the movies?

Once a week. / I never go to the movies.

how long: 1)“(延续)多长时间”,回答用for+时间段或since+时间点。(用于各种时态);

2) 询问物体的长度。

How long is the Yellow River?

How long have you learned English?

I have learned it for 5 years.

I have learned it since 5 years ago.

how soon: “还要多久才?,多久以后”,答语常用“in+时间段”。(用于一般将来时) How soon will she come back?

She’ll come back in an hour.

how far: “多远”,询问距离。

Can you tell me how far it is from here to your home?

How far is it from your home to our school?

It’s 2 kilometers away.

Unit 2 what’s the matter?

一.重点短语归纳

1. foot---feet 脚 <复> tooth---teeth 牙齿 <复>

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2. have a cold 感冒

3. have a stomachache 胃疼 4. have a sore back背疼

5. have a sore throat喉咙疼

6. have a fever发烧 7. lie down and (have a)rest 躺下休息 have a rest 休息

8. hot tea with honey 加蜜的热茶

9. see a dentist 看牙医 see a doctor 看医生

10.drink lots of water多喝水

11.lots of ,a lot of, a lot

a lot of=lots of,可以修饰可数名词复数和不可数名词,一般用在肯定句中。: There are lots of ( a lot of) books in our library. There is a lot of water on the ground

a lot,是一个副词词组,跟动词连用;表示十分,很等意思; Thanks a lot.

12. have a toothache牙疼

13. That’s a good idea好主意

14. go to bed 去睡觉 go to bed early 早上床睡觉

15. feel well感到好 feel ill 感到不舒服

I don’t feel well= I’m not feeling well

我感觉不舒服.

16. start doing/ to do sth开始做某事

TO DO 是一件事情完成了,开始做另外一件事情

DOING是原来的那件事情做到一半,现在又开始做了,是同一件事情。

17. two days ago两天前

18. get some rest 多休息, 休息一会儿

19. I think so我认为是这样

20. be thirsty口渴

21. be hungry 饥饿

22. be stressed out紧张

23. listen to music听音乐

24. healthy lifestyle健康的生活方式

25. traditional Chinese doctors传统中医

26. need to do sth 需要做某事 I have a toothache. I need to see a dentist. 我牙痛, 我需要去看牙医.

We need to keep our classroom clean. 我们需要保持教室的干净.

27. a balance of yin and yang阴阳平衡

28. for example例如 29. too much yin太多的阴, 阴气太盛

too much + 不可数名词 太多的?

much too +形/副 实在太? 极其,非常

too many + 可数名词复数 太多的?

30.be good for sth./ doing sth. 对什么有益 ,对什么有好处

be bad for sth./ doing sth. 对什么有害

be good to 对?好

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be good at =do well in 在??方面好,擅长

be good(bad) for、be good at的相关用法

1.be good for 对......有益

Doing morning exercises is good for your health.

做早操对你们的建康有益。

2.be good at 擅长于......

Li Ping is good at basketball. 李平擅长于篮球。

= Li Ping is good at playing basketball. 李平擅长于打篮球。

be good at = do well in 如:

I'm good at math. = I do well in math. 我擅长于数学。

3.be good to 对......好

Parents are always good to their children.父母亲总是对他们的孩子好。

31.get good grades 取得好成绩

32.angry 用法 be angry with sb生某人的气 I was angry with him for keeping me waiting.我对他很生气,因为他让我等了好久。 be angry at/ about sth 就某事生气

33.Chinese medicine 中药

34.be popular in + some place 在某地很流行 Chinese medicine is now popular in many western countries. 现在中药在许多西方国家受欢迎。

35.in western countries在西方国家

36.It’s easy to do sth做某事是容易的。 It’s important to do sth . 做某事很重要。

37.balanced diet平衡饮食[?b?l?nst]

38.get tired 感到疲倦 be/get tired

39.go out at night在晚上出去

When you are tired, you shouldn’t go out at night. 疲倦时,晚上你不该外出

40.stay healthy 保持健康 =keep healthy=keep in good health

41.at the moment此时,此刻= now

I’m not feeling very well at the moment

42.enjoy sth. =like sth. (名词)喜欢某物,

enjoy doing sth.喜欢做某事=like dong sth

enjoy oneself (myself, yourself,herself, himself, themselves, ourselves, itself

反身代词) 玩得高兴,过得愉快=have a good time = have a wonderful time =have fun

43. conversation practice会话练习

44. host family 寄宿家庭

45. have a lot of headaches经常疼痛

I’m tired and I have a lot of headaches. 我很疲劳,而且经常头痛。

46. a few + 可数名词复数 少许?

a little + 不可数名词/形/副 一点?

47.He shouldn’t eat anything

=He should eat nothing. 他不应当吃任何东西.

48.give sb some advice给某人建议give advice 提出建议

advice 是不可数名词

a piece of advice 一则建议 take one’s advice 采纳或听从某人的建议

He gave me some good advice.

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他向我提了一些很好的意见。

49.sleep 8 hours a night每晚睡眠八小时

50.take medicine 吃药 服药

I have to take medicine three times a day for my cold.因为感冒,我不得不一天吃三次药。

二 固定结构

It’s +形 + for sb. + to do sth.

做某事对某人来说是?的。

It’s important to do sth .做某事很重要。

It’s important for me to eat a balanced diet. 平衡饮食对我来说是很重要的.

It’s easy to do sth做某事是容易的。

It’s easy for us to find out the answer. 找出答案对我们来说是容易的

三.重点句子

1.What’s the matter ? What’s the mater with you ? 你怎么啦?

=What’s the trouble with you?=What’s wrong with you?

I have a cold / have a sore back / have a stomachache [?st?m?k?e?k]

2.That’s too bad. You should / shouldn’t ? 那太糟糕了. 你应该/不该?

You should lie down and rest / drink hot tea with honey / see a dentist / see a doctor . He shouldn’t eat anything = He should eat nothing. 他不应当吃任何东西.

3.I’m not felling well . 这里well表示身体状况,不能用good代替

I don’t feel well= I’m not feeling well 我感觉不舒服.

4.When did it start ? About two days ago . 什么时候开始的?大约两天前

5.I hope you fell better soon . 我希望你很快好起来

这里better是well的比较级

6.Traditional Chinese doctors believe we need a balance of yin and yang to be healthy. 传统中医认为我们需要阴阳调和以保持身体健康。

这里 to be healthy是动词不定式短语,作目的状语

7.You should eat hot yang foods, like beef. 你应该吃一些像牛肉之类的阳性食物。

8.Eating Dangshen and Huangqi herbs [h??b] is also good for this.

吃党参和黄芪等草本植物也对这有好处。

9.People who are too stressed out and angry may have too much yang.

太紧张易怒的人或许吃了太多的阳性食物。too much后跟不可数名词,而too many后跟可数名词复数

10.It’s easy to have a healthy lifestyle ,and it’s important to eat a balanced diet . 有一个健康的生活方式很容易,饮食平衡是很重要的。

→ It’s easy to do sth . 做某事容易 / It’s important to do sth . 做某事重要

11.You should rest for a few nights. 你应该休息几个晚上

12.I study late every night, sometimes until 2 am, but I don’t think I’m improving.

我每天晚上学到很晚,有时到凌晨2点钟,但我认为我没有提高。

13believe in 信任某人,强调品质,believe sb.相信某人的话

I believe him, but I can’t believe in him.

他的话是真的,但是我不信任他这个人。

14 .I have a toothache [?tu?θ?e?k] . I need to see a dentist .

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→ need意思为 “需要” ,

作实义动词时,后跟动词不定式,否定式为don’t /doesn’t / didn’t need (to do sth.) ; 作情态动词时,只能用于否定句或疑问句中,否定式为needn’t(do sth.) ,

除有过去式外,没有其它的形态变化

四.知识结构

○1.情态动词should的用法

should是情态动词,它的基本用法是必须和其他动词一起构成谓语。情态动词没有人称和数的变化,意为"应该......"。

should(应当,应该)用于所有人称,表示劝告或建议。

eg. You should wait a little more.

你应该再多等一会儿。

--- I have a very bad cold.我感冒很厉害。

--- You should lie down and have a rest.你应该躺下,多喝水。

○2maybe与may be

1.maybe是副词,译为“也许、可能”,相当于“perhaps”。如:

Maybe he can answer the question. 也许他能回答那个问题。

He maybe is from the USA, too. 他可能也来自美国。

2.may be中的may为情态动词,译为“可能是......”。如:

He may be from the USA, too. 他可能也来自美国。

She may be our English teacher. 她可能是我们的英语老师

○3too many,too much与much too

1.too many意为“太多”,用于修饰可数名词的复数。如:

There are too many students in our class. 我们班上有太多的学生。

2.too much意为“太多”,用于修饰不可数名词。如:

We have too much work to do. 我们有太多的工作要做。

3.much too表示“太”,用来修饰形容词或副词。如:

The box is much too heavy, so I can't carry it.

箱子太重了,所以我搬不动它。

○4 few、a few、little、a little的区别和联系:

1. few / a few用来修饰可数名词,

2. few表示否定意义,没有,几乎没有;a few表示有肯定意思, 有几个。

He has few friends here, he feels lonely. 他这里没朋友,他感觉寂寞。

There are a few eggs in the basket.篮子里有几个鸡蛋。

3.little / a little用来修饰不可数名词,little表示否定意思,没有,几乎没有。a little 表示肯定意思,有一点儿。 例如:

There is little ink in my bottle, can you give me a little ink?

我的瓶子里没有墨水了,你能给我点儿墨水吗?

○5 not?until 直到 ?(否定句) 才,动词为短暂性或瞬间性动词

She didn’t leave until we came.

He went shopping after he got up.

=He didn’t go shopping until /before he got up.

??until/till 直到··· (肯定句)动词为延续性动词

We stayed here till/until 12 o’clock.

9 例如:

Unit 3 What are you doing for vacation?

一.重点短语归纳

1. go camping 去野营

2. go shopping 去购物

3. go skateboarding 去滑滑板

4. go swimming 去游泳

5. go boating 去划船

6. go skating 去滑冰

7. go hiking (in the mountains) 去山上徒步旅行/远足

8. go climbing 去登山

9. go fishing 去钓鱼

10. go bike riding / cycling 骑自行车旅行

11. go sightseeing 去观光

12. visit my grandma/ cousins/ my friends in Hong Kong 拜访我的祖母/堂兄弟/香港的朋友

13. spend time with friends 和朋友度过

14. babysit her sister 照顾她的妹妹

15. relax at home 在家休息

16. go to sports camp 去运动野营

17. go to the beach 去沙滩

18. take a vacation 去度假

19. go to Tibet for a week 去西藏一个星期

20. go away 离开,走开 It made me sad to hear you have to go away.听到你非走不可,我觉得很伤心

21. (for) too long 太久

22. how long 多长(时间)

23. have a good time=have fun=enjoy oneself 玩得高兴,玩得开心

24. get back to school/ home 回学校/回家

go back= come back= get back 回来 get back to +some where回到某地

get back home/ here /there 回家、这、那儿

go back to school 回到学校=return to school

go back home 回到家=return home

25. stay for three weeks 呆三个星期

26. take walks / take a walk 散步take walks=have walks=go for a walk 散步

27. rent videos 租录像带

28. a famous French singer 一个著名的法籍歌手

29. take a long vacation 度长假

30. take vacations in Europe 在欧洲度假

31. think about/ of 考虑/思考

32. something different/ interesting/ important 一些不同的/ 有趣的/ 重要的东西 I have something interesting to tell you. 我有一些有趣的事要告诉你。

She wants something new. 她想要一些新的东西。

33. spend time in the beautiful countryside 在美丽的乡村度过

34. forget all the problems 忘记所有的问题(烦恼)

35. sleep a lot 多睡觉,睡个够

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36. can't wait 迫不及待can’t wait to do sth 迫不及待做某事

She can’t wait to get home to see her parents.

她迫不及待的想回家看望父母。

37. a good place to go sightseeing 一个观光的好地方

38. leave for Italy/ Greece/ Spain/ Europe 离开/出发去意大利/希腊/西班牙/欧洲

39. places to visit in China 在中国参观的地方

40. plan my vacation to Italy 计划去意大利度假

41. the first week in June 六月的第一周

42. leave for ? 离开/出发去??

leave的用法

1.“leave+地点”表示“离开某地”。例如:

When did you leave Shanghai?

你什么时候离开上海的?

2.“leave for+地点”表示“动身去某地”。例如:

Next Friday, Alice is leaving for London.

下周五,爱丽斯要去伦敦了。

3.“leave+地点+for+地点”表示“离开某地去某地”。例如:

Why are you leaving Shanghai for Beijing?

你为什么要离开上海去北京?

43. rent videos to sb. 租碟片给某人

rent videos from sb. 从某人那租碟片

44. make a movie 拍电影

45. ask sb about sth 问某人某事

46. at night =in the evening 在晚上

47.What/How about+ doing> ?怎么样呢?

48 on Monday 在星期一

49..next week 下周

50.the Great Wall 长城

二.固定结构

1. show sb. sth. 让某人看某物

= show sth. to sb. 把某物给某人看

He showed me a postcard from Hong Kong yesterday.

= He showed a postcard to me from Hong Kong yesterday.

类似的结构还有: give sb. sth. = give sth. to sb. 把某物给某人

buy sb. sth. = buy sth. for sb. 给某人买某物

2. send sb. sth. 寄给某人某物

= send sth. to sb. 寄某物给某人

My friends sent me a letter just now.

= My friends sent a letter to me just now.

3. think about/ of sth./ doing sth.

考虑某事/考虑做某事

He often thinks about going to Europe for vacation.

4. decide on sth. 决定某事

decide to do sth. 决定做某事

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They will decide on the case(案件) tomorrow.

He decided to go sightseeing at last.

5. plan to do sth. 计划做某事(过去式) planned (现在分词)planning

She planned to go to Greece for vacation.

vacation plans 假期计划 make plans 制定计划

We should make plans before we do anything.

在做任何事前我们应该制定好计划。

6. forget to do sth. 忘记去做某事

forget doing sth. 忘记做过某事

Don't forget to close the door when you leave the classroom.

I forget going to Spain before.

7. remember to do sth. 记得去做某事

= remember doing sth. 记得做过某事

Remember to bring your book here tomorrow.

He remembered calling you just now.

8. finish sth./ finish doing sth. 完成某事/完成做某事

Do you finish your homework?

When did you finish doing your homework?

9. need to do sth. 需要做某事

We need to go home early.

10. leave for + 地名 离开/出发去?

leave A for B 离开A地去B地

My parents and I are leaving (here) for Beijing tomorrow.

My uncle will leave Beijing for Tokyo tomorrow.

11. have a good time/ have fun 玩得开心

enjoy oneself

We had a good time/ had fun last night.

= We enjoyed ourselves last night.

I hope you can have a good time/ have fun.

= I hope you can enjoy yourself/ yourselves.

12.spend意为“度过、花费(时间、金钱等)”其主语一般是人,常用的句式有: spend?on sth.

Spend?(in) doing sth. 如:

How long do you spend on your homework everyday?

How long do you spend (in) doing your homework everyday?你每天花多少时间做作业

三.重点句子

1. What are you doing for vacation?

你假期打算做什么?

I am babysitting my sister.

我打算照顾我的妹妹。

2. Where is he going? 他要去哪?

He is going to Italy. 他打算去意大利。

3. When is he going? 他什么时候要去?

He is going on the 11th./ in December.

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他打算11号去/12月去。

4. Who is she going with? 她打算和谁去?

She is going with her parents.

她打算和她的父母亲去。

5. How long are they staying in Tibet?

他们准备在西藏呆多久?

They are staying for three weeks.

他们打算呆三个星期

6. That sounds interesting. 那听起来有趣。

sound 为感官动词

感官动词后面加形容词

感官动词为:look(看起来), sound(听起来), feel(感觉起来), taste(尝起来), smell(闻起来)?

7. I don't like going away for too long.

我不喜欢离开太久。

like to do sth./ like doing sth. 喜欢做某事

8. I know there are many people there (who speak French.) 我知道那儿有许多说法语的人。 Who speak French 为定语从句,用来修饰先行词 people 的。当先行词为人物时,定语从句必须由关系代词 who 来引导。

I know the girl( who comes from Spain in his class.)

我认识他班里那个来自西班牙的女孩。

Do you know the man (who is fishing)?

你认识那个正在钓鱼的人吗?

9. He planned to have a very relaxing vacation.

他计划度过一个轻松的假期。

plan to do sth. 计划做某事

10. I just finished making my last movie.

我刚制作完了我最后的一部电影。

finish doing sth. 完成做某事

11. I hear that Thailand is a good place to go sightseeing. 我听说泰国是个观光的好地方。 a good place to go sightseeing 一个观光的好地方

12. I want to ask you about places to visit in China.

我想问你有关可在中国参观的地方。

want to do sth. 想做某事

ask sb. about sth. 问某人有关某事

13. I am planning my vacation to Italy this weekend.

我打算这个周末去意大利度假。

plan my vacation to Italy 计划去意大利度假

= plan to go to Italy for vacation

14. What should tourist take with them?

游客必须带什么(在身上)呢?

take sth with sb. 带某物在身上/随身带某物

It's going to rain. Please take an umbrella with you. 就要下雨了。请带上一把雨

They take some money with them.他们随身带着些钱。

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四.知识结构

○1.What are you doing for vacation?

你打算/准备/计划假期做些什么?

I am going sightseeing.

我打算/准备/计划去观光。

这里用了“现在进行时 be doing”的结构来表示在最近计划或安排将要进行的动作, 有“意图” 或“打算”的含义.通常与表未来时间的状语连用。

I am visiting him tomorrow.

我明天要去拜访他。

He is leaving for Italy in three days.

他三天后要出发去意大利。

Are they coming this afternoon?

他们今天下午会来吗?

○2.“be + 动词-ing”

1)“be + 动词-ing”表示动词的现在进行时,指正在进行或发生的动作或事情。如: He is doing his homework. 他正在做作业。

2)“be + 动词-ing”也可以表示近期的计划或马上要发生的动作,常与表示将来的时间状语连用。

She is leaving for Shanghai this evening. 他打算今晚动身去上海。

They are taking a long vacation this summer. 他们打算今年夏天度一个长假。

○3.一般情况下加ing的形容词修饰sth

加ed的形容词修饰sb

relaxing 令人轻松的

relaxed 感到轻松的

①He plans to have a very relaxing vacation.他计划去度一个轻松的假期

②I am relaxed after reading the interesting book.看了一本有趣的书后我感到很轻松 interesting 有趣 interested 感到兴趣

I am interested in the interesting film. 我对这部有趣的电影很有兴趣

surprising 令人吃惊的

surprised 感到吃惊

He was surprised when he heard the surprising news 听到这个令人惊讶的消息他感到很吃惊。 exciting 令人兴奋的 excited 感到兴奋

○4.表示时间的 in、on 与 at

in, on 与 at 都可以和表示时间的词(组)连用。

1. in 表示时间的一段或较长的时间。如:

in the morning 在上午 in May, 2004 在2004年五月

in a week 在一周之内(后)

It's Sunday, I can finish it in two days.

现在是星期天,我能在两天后完成。(星期二)

Rome was not built in a day. 罗马不是在一天内建起来的。

2. on 主要指在具体的一天。如:

on Sunday 在星期天 on May Day 在“五一”节

on a hot afternoon 在一个炎热的下午

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He arrived in Beijing on April 26,2004.

他于2004年4月26日到达北京。

3. at 表示时间的一点或比较短的时间。如:

at 8:00 在八点 at noon 在中午

I always get up at 6:00 every morning. 我总是每天早晨六点起床。

It's always warm at this time of year. 每年的这个时候总是暖和的。

解题点拨

例1. When I __________ home, I’ll show you the photos.

A.get to B. return to C. get back D. return back

解析 home 之前的to 要省略,故A、B为错误选项,而D选项中的return与back搭配,属于语意的重复,因此正确答案为C。

例2.I decide ______ go fishing with Sally.

A.on B.to C.at D.in

解析 decide 可与介词on 或to连用,但decide on表示“决定” 时后面的宾语为名词或代词,而decide 与不定式to do 连用表示“决定去做 ?”,故正确答案为B。

Unit 4 How do you get to school?

一.短语归纳

1. take the subway to ? = go to ? by subway 搭地铁

2. take the train to ? = go to ? by train 坐火车

3. take a bus to ? = go to ?by bus = go to ? on a bus 乘坐公共汽车

4. take a taxi to ? = go to ? by taxi 坐的士

5. ride a bike/ bicycle to? = go to ? by bike/ bicycle 骑自行车

6. walk to? = go to ? on foot 步行

7. take a car to? = go to ? in a car= go to ? by car 坐汽车

8. get to school 到达学校get to=arrive in/at=reach 到达 (in加大地方at加小地方)

9. 10 kilometers from school 离学校10公里(远)

10. from?to? 从?到? from his home to school 从他家到学校

11. how (用于提问状态和交通工具) 怎样

how long 用来询问时间的长度(用于提问时间段 多长(时间)) 或物体的长度 how often (用于提问频率) 多久时间一次

how far (用于提问距离) 多远

how many 用于提问数量) 多少

how much(用于提问数量/价钱) 多少/多少钱

how soon“过多久”,用来询问某事要在多久以后才能发生

12. have a quick breakfast 快速地吃早餐

13. leave for school 出发去学校

14. the early bus 早班车

15. take sb. to school 带某人去学校

Then the early bus takes him to school.然后,他乘坐早班车到学校

16. bus ride 搭公车的路程

17. bus stop 公车亭

18. bus station 公车站

bus stop 是指小站,bus station指大的站,比如汽车站。现在的英语 尤其是美式英语里,二者的区分不是太细。

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19. train station 火车站

20. subway station 地铁站

21. think of 认为

22. around the world=all over the world 遍及全世界

22.the school bus 校车

23. in North /South America 在北/南美洲

in the north/south/east/west of American 在美国的北/南/东/西部

24. on the school bus 乘/坐校车

25. in other parts of the world 在世界上的其他地方

26. the other (两者中的)另一个

27. others = other (students) 其他的(学生)

28. things are different 情况不同

29. be different from 与?不同

be the same as 与??一样(见后)

30. make a difference 产生差异

31. depend on 取决于/依赖/依靠

In China , it depends on where you are . → depend on 视??而定;决定于

I haven’t a car, I have to depend on the buses. 我没有汽车,只能依靠公共汽车。

32. go to school by boat = take a boat to school 坐船去上学

33. must be 肯定/一定是

34. a lot more fun 更多的乐趣

35. not all students并非所有的学生

36. the most popular ways /means最流行的方式

means of transportation 交通方式

In China,bikes and buses are the most popular means of transportation.在中国,自行车和公共汽车是最流行的交通方式。

37. a small number of 小部分的

A small number of students take the subway to school.小部分学生乘坐地铁上学

38. a large/ great number of 大多数的

☆ a number of + 复数名词 作主语,动词用复数 “许多”=many

可用large/great/small 修饰,表程度。

☆ the number of + 复数名词 作主语,动词用单数 “?..的数量”

A great number of students are young.

The number of them is 2,200.

39. be ill in the hospital 生病住院

ill和sick 都可作表语 He is ill/sick. 他生病了。

但是He is a sick man. 他是一个病人。(sick作定语,此时不能用ill)

ill(形容词):illness(名词)

40. worry about sb./sth. 担心某人/某事

☆ worry about sb/sth=be worried about ?.为某人/某事担心

I worry about my study.= I am wirried about my study.

41. take a shower淋浴

42.at around six thirty在大约六点半

around 作介词时,是“大约、将近”的意思时,常与数词连用

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He leaves for school at around six thirty. 他大约在6点30分动身去学校

leave for 动词短语,意思是“去(某地)” 见3单元重点短语归纳中的详解

43. five minutes’walk步行五分钟的路程

44. Don’t worry. 别担心

45. in Chinese 用汉语

46.How/ What about??

How/ What about??常用来询问和建议,其中about是介词,其后跟名词、代词及动名词,意思是“??怎么样???如何?”

How about trying again? 再试一下如何?

二. 固定结构

1. It takes/ took (sb.) some time to do sth.

做某事花了某人??时间/某人花了??时间做某事

It takes me 20 minutes to finish all my homework.

我花了20分钟的时间完成了所有的作业。

It took him 2 years to finish making the movie.

他花了两年的时间制作了这部电影。

此句子结构可等同于:

sb. spend/ spent some time on sth. 某人花了??时间在某事上

sb. spend/ spent some time (in) doing sth.

某人花了??做某事

It takes me 20 minutes to finish all my homework.

= I spend 20 minutes on all my homework.

= I spend 20 minutes (in) doing all my homework.

It took him 2 years to finish making the movie.

= I spent 2 years on the movie.

= He spent 2 years (in) making the movie.

三. 重点句子

1. How do you get to school?

I ride my bike to school.

How do I get there ? 因there是副词,所以不能说get to there

2. How long does it take?

It takes about 25 minutes to walk and 10 minutes by bus.

3. How long does it take you to ride your bike to school?

It takes me 35 minutes to ride my bike to school.

你需要多长时间到校?步行大约10分钟,乘汽车15分钟。

4. How far is it (from his home to school)?

= How far does he live from school?

It is three miles (from his home to school). 从他家到学校有多远?大约10公里。

5. What do think of the transportation in your town?

= How do you like the transportation in your town?

What do you think of ?? 你对?的看法怎样?

= How do you like ?? 你认为?怎样?

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6. That must be a lot more fun than taking a bus!

那肯定比坐公车更有趣的多!

表推测:must be 一定、必定、肯定 用于肯定句中

a lot/a bit/a little/much/some/even/still/far?.修饰比较级 a little taller

more 是many、much的比较级,表示“更多的”意思。比较级+ than 构成比较级结构。

7. A small number of students take a subway.

a number of = many 许多

8. Don't worry. 别担心。

9. I have a map but in Chinese .

10. When it rains I take a taxi .

11.In North America , not all students take the bus to school .

not all是部分否定,意思是并不是所有的;不是全部的

表部分否定:not 与all, both, many, much, everyone, everything, always等连用,表部分否定。

四.句子结构拓展

○1. It depends on where you are. 取决于你在哪里。

这是一个宾语从句。在宾语从句中要用陈述句语序。

I know.

He comes from Spain.

→ I know he comes from Spain.

I want to know.

Where does he come from?

→ I want to know where he comes from.

○2. In places (where there are rivers and lakes), students usually go to school by boat.

(在有河流和湖泊的)地方,学生通常都坐船去上学。

这是一个定语从句。where there are rivers and lakes 是定语,修饰前面的名词 place. The girl (who speaks French) is my classmate.

那个(说法语的)女孩是我的同班同学。

若定语从句修饰的名词(先行词)是人物,则用关系代词who连接.

He wants to live in a place (where there are flowers and grass). 他想住在有花有草的地方。 若定语从句修饰的名词(先行词)是地点,则用关系副词 where 连接

○3take/ spend /cost

●take后面常跟双宾语, 常见用法有以下几种:

(1) It takes sb. +时间+to do sth. 做某事花了某人多少时间。

例:It took them three years to build this road. 他们用了三年时间修完了这条路。

(2)doing sth. takes sb. +时间,做某事花了某人多少时间。

例:Repairing this car took him the whole afternoon. 他花了一下午修车。

●spend的主语必须是人, 常用于以下结构:

(1) spend time /money on sth. 在??上花费时间(金钱)。

例:I spent two hours on this maths problem. 这道数学题花了我两个小时。

(2) spend time / money (in) doing sth. 花费时间(金钱)做某事。

例:They spent two years (in) building this bridge. 造这座桥花了他们两年时间。

(3)spend money for sth. 花钱买??。

例:His money was spent for books. 他的钱用来买书了。

●cost的主语是物或某种活动, 还可以表示“值”, 常见用法如下:

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(1)sth. costs (sb.) +金钱,某物花了(某人)多少钱。

例:A new computer costs a lot of money. 买一台新电脑要花一大笔钱。

(2) (doing) sth. costs (sb.) +时间,某物(做某事)花了(某人)多少时间。

例:Remembering these new words cost him a lot of time. 他花了大量时间才记住了这些单词。 注意:cost的过去式及过去分词都是cost,并且不能用于被动句。

●pay的作“花费”的意思时,常见用法如下:

(1)sb.+ pay for sth. 付??的款

例:He paid £5 for the book. 他买这本书花了5英镑。

(2)pay sb.for sth. 为??给某人报酬

例:The boss paid Bob for his work. 老板为他的工作给了Bob报酬。

Detailed Solution for Unit 5

Can you come to my party?

【重要词汇】

◆ lesson n. 课,课程

◆ calendar/ ['k?lind?] n. 日历,行事历

◆ tomorrow/ n. 明天

◆ invitation/n. 邀请

◆ match/ n. 比赛,竞赛

◆ whole/ adj. 整整的,全部的,完整的

【重要词组】

◆ baseball game 棒球比赛

◆ the day after tomorrow 后天

◆ come over to 从一地方来到另一个地方,过来

◆ go to the doctor 去看病

◆ have a piano lesson 上钢琴课

◆ have to 不得不

◆ next time 下一次

◆ study for a test 准备考试

◆ be free 有空儿,有时间

【部分词汇用法】

做功课:

I usually do my lessons in the evening.

2. have a lesson / have lessons (学生)上课:

I had an art lesson yesterday.

3. give a lesson to sb. / give lessons to sb. (老师)给某人上课:

Our math teacher gave a funny lesson to us.

或) give sb. a lesson给某人一个教训:

The terrible illness taught him a lesson, so he wanted to exercise every day.

作形容词:I am still hungry. I want to have another apple.

作代词: I don’t like this shirt. I want to have a look at another.

1. from one to another 从一个到另一个:

I’m going hiking from one city to another.

I love apples, so I eat one after another when there are some at home.

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other/ others/another/the other/the others

20 students in our class are English and the other students are Chinese.

Some say yes, but others say no.

another作代词(单数),泛指三个以上不定数目的人或事物中的另一个

the other作代词(单数),表示两者中的另一个人或事物

I have two pens. One is red and the other is black.

the others作代词(复数),表示全体中除去一部分后其余所有的人后事物

20 students in our class are English and the others are Chinese.

thank you for / thanks for

thank you for谢谢你… 后面跟谢谢你… 后面跟doing sth.

Thank you for your invitation.

Thanks for coming to my party.

Whole/ all

all my morning与my whole morning

2. all 不与a / an 连用,whole可以

可以说a whole year,但不可以说all a year

who 问作主语的“谁”:Who can open this door?

whom 问作宾语的“谁”:Whom are you looking after?

注:口语中who和whom可以通用;whose 问事物的主人:Whose book is it?

come over顺便来访 come along一起来 come from来自…

come back回来 come down下来,败落 come round (非正式)过访,前来

come into being形成,产生 come out出来 come on赶快,来吧

come in 进来 come up上来,出现 come up with提出,赶上

【重要句型】

1. Can you come to my party on Wednesday? 你星期三能来我的聚会吗?

2. Can you go to the movies? 你能去看电影吗?

I’m sorry. I have to help my mom. 对不起,我必须帮我妈妈。

3. Can she/he go to the baseball game? 她(他)能去棒球赛吗?

No, she/he can’t .She/he has to study for a test. 不能,她(他)不得不为考试学习。

4. Can they go to the concert? 他们能去音乐会吗?

No, they can’t .They’re going to a party. 不能,他们将去(参加)聚会。

【难点】

使用Can you …?句型发出邀请并能正确回答。

1. I have to help my parents . 我不得不帮助我的父母。

I’m sorry. I have to study for a math test. 对不起,我得为数学考试而学习。

(1)have to表示“不得不”的意思,“形势逼迫”的意味;help的用法:help sb with sth .或help sb (to) do sth . eg.

I have to help my parents with the housework .或说I have to help my parents (to) do the housework . 我不得不帮助我父母干家务。

You shall have to work hard if they want you to get it done this week.

如果他们要你这周完成这项工作的话,你就得努力工作。(表示外界条件的客观需要。) 而must则着重说明主观看法,表示个人的意志,eg.

I must go there to help the poor.

我必须去帮助那些穷人们。(表示说话人自己的看法。)

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同时,在某些不需要强调这两种差别的场合,两者可以互相换用。eg.

I am afraid we have to / must leave now. 我恐怕得走了。

(2)study for…表示“为……而学”的意思,for的后面接study的目的,eg.

We study hard for the people. 我们为人们而努力学习。

They want to work hard for better pay. 他们为了更好的报酬而努力工作。

That’s too bad . Maybe another time . 太糟了,也许换个时间吧。

或Maybe next time . 也许下一次吧。

3. Thanks for asking . 谢谢你的邀请。

for是个介词不能直接跟动词 “ask”,所以动词变为动名词的形式 “asking”起到名词作用。

Thanks for your photos . (photos为名词)

Thanks for helping me . (helping为动名词)

Thank you for your invitation to visit next week .谢谢你邀请我下周去做客。

4. I have a really busy week . 我有个实在忙碌的一周。

5. I’m playing tennis with the school team . 我将同校队打网球。

6. finish the geography [d?i'?gr?fi] project in the evening . 在晚上完成地理作业。

whole做“定语”,如:the whole country . 整个国家

8. come over to my house 到我家来

come over to表示从一个地方来到另一个地方。

come over还有“过来”“顺便来访”的意思

9.I have too much homework this weekend.

too much 用来修饰不可数名词,用来强调其“量”超出了正常的范围,eg.

He sometimes finds his teachers leave them too much work to do.

他有时认为老师留给他们的作业实在是太多了。

I don’t want to eat too much food every day. 我不希望每天吃太多的东西。

too用来修饰形容词或副词,表示“太”的意思,其程度比very, so, quite要强得多。

10.Thank you for your invitation to visit next week.

(1)thank you for…“感谢……”,for表示原因,表示感谢的缘由,后须接名词、代词或动名词,。eg.

A thousand thanks for your kindness. 非常感谢你的善意。

Well, I must be going now. Thanks for your time. 我得走了,谢谢你为我花费了时间。谢谢你的邀请。

(2)名词invitation 来自动词invite,是在动词的后面加上后缀-tion或-ion构成,表示“情况,状态,性质,行为”等,如:quest—question, operate—operation等。

11. Please keep quiet! I’m trying to study.

keep quiet 动词keep的用法很多,但主要意思基本不变,主要是“保存、保持”,表示持有的意思,具体用法有名词我们在家养了一条狗。

(2)keep+反身代词,eg.

I kept myself warm by walking up and down. 我踱来踱去以暖和身子。

(3)keep+sb/sth+形容词,eg.

The kettle is used for keeping water warm. 热水瓶是用来保持水温的。

(4)keep+动词-ing形式,eg.

They kept working for another half an hour. 他们又继续工作了半个小时。

(5)keep+sb/sth+动词-ing形式,eg.

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She kept us waiting for quite some time. 她让我们等了好一会儿。

【语法知识聚焦】

1. have to 与情态动词的区别

情态动词不能单独作谓语,后面必须接动词原形一起构成谓语,have to 也是这样。 情态动词没有人称和数的变化,而且所用的时态也受到一定的限制,但是have to 有人称和数的变化,可用于多种时态中,在一般现在时中,当主语是第三人称单数时,要用has to, 其余人称用have to;一般过去时中用had to;一般将来时中用will have to, eg. She has to go to school by bus. 她不得不乘公共汽车去上学。

If you get ill, you’ll have to see the doctor. 如果你生病的话,你就得看医生。

2. have to 与must 的区别

have to 和must 都有“必须”的意思,那么它们有哪些不同呢?

(1) 含义和用法上的区别:

have to 强调客观上需要做某事,即表示外界条件的需要不得不做某事,含有“形势逼迫”的意味;must 强调说话者主观上认为必须做某事,含有“主观判断”的意味, eg. My bike was broken on my way to school. I had to walk there.

我的自行车在上学的路上坏了,我不得不走路去上学。(我本来不愿意走路,可是自行车坏了,不想走路也不行。)

We must learn English well. 我们必须学好英语。(主观上有这种想法。)

(2) 否定式的区别:

have to 的否定式意为“不必”,must的否定式意为“禁止;不允许”。因此,以must开头的一般疑问句的肯定回答为“Yes, 主语+must”,否定回答为“No, 主语+needn’t / don’t have to”。eg.

---Must I finish the homework now? 我必须现在完成作业吗?

---Yes, you must. (No, you needn’t / don’t have to) 是的,你必须现在完成。(不,你不必。)

3. 反意疑问句的构成区别:

(1) 陈述部分含有have to 时,其附加问句的谓语往往用助动词do的相应形式或助动词will。eg.

You had to go shopping yesterday, didn’t you? 昨天你不得不去购物,是吗?

(2) 陈述部分含有must 时,其附加问句的谓语,按下面几种情况来确定:

A. must 意为“必须”时,附加问句谓语用needn’t。eg.

We must clean the classroom, needn’t we? 我们必须打扫教室,是吗?

B. mustn’t意为“禁止”之意,附加问句谓语用must。eg.

The boy mustn’t play with the knife, must he? 那个男孩不能玩刀子,对吗?

C. must 意为“应该”时,附加问句谓语用mustn’t。eg.

We must help each other, mustn’t we? 我们应该互相帮助,对吗?

D. must 意为“一定;想必”表示推测时,附加问句部分谓语要根据must后面的动词来确定。eg.

Mr Liang must be at home, isn’t he? 梁先生一定在家,对吗?

注:must 表示的是一种相当肯定的与事实非常接近的推测。eg.

Mr Wang must be at home. 其实就相当于Mr Wang is at home.

因此,它的反意疑问句的附加问句部分是isn’t he 也就很容易理解了。

又如:They must be right, aren’t they?

4.情态动词“have to”与其他的情态动词的用法比较:如“can” , “may”和 “should”(应该)。 而have to有。它的第三人称单数为“has to”,eg.

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He should study hard . 他应该好好学习。

He has to study hard . 他不得不好好学习。

(2)这4个情态动词在一般疑问句中将它们提前大写,在否定句中直接在他们后边加not即可。(以can为例)

Can he go with us ? 他能和我们一起去吗?

而“have to”要加助动词do , does或did才可能完成其疑问、否定句。

同学们试着将下面三种话分别写成(1)一般疑问句,并做肯定回答。(2)否定句。 A: They have to go to the party . Do they have to go to the party ? Yes , they do . They don’t have to go to the party .

B: He has to go to see the doctor . Does he have to go to see the doctor ? Yes , he does . He doesn’t have to go to see the doctor .

C: She had to have a piano lesson yesterday . Did she have to have a piano lesson yesterday ? Yes , she did . She didn’t have to have a piano lesson yesterday .

(用了助动词 “does”或 “did”表示疑问,否定时一定注意原来动词的第三人称单数或过去式要还原)

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