引导定语从句的关系词有关系代词和关系副词,常见的关系代词包括that, which, who(宾格whom,所有格whose)等,关系副词包where, when, why等。关系代词和关系副词放在先行词及定语从句之间起连接作用,同时又作定语从句的重要成分。
1. that 既可以用于指人,也可以用于指物。在从句中作主语或宾语,作主语时不可省略,作宾语可省略。例如:
Mary likes music that is quiet and gentle.玛丽喜欢轻柔的音乐。(that作主语)
The coat (that) I put on the desk is blue.我放在桌子上的那件外套是蓝色的。(that作宾语)
The building which stands near the train station is a supermarket.位于火车站附近的那座大楼是一家超市。(作主语)
The film (which) we saw last night was wonderful. 我们昨天晚上看的那部电影很好看。(作宾语)
3.who, whom用于指人,who 用作主语,whom用作宾语。在口语中,有时可用who代替whom, 也可省略。例如:
The girl who often helps me with my English is from England.
Who is the teacher (whom) Li Ming is talking to? 正在与李明谈话的老师是谁?(作宾语) 注意:(1)当定语从句中含有介词,介词放在句末时,who, that, which可省略,但介词在关系代词前时,只能用“介词+which/whom”结构。例如:
This is the house in which we lived last year.这是我们去年居住的房子。
Please tell me from whom you borrowed the English novel.请告诉我你从谁那借的这本英文小说。
This is the person whom you are looking for. 这就是你要找的那个人。
(4)关系词只能用that的情况: The city that she lives in is very far away.她居住的城市非常远。
He was the first person that passed the exam. 他是第一个通过考试的人。
b.被修饰的先行词为all, any, much, many, everything, anything, none, the one等不定代词时,只能用that,而不用which.例如:
Is there anything that you want to buy in the shop? 你在商店里有什么东西要买吗? c.先行词被the only, the very, the same, the last, little, few 等词修饰时,只能用that,而不用which.例如:
This is the same bike that I lost.这就是我丢的那辆自行车。
d. 先行词里同时含有人或物时,只能用that, 而不用which.例如:
I can remember well the persons and some pictures that I saw in the room.我能清楚记得我在那个房间所见到的人和一些照片。
Who is the girl that is crying? 正在哭泣的那个女孩是谁?
f.主句是there be 结构,修饰主语的定语从句用that,而不用which.例如:
There is a book on the desk that belongs to Tom. 桌子上那本书是汤姆的。
a.先行词为that, those时,用which, 而不用that.例如:
What’s that which is under the desk? 在桌子底下的那些东西是什么?
This is the room in which he lives. 这是他居住的房间。
Tom came back, which made us happy. 汤姆回来了,这使我们很高兴。
This was the time when he arrived.这是他到达的时间。
This is place where he works.这是他工作的地点。
Nobody knows the reason why he is often late for school. 没人知道他为什么上学总迟到。
1. -Do you know the man ______is talking with your father?
-Yes, he’s our headmaster.
A. he B. who C. which D. whom
2. Is this the river _____I can swim?
A. which B. in which C. that D. the one
3. This is the best hotel in the city _____I know.
A. where B. which C. that D. it
4. Can you lend me the dictionary ______the other day?
A. that you bought B. you bought it
C. that you bought it D. which you bought it
5. Anyone ______with what I said may put up you hands.
A. which agrees B. who agree
C. who agrees D. which agree
6. My watch is not the only thing ______ is missing.
A. that B. it C. which who
7. The man ______coat is black is waiting at the gate
A. who’s B. whose C. that of which.
8. The girl ______ is reading under the tree _____my sister.
A. which; is B. whom; was C. who; is D. who; was
9. I love places ______the people are really friendly.
A. that B. which C. where D. who
10. The world ______ is made up of matter.
A. in that we live B. on which we live
C. where we live in D. we live in
Ⅱ. 用适当的关系代词that, which, who, whom填空。
1. The first thing ______you must do is to have a meal.
2. April 1st is the day _____is called April Fool’s Day in the west.
3. The family _____had lost everything in a big fire got much help from their friends.
4. The house _____we live in is very old.
5. Didn’t you see the man ______I talked with just now?
答案：CBCAC ABCCB That ,which ,which ,who ,whom .