副词和形容词的从句叫状语从句。 ? 根据其含义状语从句可分为时间状语从句， 地点状语从句，条件状语从句， 原因状语 从句，结果状语从句，比较状语从句，目 的状语从句，让步状语从句。
? 1. 时间状语从句
? (1)时间状语从句常用when, as, while, before, after, since, till, until, as soon as等连词来引导。 ? It was raining hard（rain hard 下大雨） when got to school yesterday. ? While he was doing his homework, the telephone rang. ? As he walked along（沿着走） the lake, he sang happily. ? He had learned a little Chinese before he came to China. ? After he finished middle school, he went to work in a factory.
? (2)在时间状语从句里，通常不用将来 时态，用现在时态表示将来的动作或 状态。
? I’ll ring you up as soon as I get to New York. ? I will tell him everything when he comes back. ? He won’t believe it until he sees it with his own eyes.
? (3)在带有till或until引导的时间状语从句的主从复 合句里，如果主句用肯定式，其含义是“一直 到……时”，谓语动词只能用延续性动词。如果 主句用否定式，其含义是“直到……才……”, “在……以前不……”, 谓语动词可用瞬间动词。例 如： ? The young man read till the light went out（熄 灭）. ? Let’s wait until the rain stops. ? We won’t start until Bob comes. ? Don’t get off（从下来） until the bus stops.
? 【Till是指直到某一特定事件发生的时候， 而在那个时刻之后，该事情或状况仍将持 续。 Until是指直到某一特定事件发生的时 候，而讲话的人在自己心里认为，在那个 时刻之后，该事情或该状况将中止（不怎 么可能持续）。固定组合里from morning till night，till/until是不能替换的，】
? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ?
2. 条件状语从句 (1)条件状语从句通常由if, unless引导。例如： What shall we do if it snows tomorrow? Don’t leave the building unless I tell you to. (2)在条件状语从句里，谓语动词通常用现在时态表示将来 的动作或状态。例如： I’ll help you with your English if am free tomorrow. He won’t be late unless he is ill. (3)“祈使句 + and (or)+ 陈述句” 在意思上相当于一个带 有条件状语从句的复合句。例如： Hurry up, or you’ll be late. =If you don’t hurry up, you’ll be late. Study hard and you will pass the exam. =If you study hard, you will pass the exam.
? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ?
3. 原因状语从句 (1)原因状语从句通常由because, since, as引导。例如： He didn’t come to school because he was ill. As it is raining, we shall not （不得；不应该）go the zoo. Since you can’t answer the question, I’ll ask someone else. (2)because表示
直接原因，语气最强。Because引导的原 因状语从句多放在主句之后。回答由why提出的问题，只 能用because。As和since语气较弱，一般用来表示明显 的原因。由as和since引导的原因状语从居多放在句首。 例如： ------Why aren’t going there? ------Because I don’t want to. As he has no car, he can’t get there easily. Since we have no money, we can’t buy it. (3)because和so不能同用在一个句子里。
? 4. 结果状语从句 ? (1)结果状语从句由so…that, such…that, so that引导。例 如： ? He is so poor that he can’t buy a bike for his son. ? She is such a good teacher that everybody likes her. ? My pencil fell under the desk, so that I couldn’t see it. ? (2)so…that语such...that可以互换。例如： ? 在由so...that引导的结果状语从句中，so是副词，与形容 词连用。其结构是: “...so + 形容词（副词）+ that + 从 句”。例如： ? He was so glad that he couldn’t say a word. ? The hall is so big that it can hold 2,000 people. ? Mother lives so far away that we hardly ever（几乎不， 从来不） see her.
? 在由such…that引导的结果状语从句中，such是形容词，它修饰的可 以是单数或复数可数名词，也可以是不可数名词；名词前面可以带形 容词，也可不带。如果是单数可数名词，前面需加不定冠词a或an。 例如： ? It was such a hot day that nobody wanted to do anything. ? He had such long arms that he could almost touch the ceiling.（天花 板） ? He made such rapid progress that he did very well in the mid-term. ? 有时上述两种结构是可以互换的。例如： ? It was such a wonderful film that all of us wanted to see it again. ? =The film was so wonderful that all of us wanted to see it again. ? It is such an important match that nobody wants to miss it. ? =The match is so important that nobody wants to miss it. ? (3)如果名词前由many, much, little, few等词修饰时，只能用so, 不用 such。例如： ? Soon there were so many deer that they ate up all the wild roses. ? He has so little time that he can’t go to the cinema（去看电影） with you.
? 5. 比较状语从句 ? 比较状语从句通常由as…as, 比较级 + than…等连词引导。例如： ? Tom runs faster than John does. ? This classroom is as big as that one.
? 6. 目的状语从句 ? (1)目的状语从句通常由 so that, in order that（为了，以 便）引导。例如： ? We started early so that we could catch the first train. ? He studies hard so that he could work better in the future. ? We used the computer in order that we might save time. ? (2)so that既可引导目的状语从句，又可引导结果状语从句。 区别这两种从句的办法有两个：1)目的状语从句里往往带 有情态动词can, could, may, might等。2)从意思上看，目 的状语从句往往
表示的目的很明确。例如： ? Speak clearly so that they may understand you. (目的状 语从句) ? Jack is badly ill so that he has to rest. (结果状语从句)
? 7. 让步状语从句 ? (1)让步状语从句通常由although, though等连词 引导。例如： ? Though he is young, he knows a lot. ? Although I am tired, I must go on working. ? (2)although(though)不能用在同一个句子中。例 如： ? 我们不能说：Though it was raining hard, but he still went out. ? 应该说：Though it was raining hard, he still went out.或It was raining hard, but he still went out.
? 8. 地点状语从句 ? 地点状语从句常常由where来引导。例 如： ? Go where you like. ? Where there is a will, there is a way.
? 类别 连 词 时间状语从句 when, whenever, while, as, before, after, since, till, once（一旦） 地点状语从句 where, wherever 原因状语从句 because, since, as, for, now that（既 然，由于）etc. （et cetera，等于and so on） 目的状语从句 in order that(为了，以便), so that, that, etc. 结果状语从句 so…that, so that, such…that, that, etc. 条件状语从句 if, unless, as(so)long as, etc. 让步状语从句 though, although, even if, even though, however, whatever, as, etc. 比较状语从句 as…as, so…as, than, etc. 方式状语从句 as, as if, as though, etc.
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
练习一 一. 单项填空 1. _______ he’s old, he can still carry this heavy bag. A. Though B. Since C. For D. So 2. ---Do you know if he _______ to play basket ball with us? ---I think he will come if he ______ free tomorrow. A. comes; is B. comes; will be C. will come; is D. will come; will be 3. In the zoo if a child _____ into the water and can’t swim, the dolphins may come up ______ him. A. will fall; to help B. falls; to help C. will fall; help D. falls; helping 4. I don’t remember ________ he worked in that city when he was young. A. what B. which C. where D. who 5. We will stay at home if my aunt ________ to visit us tomorrow. A. comes B. come C. will come D. is coming 6. The police asked the children _______ cross the street ________ the traffic lights turned green. A. not; before B. don’t; when C. not to; until D. not; after
? 7. I was late for class yesterday _______ there was something wrong with my bike. ? A. when B. that C. until D. because ? 8. I’ll go swimming with you if I ________ free tomorrow. ? A. will be B. shall be C. am D. was ? 9. In the exam, the ________ you are, ______ the _______ mistakes you will make. ? A. careful; little B. more careful; fewest C. more careful; fewer D. more careful; less ? 10. You should finish your lessons _______ you go out to play. ? A. before B. after C. when D. while ? 11. I hurried _____ I wouldn’t be late for class. ? A. since B. so that C. as if D. unless ? 12. When you r
ead the book, you’d better make a mark _______ you have any questions. ? A. which B. that C. where D. though
? 13. The teacher raised his voice _______ all the students could hear him. ? A. for B. so that C. because D. in order ? 14. He took off his coat _______ he felt hot. ? A. because B. as C. if D. since ? 15. It is ______ that we’d like to go out for a walk. ? A. a lovely day B. too lovely a day C. so lovely a day D. such lovely a day ? 16. Mary had ______ much work to do that she stayed at her office all day. A. such B. so C. too D. very ? 17. _______ I felt very tired, I tried to finish the work. ? A. Although B. Because C. As D. As if ? 18. ______ the day went on, the weather got worse. ? A. With B. Since C. While D. As ? 19. ______ well you can drive, you must drive carefully. ? A. So long as B. In order that C. No matter how D. The moment ? 20. Write to me as soon as you ________ to Beijing. ? A. will get B. get C. getting D. got
1. 不管他跟我开什么玩笑，我都不生气。 I am not angry with him, _______ _______ ______ jokes he ______ on me. 2. 布鲁斯太太对学生非常亲切，以至于学生把她当做母亲。 Mrs Bruce was _______ kind to her students ______ they ______ her _____ their mother. 3. 只要我们竭尽全力，父母就会满意我们的表现。 Our parents will be pleased with our performance _____ _____ ______ we try our best. 4. 你一到上海就给我打个电话好吗？ Will you please call me ______ ______ ______ you get to Shanghai. 5. 这个七岁的女孩酷爱钢琴，以至于他已经坚持练习两年了。 The seven-year-old girl likes playing the piano ______ ______ ______ she has kept practicing for two years. 6. 虽然她很忙，他还坚持自学英语。 _______ _______ ______ _______, she kept on learning English by herself.
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
? 7. 他长大后相当一名记者。 ? He wants to be a journalist ______ _______ _______ _______. ? 8. 无论刮风下雨，我们的老师总是第一个到校。 ? _______ _______ windy or rainy, our teacher is always the first to get to school. ? 9. 如果人人为保护环境做出贡献，世界将会变得更美好。 ? ______ ______ ______ _____ _______ to protecting the environment, the world will become much more beautiful. ? 10. 李明昨天没来上学，因为他病了。 ? Li Ming didn’t come to school _______ _______ ______ ______.
? 二. 根据中文意思完成下列英语句子
? 1. 不管他跟我开什么玩笑，我都不生气。 ? I am not angry with him, _______ _______ ______ jokes he ______ on me. ? 2. 布鲁斯太太对学生非常亲切，以至于学生把她当做母亲。 ? Mrs Bruce was _______ kind to her students ______ they ______ her _____ their mother. ? 3. 只要我们竭尽全力，父母就会满意我们的表现。 ? Our parents will be pl
eased with our performance _____ _____ ______ we try our best. ? 4. 你一到上海就给我打个电话好吗？ ? Will you please call me ______ ______ ______ you get to Shanghai. ? 5. 这个七岁的女孩酷爱钢琴，以至于他已经坚持练习两年了。 ? The seven-year-old girl likes playing the piano ______ ______ ______ she has kept practicing for two years.
? 6. 虽然她很忙，他还坚持自学英语。 ? _______ _______ ______ _______, she kept on learning English by herself. ? 7. 他长大后相当一名记者。 ? He wants to be a journalist ______ _______ _______ _______. ? 8. 无论刮风下雨，我们的老师总是第一个到校。 ? _______ _______ windy or rainy, our teacher is always the first to get to school. ? 9. 如果人人为保护环境做出贡献，世界将会变得更美好。 ? ______ ______ ______ _____ _______ to protecting the environment, the world will become much more beautiful. ? 10. 李明昨天没来上学，因为他病了。 ? Li Ming didn’t come to school _______ _______ ______ ______.
? 练习二 ? 1 The meeting didn't start___ everyone was there. A. because B. until C. why D. if 2 The boy ___ to bed ___ his mother came in. A. went not; until B. didn't go; after C. went; until D. didn't go; until 3 I won't believe you___ I have seen it with my own eyes. A. before B. until C. after D. when 4 He ___ home ___ she was satisfied ___ his answer yesterday. A. didn't go; until; with B. wasn't go; after; to C. doesn't go; before; with D. didn't go; until; to 5 He ___ back until the work ___ done. A. isn't; will be B. isn't; is C. won't be; will be D. won't be; is
? 6 They didn't start the work ___ their teacher came back. A. until B. while C. as soon as D. if 7. Tom will call me as soon as he ___ Shanghai. A. arrives B. will reach C. arrives in D. get to 8. I'm sure he'll come to see me before he ___ Beijing. A. will leave B. is leaving C. leave D. leaves 9. I will tell him the news as soon as he___ back. A. come B. comes C. will come D. came 10. Tom has got a watch. He ___ it for two years. It _______ by his father. A. has bought; was bought B. has got; is bought , C. was bought; has bought . D. has had; was bought "'
? 11. When he got to the station, the train ___. A. left B. had left C. leaves D. has left 12. The boy told his father what he ___ in the street. A. saw B. have seen C. had seen D. see 13.We ___ TV when the telephone ____. A. watched; was ringing B. were watching; rang C. watch; rings D. are watching; rang 14.By the end of last term, I___ ten books. A. had finished reading B. have finish reading C. had finish to read D. finish read 15. I ___ you for a long time. Where ___ you ___? A. didn't see; did; go B. didn't see; have; goneC. haven't seen; have; been D. haven't seen; have; gone
? 16. Tom___ China for 3 years. A. has been B. has been in C. has been to D. has been at 17. I won't go to see the film tonight, because I ___ my ticket. A
. lost B. have lost C. will lose D. didn't lose 18.-Hello! May I speak to Bob? -Sorry, but he ___ for a month. A. had been away B. was left C. left D. has been away 19. I ___ him since I began to live in the city. A. know B. have known C. knew D. will know 20.Zhao Lan ___ already ___ in this school for two years. A. was; studying B. will; study C. has; studied D. are; studying
? 21.Betty didn't go to see the film yesterday ___ she was ill. A. because B. but C. until D. if 22 May I sit nearer___I can see more clearly? A. as if B. so that C. even if D. so 23 ___ you work hard, you will certainly succeed. A. Though B. If C. Because D. For 24 ___ he came to study in the university, he has made much progress in the study of English. A. While B. When C. Since D. After 25 I'd like to go swimming _____ the water is not too cold. A. for B. unless C. if D. whether
? 26 There are ___ many league members in class 2 ___ in Class 4. A. both; and B. 'so; that C. either; or D. as; as 27. -Do you have a big library? -No, we don't. At least, not___yours. A. as big as B. as big than C. as bigger than D. bigger as 28. Suzhou is not ____ beautiful ____ Hangzhou. A. as; than B. so; as C. even; than D. /; than 29. Iron is more useful ___ any other metal. A. as B. than C. then D. so 30. I want to know ___ she is going to see a film. A. if B. that C. what D. which
? 31. You are sure to pass the exam ___ you study hard. A. if B. thoughC. that D. since 32. I'll go to see the film with you___I have time this evening. A. whether B. so C. if D. when 33. ___ you study harder, you'll never pass the final exam. A. If B. Until C. Unless D. Except 34. Although it was raining, still worked in the fields. A. but they B. and they C. they D. and yet they 35 ___ there were only five soldiers left at the front, ___ they went on fighting. A. Because; so B. If; and C. Though; but D. Though; /
? 36 ___ she is very old, ___ she can still work eight hours a day. A. Because; so B. Though; but C. As; yet D. Though; yet 37. Please answer the question in a loud enough voice ___ all the class may hear. A. so, that B. or C. in order that D. and 38. Lift it up___I may see it. A. though B. so that C. as D. than 39. I hurried___I wouldn't be late for class. A. so B. so that C. if D. unless 40. We should go by bus ___ we can get there earlier. A. as soon as B. where C. in order that D. as
? 41 The dictionary is so expensive ___ I can't buy it. A. because B. when C. that D. if 42 I got there ___ late ___ I didn't see him. A. too; to B. such; that C. so; that D. so; as 43 It is ___ hot in the room ___ we have to go out for a walk. A. such; that B. so; that C. as; as D. such; as 44 He has___ an interesting book that we want to read it. A. so B. such C. the same D. as